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eLAICH module 5 topic 5.6 advanced

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ELAICH - Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage.
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eLAICH module 5 topic 5.6 advanced

  1. 1. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural HeritageEducational ToolkitTeaching MaterialAdvanced TopicModule 5 Monitoring and Maintenance Non Destructive Testing and Quality Control on monuments for monitoring theTopic 5.5 decay state and the compatibility of conservation interventionsProf. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens
  2. 2. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries. This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms. Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden. Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens
  3. 3. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural HeritageAbstract The first part of the current presentation examines the typical non-destructive techniques (NDT) used in Cultural Heritage protection. These are Ultrasonics, Infrared Thermography, Fibre Optics Microscopy, Digital Image Processing, Ground Penetrating Radar and Colorimetry. Applications for each technique are provided to demonstrate their usefulness in Cultural Heritage protection. The second part of this presentation describes how these techniques are integrated in a total quality control system for the protection of monuments. NDTs play a crucial role in the inspection of monuments, the diagnosis of the prevailing problems (decay of materials, structural problems, etc) and in the assessment of the conservation interventions that are designed and applied. Monitoring and maintenance are thus an indispensable aspect of the entire problem of how to protect cultural heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens
  4. 4. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural HeritageContent Table of contents of this presentation  Monitoring of the decay state and assessment of the intervention effectiveness by use of Non- destructive Techniques  Ultrasonics  Infrared Thermography  Fibre Optics Microscopy  Digital Image Processing  Ground Penetrating Radar  Colorimetry  Total Quality Control System  Basic concept  Criteria  Integrated methodology  Inspection  Diagnosis  Intervention Study  Intervention Works Prof. Antonia Moropoulou - NTUA – National Technical University of Athens
  5. 5. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage As was demonstrated in earlier Modules, a successful protection intervention on a monument or a historic structure is the result of careful understanding of the building its structure and materials, integrated diagnosis of the problems it faces, how these are theresult of the impact ffect of the environment on the building, and a building systematic design of the conservation processes, materials and processes techniques, all of which will ensure that the most appropriate protection is selected and appliedHowever, once an intervention is completed, the monument should not be “abandoned” unattended In fact, continuous monitoring of its decay state and assessment ofthe conservation interventions’ effectiveness and compatibility are the basic tools in deciding on whether any further protection interventions are required and when it will be most appropriate to apply themProf. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  6. 6. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage In the past, the application of incompatible conservation interventions and/or the use of incompatible materials without any effective qualitycontrol on their application and without any monitoring of the decay stateafter their use have caused significant problems – even enhanced the effect of the prevailing decay factors – with the result that today we are dealing with a much deteriorated state of the building than before. Successful monitoring of the decay state and assessment of the compatibility of materials and conservation interventions can be performed using state-of-the art techniques such as Non-Destructive Testing and employing Total Quality Control in all stages of protection of Cultural HeritageProf. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  7. 7. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage State-of-the Art Tools Instrumental Non-destructive Strategic Methods Testing Planning Tools Total Quality Control Quality control of materials and continuous monitoring of their decay state Compatibility assessment of the conservation materials and the effectiveness of conservation interventions in-situ and on the scale of architectural surfaces Strategic planning of conservation interventions – Scientific Support to Decision Making Integrated environmental management, strategic urban planning – Monitoring of the impact of the environment on monuments Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  8. 8. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Non Destructive Techniques for Cultural Heritage Protection ELAICH – Athens Experimental Course: In situ use of non destructive techniques on marble surfaces at the archaeological site of EleusisProf. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  9. 9. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) in Cultural Heritage Non-Destructive Techniques (NDT) are widely used in Cultural Heritage protection since: Destructive sampling is prohibited in the conservation of historic monuments They offer certain unique capabilities in a variety of applications Applications  Materials quality control, as well as for technology assessment regarding the production of advanced Typical NDT in Cultural Heritage materials Ultrasonics  Environmental impact assessment - materials and Infrared Thermography weathering mapping Fibre Optics Microscopy Digital Image Processing  Evaluation of conservation materials compatibility and Ground Penetrating Radar conservation interventions effectiveness on the scale of Colorimetry architectural surfaces and historic masonries  Strategic planning for the conservation interventions.  Environmental management for the protection of Cultural Heritage Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  10. 10. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage NDT ManagementProf. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  11. 11. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Ultrasonics Basic Principles Measures the velocity of ultrasounds traveling through a media, which depends on the media’s density and the presence of voids and cracks.NTUA uses a Portable Ultrasonic Non-Destructive Indicating Tester (PUNDIT) with transducers of various frequencies Applications • Estimation of the depth of the decay patterns (crusts, cracks etc), • Evaluation of the effectiveness and the depth of penetration of restoration interventions. • Assessment of mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, compression strength) using standard velocity vs property plotsELAICH – Athens Experimental Course:In situ use of ultrasonics to measure the pulse velocity of marbleblocks at the archaeological site of Eleusis Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  12. 12. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Ultrasonics - Assessment of the decay state T: Transmitter R1 R2 R3 R4 : Receiver Depth of the decayed layer A Β CG. Batis, A. Moropoulou “Non-destructive testing of materials –Ultrasonics” in Laboratory notes of the Course 5202 “Building Materials”School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University ofAthens, pp. 69-77 (2011) 1/ 2 Note “kink” in the slope xo  VS − VD  Depthdecay =   2  VS + VD    where Vs, VD, are the ultrasonic velocities in the healthy and damaged part of the stone, respectively and xo the distance between the transducers where a change in slope of the distance-time curve is observed Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  13. 13. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Ultrasonics – Differentiation of plastered surfaces on monument scale Estimation of ultrasound velocities on plastered surfaces Se3 (1): Beige painted plaster, west façade, clay mortar Se3 (2), Se3 (3): Beige painted plaster, north façade, clay mortar Se2 (1), Se2 (2), Se2 (3), Se2 (4), Se2 (5): Grey painted scratched plaster, west façade, cement mortar Moropoulou, A., Biscontin, G., Tsiourva, Th., Bisbikou, K., Longega, P., Tsantila, V., Groggia, M., Dalaklis, E., Petritaki, A., “Evaluation of cleaning procedures on the facades of the Bank of Greece historical building in the centre of Athens”, Building and Environment, 37 (2002) pp 753-760Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  14. 14. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Ultrasonics - Assessment of cohesion enhancementMedieval City of Rhodes: Pilot applications of consolidants Penetration depth of consolidation materials Rodos - St. Paul - P-wave St Paul’s gate: In vicinity to the Site P-PH2 sea. The application surface is T south oriented and the backside 160 of the walls is continuously fed 140 by salt solution due to the sea 120 environment. 100 80 60 D2=12.8 mm 40 20 D1=6.7 mm 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Distance (X, mm) St. Catherine’s Hospice: Rodos Ag. Aikaterini - P- wave Site PH The application was performed T on internal wall surfaces, 160 recently restored by freshly 140 quarried stones, yet presenting 120 recession of the surface and D2=21.1 100 material loss. mm 80 60 40 20 D1=15.3 Moropoulou, A., Tsiourva, Th., Theoulakis, P., Christaras, B., Koui., M., “Non 0 mm destructive evalution of pilot scale treatments for porous stone consolidation in the 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Medieval City of Rhodes”, PACT, J. European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Distance (X, mm) Biological and Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology, 56 (1998) pp. 259-278 mm) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  15. 15. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Infrared Thermography (IRT) Basic Principles Measures the thermal radiation (infra-red range in the electromagnetic spectrum) emitted by materials and renders an image of the surface area in pseudo-colors which are related to a temperature scale Applications • Identification and mapping of decay on monuments and architectural surfaces • Assessment of physicochemical compatibility of materials & structures • Detection of defects in materials or structures • Identification of rising damp and condensation on masonries ELAICH – Istanbul Experimental Course: In situ use of infrared thermography to assess the NTUA uses FLIR System B200 IR camera decay state of mosaics in Hagia Sophia [7.5-13 μm / Thermal sensitivity 70mK]Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  16. 16. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Infrared thermography setup How is infrared thermography affected IR radiationA. Passive Approach The thermal and optical behavior of a surface depend on endogenous and exogenous parametersPC IRT camera Light Endogenous Parameters Exogenous Parameters Lamp IR radiation Chemical Composition Temperature of EnvironmentB. Active Approach Defect Microstructure Relative HumidityPC IRT camera Heat induction Surface (i.e. roughness) Light / Shadowing Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  17. 17. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Infrared thermography - Mosaics Pilot Mosaic Panel for Laboratory investigation with IRT Minor temperature Tesserae variations are observed due 1st Rendering to the presence of one solid material and not a combination of different layers in the panel Subsurface of MosaicBlank Gold tesserae 2nd Rendering “Hot colours” render the presence of gold in the investigated panel. This is due to the low absorption Tessera intensity (high reflection) of the material (gold). GE2LM Infrared Thermography can reveal mosaics even if they are plasteredMoropoulou, A., Avdelidis, N.P., Aggelakopoulou, E., Griniezakis, S., Koui, M., Aggelopoulos, A., Karmis, P.,Uzunoglou, N.K., “Examination of plastered mosaic surfaces using NDT techniques”, INSIGHT J. of theBritish Institute of non-destructive testing, 43, No 4 (2001) pp. 241-243 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  18. 18. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Infrared thermography - Moisture & building materials Study of moisture transport phenomena In-lab evaluation of moisture transport phenomena of commercial macroporous plasters System EM - brickKaroglou, M. Moropoulou, A., Giakoumaki, A., andKrokida, M.K., “Capillary rise kinetics of some buildingmaterials”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science,284 [1] (2005) pp. 260-264 System TR - brickMoropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Togkalidou, T., Karoglou, M., Papapostolou, A., “Assessment of different macroporous plasters by water vapour permeability measurements”, in:Influence of the Environment and Defence of the Territory on Recovery of Cultural Heritage, 6th Int. Symp. on the Conservation of Monuments in the Mediterranean Basin, eds L.Aires-Barros, F. Zezza, A. Dionisio, M. Rodrigues, Lisbon, April (2004), Proceedings in CD-Rom, pp. 302-306 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  19. 19. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Infrared thermography - Compatibility of interventions Assessment of compatibility of restoration materials The incompatibility of replacement stones is indicated by the difference in temperature compared with the historic materials Venetian Fortifications of Heraklion, GreeceMoropoulou, A., Koui, M., Avdelidis, N.P., “Infrared thermography as a NDTtool in the evaluation of materials & techniques for the protection of historicmonuments”, INSIGHT, J. of the British Institute of non-destructive testing, 42No 6 (2000) pp. 379-383Avdelidis, N.P., Moropoulou, A., “Applications of infrared thermography forthe investigation of historic structures: a review study”, Journal of CulturalHeritage, 5 [1] (2004) pp. 119-127 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  20. 20. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Infrared thermography - Cleaning Evaluation of pilot cleaning interventions Bank of Greece, Athens, Stadiou Street As shown in the left side of the infrared thermograph, the lower temperaturesindicate water retention and remnants of the cleaning agent (sepiolite – absorbent clay) which was not thoroughly removed by cleaning experts. In contrast, on the right side cleaning has been performed according to the standards Moropoulou, A., Biscontin, G., Tsiourva, Th., Bisbikou, K., Longega, P., Tsantila, V., Groggia, M., Dalaklis, E., Petritaki, A., “Evaluation of cleaning procedures on the facades of the Bank of Greece historical building in the centre of Athens”, Building and Environment, 37 (2002) pp 753-760 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  21. 21. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Fibre Optics Microscopy (FOM)Basic PrinciplesCaptures images in the visible spectrum. Image istransmitted via optical fibres and then transformedinto electric signals which are stored in a video unitor digitized and stored on a computerApplications• Identifies differences in the texture and composition of surfaces,• Materials classification,• microstudy of the decay phenomena,• Evaluation of restoration interventions ELAICH – Athens Experimental Course: In situ use of fibre optics microscopy to identify the decay patterns on marble surfaces at the archaeological site of Eleusis Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  22. 22. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Fibre Optics Microscopy (FOM) - Surface morphology Investigation of materials’ surface morphology 6th Century Mosaic (x50), Hagia 10th Century Mosaic (x50), Clay Plaster (x25), Stadiou Historic Sophia, Dome Hagia Sophia, Dome Building in Athens Weathered Mortar Surface (x50), Inner Part of Compact Mortar Surface Interface of Cement Plasters (x25), Hagia Sophia, N/W Outer (x25), Hagia Sophia, N/W Outer Stadiou Historic Building in Athens Narthex NarthexMoropoulou, A., Avdelidis, N.P., Delegou, E.T., Gill, C.H., Smith, J., “Study of deterioration Moropoulou, A., Avdelidis, N.P., Delegou, E.T., “NDT and planning on historicmechanisms of vitreous tesserae mosaics”, Scienza e Beni Culturali XVIII, ed. G. Biscontin, G. buildings and complexes for the protection of cultural heritage”, CulturalDriussi, Publ. Arcadia Ricerche, (2002) pp. 843-851 Heritage Conservation and Environmental Impact Assessment by Non- Destructive Testing and Micro – Analysis, ed. R.Van Grieken, K. Janssens, Publ. Balkema, Taylor & Francis Group, (2005) pp. 67-76 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  23. 23. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Fibre Optics Microscopy (FOM) - Quality control Detection of defects in building materials Quality control of building materials of National Technical University of Athens Zografou Campus Athens 2004 Olympic Games Building, M. Karoglou, A. Defect in brick (x25) Defect in brick (x50) Moropoulou (2004) Concrete surface with salt Defect in brick (x25) depositions (x50)Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  24. 24. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Fibre Optics Microscopy (FOM) - Materials Materials classification Venetian Fortress of Heraklion, Crete Cementitious Mortar (x25) Historic Lime Mortar (x50)Moropoulou, A., Tsiourva, Th., Theoulakis, P., Christaras, B., Koui., M., “Non destructive evalution of pilot scale treatments for porous stone consolidation in theMedieval City of Rhodes”, PACT, J. European Study Group on Physical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology, 56 (1998)pp. 259-278 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  25. 25. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Fibre Optics Microscopy (FOM) - Decay Classification of decay typologies for porous stonesMedieval City of Rhodes Hard carbonate crust (yellow color) with parallel development of biogenic crust (grey) Alveolation Moropoulou, A., Koui, M., Tsiourva, Th., Kourteli, Ch., Papasotiriou, D., “Macro- and micro non destructive tests for environmental impact assessment on architectural surfaces”, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology V, Vol. 462, ed. P.B. Vandiver, J.R. Druzik, J.F. Merkel, J. Stewart, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1997) pp. 343-349 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  26. 26. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Fibre Optics Microscopy (FOM) - Consolidation Evaluation of consolidation interventions Untreated Surface, (x50), Surface treated with PH (pre- Surface treated with PL Rhodes Porous Stone ydrolysed ethyl silicate with (aqueous colloidal dispersion amorphous silica) (x50) of silica particles), (x50) After consolidation treatments, information regarding microstructural modifications of porous materials, as well as the deposition mechanism of the applied materials, can be obtained by using fibre optics microscopyMoropoulou, A., Theoulakis, P., Tsiourva, Th., Haralampopoulos, G., “Compatibility evaluation of consolidation treatments in monuments scale”, PACT, J. European Study Group onPhysical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology, 59 (2000) pp. 209-230Moropoulou, A., Haralampopoulos, G., Tsiourva, Th., Theoulakis, P., Koui, M., “Long term performance evaluation of consolidation treatments in situ”, Scienza e Beni Culturali XVI,ed. G. Biscontin, G. Driussi, Publ. Arcadia Ricerche S.r.l. (2000) pp. 239-25 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  27. 27. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Fibre Optics Microscopy (FOM) - CleaningPentelic Marble surface, (x25) Evaluation of cleaning interventionsAthens Academy Historic Buildingblack organicdepositions, black organic Validation of Cleaning Intervention FOM Images before cleaning depositions, by FTIR Spectroscopy after cleaning Moropoulou, A., Delegou, E.T., Avdelidis, N.P., Koui, M., “Non-destructive investigation of architectural surfaces in polluted urban atmosphere”, in Proc. 39th Int. Conf. of the British Institute of NDT, Buxton, UK (2000) pp. 143-148 Moropoulou, A., Delegou, E.T., Avdelidis, N.P., Koui., M., “Assessment of cleaning conservation interventions on architectural surfaces using an intergrated methodology”, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VI, Vol. 712, ed. P. Vandiver, M. black-gray crust, black-gray crust, after Goodway, J.R. Druzik, J.L. Mass, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (2002), pp. before cleaning, cleaning, 69-76 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  28. 28. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Digital Image Processing Basic Principles Depending on the material, the surface texture and morphology, and the decay state, a variation of the reflectance and absorption of electromagnetic radiation is observed, which can be identified. Applications Images from FOM, IRT, Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy are digitally processed identifying differences in texture and decay state of surfaces, lithotypes, and allowing material and decay mapping Microstructural analysis – Image Pro XDecay Mapping, National Library of Athens 1. Optical microscopy image 2. Conversion to grayscale – Gray level histogram Kapsalas, P., Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki, P., Zervakis, M., Delegou, E.T., Moropoulou, A., “Optical inspection for quantification of decay on stone surfaces”, J. NDT&E International, 40 (2007) 3. Process – Segmentation / Threshold 4. Microstructural analysis pp. 2-11 A. Moropoulou, A. Konstanti “Laboratory notes on digital image processing”, Interdepartmental Postgraduate Course “Protection of monuments, sites and complexes”, Nat. Techn. Univ of Athens Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  29. 29. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Digital Image Processing - Decay Change of the energy Correlation of gray levels with degree of weathering content of the gray levels. The position on the x-axis is determined by the color of the material, the dispersion of the values can be correlated to the characteristics of the material and its decay state. The degree of weathering of the material is related to the width (x-axis) of the gray levels; the widthincreases with increasing decay state Moropoulou, A., Koui, M., Theoulakis, P., Kourteli, Ch., Zezza, F., “Digital Image Processing for the Environmental Impact Assessment on Architectural Surfaces”, J. Environmental Chemistry and Technology, 1 (1995) pp. 23-32 Energy profiles (gray levels) based on the structural characteristics and the degree of weathering of various lithotypes Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  30. 30. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Digital Image Processing - Decay mapping Decay mapping through pseudocolor assignment Main Decay Factor: Alveolation (red pseudocolor 35%) Typical pseudocolor assignment Grayscale Original photoVenetian Fortifications of Heraklion NTUA Report on VenetianFortifications of Heraklion. Project of the Conservation Bureau of Heraklion, Regional Administration of Crete Pseudocolours (2001) attribution Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  31. 31. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) ELAICH – Athens Experimental Course:In situ use of ground penetrating radar to reveal Main Unit internal defects on marble blocks at the archaeological site of Eleusis NTUA uses the MALÅ ProEx system with 1.6GHz and 2.3GHz antennas and RadExplorer v.1.41 software Transmitter Receiver Direct link Transmitted Pulse Reflected Energy Inhomogeneity Material 1 Refracted Energy A. Moropoulou, K. Labropoulos “Non-destructive testing of materials – Ground Penetrating Radar” Laboratory notes of the Course 5202 “Building Materials” School of Chemical Engineering, Material 2 Diffused Energy National Technical University of Athens, pp. 37-52 (2011) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  32. 32. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Ground Penetrating Radar - Katholikon NW Dome Assessment of the decay state of the structural system base (exterior) Church of the Holy Sepulchre Katholikon north view of the north masonry (interior of the church)(Left) Presence of two cracks (T1 & T2) that penetrate the external layer of the Katholikon Dome Base. (Right) Presence of three doublereinforcing bars A1, A2, A3 and a reinforcing matrix 5x5cm B1 (Report to the Patriarchate of Jerusalem on NDT Assessment of the Churchof the Holy Sepulchre, National Technical University of Athens, 2011) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  33. 33. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage GPR reveals surfaces of plastered mosaics, wherein areas of detached tesserae, as well as areas with moisture problems and presence of salts are displayed. The boundaries of problematic areas are detectable, due to the differentiations of the EM waves transmission Ground penetrating radar measurement of area ET Examined surface: Vakif intervention at the dome of Hagia Sophia, between the 19th and the 20th ribMoropoulou, A., Koui, M., Avdelidis, N.P., Delegou, E.T., Aggelakopoulou, E., Karoglou, M., Karmis, P., Aggelopoulos, A., Griniezakis, S., Karagianni, E.A.,Uzunoglou, N.K., “Investigation for the compatibility of conservation interventions on Hagia Sophia mosaics using NDT techniques”, PACT, J. EuropeanStudy Group on Physical, Chemical, Biological and Mathematical Techniques Applied to Archaeology, 59 (2000) pp. 103-120 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  34. 34. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Ground Penetrating Radar - Mosaics Assessment of the decay state of mosaicsHagia Sophia, South upper GalleryAreas around the revealed mosaic where the presence of voidspaces below the plastered mosaic layer has been identified by The space indicated with dashed curve isground penetrating radar possibly filled with mortar and bricks. Care should be taken at this junction areaA. I. Moropoulou, K. C. Labropoulos, N. S. Katsiotis “Application of ground penetrating radar for the regarding the cohesion of the preservedassessment of the decay state of Hagia Sophia’s mosaics” Journal of Materials Science and Engineering A & B, mosaic with its support mortar and thein press (2012) structure Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  35. 35. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Colorimetry Basic Principles Colorimetry involves the use of a spectrophotometer of visible light to measure the color coordinates of architectural surfaces as these are modified due to environmental impact and/or protection interventions NTUA uses the spectro-color Applications DRLANGE color-pen: Color measurements evaluated in Identification of decay patterns, evaluation of the effectiveness of cleaning L*a*b* color system interventions on architectural surfaces Evaluation of decay patterns on pentelic marble – Academy of Athens ΔΕ*ab=[(ΔL*)2+ (Δa*)2+(Δb*)2]1/2 Estimation of color parameters’ modification of different decay patterns on exterior marble surfaces Aesthetic parameters: ΔC*ab < 0 ⇒ less saturated areas after cleaning 80 Δa* < 0 ⇒ greener (less red) 60 Δb*<0 ⇒ bluer (less yellow) AA2 AA3 ΔL*ab > 0 so higher luminosity values after cleaning AA2: grey crust 40 AA4 AA3: dust fall 20 AA6 Validation according to AA4: washed out surface 0 AA7 ASTM D2244-93 Standard Test Method AA6: black-grey crust ΔL*ab Δa* Δb* ΔE*ab ΔC*ab AA7: area of grey veins -20Biscontin, G., Bakolas, A., Bertoncello, R., Longega, G., Moropoulou, A., Tondello,E., Zendri, E., “Investigation of the effects of the cleaning procedures applied tostone surfaces”, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology IV, Vol. 352, ed. J.R. Druzik, Moropoulou, A., Delegou, E.T., Avdelidis, N.P., Koui., M., “Assessment of cleaning conservation interventions onP.B. Vandiver, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (1995) pp. 857-864 architectural surfaces using an intergrated methodology”, Materials Issues in Art and Archaeology VI, Vol. 712, ed. P. Vandiver, M. Goodway, J.R. Druzik, J.L. Mass, Publ. Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh (2002), pp. 69-76 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  36. 36. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Validation of NDT by Laboratory Techniques Macroscopic investigation: Classification in order of increasing degree of alveolar decay (V = max) Moropoulou, A., Koui, M., Kourteli, Ch., Achilleopoulos, N., Zezza, F., “Digital image processing and integraded computerised analysis for weathering on planning conservation interventions on historic structures and architectural complexes”, in Proc. EURISCON Conference on European Robotics, Intelligent Systems and Control, Publ. International Association for Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (1999) DIP Microstructural investigation (Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry): Pore volume distribution for each degree of alveolar decayTheoulakis, P., Moropoulou, A., “Microstructural and mechanical parameters determining the susceptibility of porous building stones to salt decay”, Construction and BuildingMaterials, 11, No. 1 (1997) pp. 65-71 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  37. 37. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Validation of NDT by Laboratory Techniques Hard Carbonate Crust: Medieval City of Rhodes (Combined assessment with the use of NDT and validation with SEM) Fibre Optics Microscopy Digital Image Processing Scanning Electron Microscopy Alveolar Weathering Medieval City of Rhodes (Combined assessment with the use of NDT and validation with SEM)Moropoulou, A., Koui, M., Tsiourva, Th.,Kourteli, Ch., Papasotiriou, D., “Macro- and Fibre Optics Microscopymicro non destructive tests for environmentalimpact assessment on architectural surfaces”, Digital Image ProcessingMaterials Issues in Art and Archaeology V, Vol.462, ed. P.B. Vandiver, J.R. Druzik, J.F. Merkel, J. Scanning Electron MicroscopyStewart, Publ. Materials Research Society,Pittsburgh (1997) pp. 343-349 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  38. 38. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Total Quality Control in the Protection of Built Cultural HeritageProf. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: Knowing the building Photo courtesy of K. Labropoulos
