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  1. 1. Infant Development Elizabeth Heseman Inquiry #3
  2. 2. Why Infer About Infants? <ul><li>I am an early childhood major along with being an elementary major. My passion lies with small children. I recently have a new baby cousin that I have been watching and who doesn’t love a baby? I have always been interested in learning more about infant development. I will investigate the first 12 months of a humans life. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Babies grow so fast and the first year of a baby’s life is very </li></ul><ul><li>important. </li></ul><ul><li>What are the development milestones that babies should reach at every age? </li></ul><ul><li>What should the caregivers do to help increase language development? </li></ul><ul><li>What should caregivers do to help increase motor skills? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Month 1 Birth to 1 month <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DURING THE FIRST MONTH THE INFANT WILL BE ABLE TO…. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can lift head momentarily </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turns head from side to side when lying on back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hands stay clenched </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong grasp reflex present </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks and follows object moving in front of them in range of 45 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sees black and white patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quiets when a voice is heard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cries to express displeasure (hungry, diaper change, gas, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes throaty sounds (Cooing, breathing, hiccups, gurgles, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks intently at parents when they talk to him/her </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Month 2 Birth to 2 months <ul><ul><li>DURING THIS PERIOD THE BABY WILL…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifts head almost 45 degrees when lying on stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Head bobs forward when held in sitting position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasp reflex decreases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows dangling objects with eyes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visually searches for sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes noises other than crying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cries become distinctive (wet, hungry, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vocalizes to familiar voices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social smile demonstrated in response to various stimuli </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Month 3 Birth to 3 months <ul><ul><li>Begins to bear partial weight on both legs when held in a standing position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to hold head up when sitting but still bobs forward </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When lying on stomach can raise head and shoulders between 45 and 90 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bears weight on forearms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasp reflex absent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds objects but does not reach for them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clutches own hands and pulls at blankets and clothes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows objects 180 degrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locates sound by turning head and looking in the same direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Squeals, coos, babbles, and chuckles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Talks&quot; when spoken to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes faces, voices, and objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiles when he/she sees familiar people, and engages in play with them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows awareness to strange situations </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Month 4 Birth to 4 months <ul><ul><li>Drooling begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good head control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits with support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bears some weight on legs when held upright </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raises head and chest off surface to a 90 degree angle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolls from back to side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explores and plays with hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tries to reach for objects but overshoots </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasps objects with both hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye-hand coordination begins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes consonant sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laughs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoys being rocked, bounced or swung </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Month 5 Birth to 5 months <ul><ul><li>Signs of teething begin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds head up when sitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolls from stomach to back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When lying on back puts feet to mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluntarily grasps and holds objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plays with toes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes objects directly to mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watches objects that are dropped </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Says &quot;ah-goo&quot; or similar vowel-consonant combinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smiles at mirror image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gets upset if you take a toy away </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can tell family and strangers apart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins to discover parts of his/her body </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Month 6 Birth to 6 months <ul><ul><li>Chewing and biting occur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When on stomach can lift chest and part of stomach off the surface bearing weight on hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifts head when pulled to a sitting position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolls from back to stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bears majority of weight when being held in a standing position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grasps and controls small objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holds bottle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grabs feet and pulls to mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusts body to see an object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turns head from side to side and then looks up or down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prefers more complex visual stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Says