Milestones2 Months: Smile, gurgle, look at parent, follow objectswith eyes4 Months: Plays with people, copies sounds he hears, let‟syou know feelings, rolls over6 Months: Recognize faces, bounces when stood up, cansit without assistance9 Months: Clingy to toys and people, understands “no”,crawls, pulls self to stand.12 Months: Follows directions, copies adults, holds ontofurniture, stands, walks without assistance
Physical Development•At birth, most infants movements are reflexes.•During the first months, infants can see clearly objects that areabout 10 inches away from their faces.•By four months, most babies have some control of their musclesand nervous system.•By six months, their vision is more fully developed.•They can sit with support, hold their head up for short periods oftime, and can roll from their side to their stomach.•By five months, most babies can roll over.•Eat three meals a day and need bottles throughout the day.•Start to use utensils to feed themselves.•Eight months, can sit up and throw things.•By 12 months their weight has tripled since birth.•Walking around one year old.
Emotional/Social Development•Trust their parents as they need them tochange diapers, for feeding, and to hold them.•They cry to express anger, fright, pain andhunger. It is their way of communicating.•Newborn infants smile in response to apleasant sound or a full stomach.•At about six weeks, they smile in response tosomeone else.•By four months, they smile broadly, laughwhen pleased, and learn to recognize faces andvoices of parents.
Language Development Infants coo and babble to practice making sounds with their mouths. They learn simple sounds like da, ga, ba, etc. Mama and Dada often come next. Or easy words that are often repeated in the infants surroundings. Child may answer with „ya‟ or „no.‟
CognitiveDevelopment Infants coo, babble, and gurgle. They study their hands and feet and the world around them. They can locate the sounds around them. Their world is explored through their mouths. Older infants learn to play Pattie-cake and peek-a- boo. They repeat actions that give them a response. They can respond to yes or no, and simple directions.
Encouraging Infant Development Use positive verbal cues when infant is learning a new skill. (ex. sitting, rolling, standing, walking) Place safe items in a reachable distance for infant to grab, roll, crawl for and eventually grasp. Allow child to climb objects safely with supervision. Place spoon or crayon in baby‟s hand to practice cause and effect and small motor skills. Be verbal with infant.
Red Flags No big smiles by 6 months. No back and forth sharing of expressions. No words, meaningful syllables by 12 months. Child‟s arms, legs seem too floppy or too stiff. Child favors one side of body. Child has difficulty eating or drools too much. Infant is not tracking objects with his or her eyes. Child is not responding to loud sounds. Child cannot self-sooth or be calmed.
Cultural Development Language differences Parental preferences Cultural practices Special Education Religious beliefs