  39. 39. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Scientific support to decision making The development of a decision making support system should concern:  Decision making regarding the selection of the most appropriate conservation materials and interventions  Lifetime prediction  The assessment of the socio- economic impact of the interventions  Assessment of the sustainabilityA. Moropoulou “ Standards, methodology and techniques for total quality control in buildings andinfrastructure works with non-destructive techniques” Technical Chamber of Greece, 134 pages, (2005) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  40. 40. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Quality control is a concept that should not be limited only to the commonly applied standardized and reproducible selection and manufacturing of conservation materials and the standardized implementation of conservation interventions, but instead should cover the whole range of activities regarding protection of monuments. This is accomplished through the introduction of a TOTAL QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEM Compatibility – Serviceability of materials and interventions Regulations CRITERIA New requirements from users (Quality) Preservation of authenticity Methodology QUALITY CONTROL (Parameterization) Historic Documentation Architectural Materials and Conservation InterventionsReference: Ibid Structural Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  41. 41. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Criteria for a Total Quality Control System  Observance of the deontology of international conventions that demand the preservation and presentation of historic, sentimental virtues and the architecture of monuments, while preserving the authentic materials, forms and structures.  Serviceability of the conservation interventions and restorations (so that the building can accept safely the new uses and face the earthquake risk)  Compatibility of the materials and conservation interventions with authentic materials, the building and its environment  Sustainability (Increase of lifetime, protection of the environment and energy savings, minimization of environmental impact on the monument) Criteria and methodology for the performance of materials and conservation interventions Determination of the control parameters of (in)compatibility and effectiveness of the conservation materials and interventions, including the structural interventions and reinforcements.  Introduction of the scientific and technical criteria and determination of the appropriate specifications for the conservation materials and interventions  Determination of the control parameters for quality assurance, that is the degree of accomplishment of serviceabilityReference: Ibid Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  42. 42. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Integrated methodology for quality control in cultural heritage protection Data Base Inspection report Documentation, Environmental, Air Pollution, Degradation Mechanisms, Check Lists … Surveys and Ranking Inspection Monitoring Inspection Necessity Index (manuals, check lists) Check Lists Interventions Works No Need for Assessment intervention s Interventions Works Yes Study for Ranking No Interventions Need for Intervention Necessity Index diagnosis (Specifications) Yes Diagnosis Diagnosis Ranking report (Diagnosis Protocol) Diagnosis Necessity IndexMoropoulou, A., Chandakas, B., Togkalidou, T., Karoglou, M., Padouvas, E., “A new methodology for quality control and monitoring of historic buildings: A tool for lifetimeengineering”, Symposium Proceedings, 2nd International symposium, ILCDES Integrated Life-time Engineering of Buildings and Civil Infrastructures, Kuopio, Finland (2003) pp.269-274 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  43. 43. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Main features of the Total Quality Control System  Widespread use of Non-destructive techniques as they do not require sampling, so they can be employed as often as they are required  NDT can be integrated in a continuous monitoring system providing information to a documentation / data management system  The three main elements - Inspection, Diagnosis of decay and Protection Interventions - are not performed independently or at random intervals. Instead they are “triggered” by respective Necessity Indices that provide the ranking priorities among the parts of the monument that need to be monitored and protected and define the appropriate timing for each respective action  The inspection activities, the diagnostic study and the actual protection/conservation interventions are performed following strict predefined protocols and standards to ensure reproducibility, quality of the procedures, and compatibility of the data obtained with an integrated documentation data base Total Quality Control - 1. Inspection  Perform inspection using standard inspection manual and complete standard inspection checklists  Perform simple cheap measurements  Compile a report assessing the condition of the building  Employ trained personnel  Compile a comprehensive manual for inspection. Use standard classification systems for buildings appropriate for inspection, and extend them to include elements of cultural heritage buildingsTogkalidou T., Moropoulou A., Karoglou M., Padouvas E., Chandakas B., “System for Conservation Management of Historic Buildings incorporating Quality Control Principles”,Conference Proceedings, Innovative Technologies and Materials for the Protection of Cultural Heritage. Industry, Research, Education: European Acts and Perspectives, TechnicalChamber of Greece, Athens, 16-17 December 2003 Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  44. 44. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Total Quality Control - 2. DiagnosisDiagnostic Methodology Documentation and Geometrical Study Integrated Diagnostic Study  Architectural Study (Architect)  Structural Analysis (Civil Engineer)  Diagnostic Study of Materials and Interventions (Materials Science)  Geotechnical Study and Other Special Studies The results of the distinct studies have to be integrated for safe conclusions Non destructive techniques should be preferredDiagnosis and Criteria Architecture Structural Analysis Materials Science and faults Damages Architectural and Structural problems Incompatibility of materials, Morphological problems that affect the load decay of materials (alterations, changes of use) bearing capacity Documentation and diagnosis Architectural and Geometrical Study Load bearing Materials and Decay and Morphological and mechanism analysis Characterization Aesthetical Degradations Aesthetics, historical and Criteriais Criteria cultural values, conservation of Safety requirements Compatibility, durability, form and morphology, and response to seismic loads serviceability historic memory of a monument Reference: Ibid Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  45. 45. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Total Quality Control - 3.1 Intervention Study Structural Study of Interventions Check the structural performance Architectural Study of alternative interventions For the conservation, restoration, For the conservation and strengthening of the structural restoration of morphology and performance of masonry structures. architectural elements. Proposing materials and techniques of interventions Check the conservation of structural elements and morphology of building, of architectural elements and of traditional technologies Check the compatibility and durability of alternative proposals For the materials conservation, for Study of materials and the restoration of structuraltechniques of intervention performance of masonry units, for the mitigation of danger from environmental loads. Reference: Ibid Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment
  46. 46. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Total Quality Control - 3.2 Intervention Work Compile and follow a quality plan for intervention works according to the intervention study Follow and conform with the specifications of interventions study Design and produce customized materials Complete checklists on site for materials and works to prove conformation Use trained personnel Inspect the works with on site non destructive techniques Total Quality Control – Data Management FOM UltrasonicsMoropoulou, A., Bakolas, A., Togkalidou T.,Karoglou, M., Kaouri, P., Chandakas, B., Moropoulou A., Avdelidis N., Karoglou M., Aggelakopoulou E.“Performances and Durability of Materials for “Standardization and norms for the quality control of structures usingMonitoring and Quality Control (The Case of NDT” Proc. 1st Pan-Hellenic (National) Congress on Standardization,Municipal Market of Pyrgos)”, Scienza e Beni Protypes and Quality 13-24/11 (2004)Culturali XX, ed. G. Biscontin, G. Driussi, Publ.Arcadia Ricerche, (2004) pp. 765-774 Moropoulou A. Karoglou M., Avdelidis N., Aggelakopoulou E. Bakolas A. IRT “Assessment of sustainability of structures – infrastructures with NDE” Proc. 5th Int. Exposition & Conf. on Environmental Technology, Technical Chamber of Greece, Athens 3-6/2 (2005) Prof. Antonia Moropoulou – Topic 5.9: NDT and quality control for monitoring and compatibility assessment

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