one syllable sounds like &quot;ma&quot;, &quot;mu&quot;, &quot;da&quot;, and &quot;di&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes parents </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Month 7 Birth to 7 months <ul><ul><li>Sits without support, may lean forward on both hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bears full weight on feet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bounces when held in standing position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bears weight on one hand when lying on stomach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfers objects from one hand to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bangs objects on surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to fixate on small objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Awareness of depth and space begin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Has taste preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>&quot;Talks&quot; when others are talking </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Month 8 Birth to 8 months <ul><ul><li>Sits well without support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bears weight on legs and may stand holding on to furniture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjusts posture to reach an object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picks up objects using index, fourth, and fifth finger against thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to release objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulls string to obtain object </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaches for toys that are out of reach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listens selectively to familiar words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begins combining syllables like &quot;mama&quot; and &quot;dada&quot; but does not attach a meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understands the word no (but does not always obey it!) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dislikes diaper change and being dressed </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Month 9 Birth to 9 months <ul><ul><li>Begins crawling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pulls up to standing position from sitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits for a prolonged time (10minutes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May develop a preference for use of one hand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses thumb and index finger to pick up objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to simple verbal commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehends &quot;no no&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased interest in pleasing parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts arms in front of face to avoid having it washed </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Month 10 Birth to 10 months <ul><ul><li>Goes from stomach to sitting position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits by falling down </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recovers balance easily while sitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lifts one foot to take a step while standing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehends &quot;bye-bye&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Says &quot;dada&quot; or &quot;mama&quot; with meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Says one other word beside &quot;mama&quot; and &quot;dada&quot; (hi, bye, no, go) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waves bye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object permanence begins to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeats actions that attract attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plays interactive games such a &quot;pat-a-cake&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoys being read to and follows pictures in books </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Month 11 Birth to 9 months <ul><ul><li>Walks holding on to furniture or other objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Places one object after another into a container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reaches back to pick up an object when sitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explores objects more thoroughly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to manipulate objects out of tight fitting spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rolls a ball when asked </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Becomes excited when a task is mastered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acts frustrated when restricted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shakes head for &quot;no&quot; </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Month 12 Birth to 12 months 1 Year <ul><ul><li>Walks with one hand held </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May stand alone and attempt first steps alone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits down from standing position without help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempts to build two block tower but may fail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turns pages in a book </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follows rapidly moving objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Says three or more words other than &quot;mama&quot; or &quot;dada&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehends the meaning of several words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeats the same words over & over again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imitates sounds, such as the sounds dogs and cats make </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizes objects by name </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understands simple verbal commands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows affection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shows independence in familiar surrounding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clings to parents in strange situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Searches for object where it was last seen </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. To help develop language. <ul><li>Talk to your baby. It is soothing to hear your voice. </li></ul><ul><li>When your baby makes sounds, answer him by repeating and adding words. This will help him learn to use language. </li></ul><ul><li>Read to your baby. This helps her develop and understand language and sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Sing to your baby. </li></ul><ul><li>Play music. This helps your baby develop a love for music and math. </li></ul><ul><li>Praise your baby and give him lots of loving attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Spend time cuddling and holding your baby. This helps her feel cared for and secure. </li></ul><ul><li>The best time to play with your baby is when he’s alert and relaxed. Watch your baby closely for signs of being tired or fussy so that you can take a break. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Tips for parents with young children <ul><li>Let babies learn to put themselves to sleep. After they are fed, burped, and changed lay them down in their crib. </li></ul><ul><li>Its ok to get behind on your house chores.. Life goes on. </li></ul><ul><li>Just because another baby is more quiet than yours..does not mean they are better parents. </li></ul><ul><li>NEVER wake a sleeping baby. </li></ul><ul><li>When it comes to advice… never hesitate to do what works best for you. Everyone is different. </li></ul><ul><li>Patients is everything. Children from a very younger age can sense anger. Be calm and teach your child to stay calm. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust yourself..you can do it! </li></ul><ul><li>Babies cry.. Its ok. </li></ul>
  18. 18. INCREASING MOTOR SKILLS… Head & Reaching and Grabbing <ul><li>Head Control One of the first things new parents are taught is to support the baby's head because baby can't do it himself until about 3 months of age. Once his neck muscles strengthen, he'll be able to do &quot;mini push-ups,&quot; raising both head and chest off the floor. By about 7 months of age, your baby will attain full control of his head and will be able to hold it steady for a long time while sitting on your lap or being held upright. </li></ul><ul><li>To help baby develop head control: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Place your baby stomach-down on the floor. Do this several times a day to let him practice. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Entice your baby to lift his head. Put an unbreakable mirror or large picture in front of him, or get down on the floor face-to-face with him. </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching and Grasping Most infants start waving or batting at objects by 3 months of age, an impulse that quickly becomes more refined. </li></ul><ul><li>By 5 or 6 months, your child should master visually directed reaching, which means she's able to see an object and reach for and grasp it with her hand. </li></ul><ul><li>By 8 or 9 months, as your baby learns to grasp with her thumb and forefinger, she can pick up surprisingly small objects — crumbs of food, for example, and, unfortunately, bits of dust and dirt from the floor. You'll have to keep a watchful eye on baby, because she'll be tempted to taste whatever she picks up. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Rolling over & Sitting up <ul><li>Rolling Over While gaining control of their unwieldy head is a gradual process, turning over is one milestone that seems to appear out of the blue in babies — a milestone that parents anxiously await. At 4 or 5 months, your baby will be able to roll over in one direction only (either back-to-stomach or stomach-to-back). She probably won't be able to flip herself in the opposite direction until 6 or 7 months. </li></ul><ul><li>You can encourage rolling by: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Providing baby with plenty of space and opportunity to practice. The floor is always great for this. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Praise baby. Talk to her and encourage her as she practices rolling. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Hold an object of interest, such as a rattle or a baby mirror, next to her. This can catch her attention and entice her to turn her body to see it. </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting Up Once a baby can roll over, sitting up isn't far behind. Babies have a whole new view of the world when they learn to sit up. So it's as exciting for them as it is for their parents! By about 4 months of age, your baby can sit when propped up. By 6 months your baby may have some success sitting in a high chair, and sometime before 1 year of age, she'll perfect the art of sitting unaided. </li></ul><ul><li> To help baby practice sitting skills: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Place him in your lap, facing outward, while you sit cross-legged on the floor. Your stomach and legs will provide the necessary support for his back. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Prop baby on a standard pillow or a U-shaped pillow. Let him experience the sensation of sitting with our supervision. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Crawling & Walking <ul><li>Crawling and Walking Between 8 and 13 months, your child will achieve some form of locomotion. Parents often view crawling and walking as the greatest physical milestones for their babies. While it's very exciting, you should remember that each child develops uniquely and at his own pace. If you have concerns about your baby's development about locomotion, discuss it with his pediatrician. But most babies will follow a recognizable pattern of learning locomotion: </li></ul><ul><li>First he'll likely get himself up on his hands and knees. </li></ul><ul><li>Next he'll rock back and forth in an effort to move forward. </li></ul><ul><li>He'll develop different ways of getting around, such as rocking, swiveling, rolling, and squirming on his tummy. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Crawling & Walking cont.. <ul><li>After about a month of this, you'll see him begin to progress toward a true crawl. </li></ul><ul><li>Many babies learn to crawl backward first, but it's not long before they learn to crawl in the right direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all babies crawl in the same fashion. In fact, some don't crawl at all and instead insist on walking with an adult holding their hands. Others bounce on their bottom, scoot along on their stomach, or do a &quot;bear walk,&quot; crawling with arms and legs extended. </li></ul><ul><li>No matter which style of motion your baby chooses, this stage brings her unprecedented freedom and opportunity to explore. </li></ul><ul><li>Try encouraging your baby to learn locomotion skills with these simple games: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Play crawling &quot;tag.&quot; This can be great fun for babies who are learning to locomote. Crawl after your baby, saying, &quot;I'm gonna get you!&quot; Then crawl away, encouraging her to follow. Try hiding behind a piece of furniture and letting her &quot;find&quot; you. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Create an obstacle course. Fill the room with things your baby can practice crawling over, under, or around. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Conclusion <ul><li>In conclusion to my investigation in the infant development I conclude that there are many development milestones within the first year of a humans life. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all babies develop at the same rate. Some develop faster or slower than others. Do not panic if a baby is not Right on Schedule. </li></ul><ul><li>There are many exercises to help babies develop language skills, and motor skills. </li></ul><ul><li>While conducting this project a few more questions have been raised. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Is breast feeding really that much better than formula? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Babies sleep a lot… do they go through the sleep cycle? Do they dream? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Resources <ul><li>http://health.discovery.com/centers/infant-toddler /development/development.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.brainy-child.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://baby.lovetoknow.com/wiki/Baby_Language_Tips </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/infantandtoddlerdevelopment.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.babycenter.com/ </li></ul>