Development through the years Communication, motor, cognitive, and social skills Birth – School age +
Birth – 1 Month <ul><li>Perlocutionary Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Crying </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Birth – 1 Month <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>involuntary, automatic movements - reflexes - helps the child survi...
Birth – 1 Month <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>brain growth is the greatest immediately after birth </li></ul>...
Birth – 1 Month <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>differentiated crying –  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>birth </li></ul></u...
1 Month – 3 Months <ul><li>Perlocutionary Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>neuromuscular control mo...
1 Month – 3 Months <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>increased muscular control allows for free hand object manipulat...
1 Month – 3 Months <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>obtains full focus by 3 months (can appreciate visual stimul...
1 Month – 3 Months <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>social behaviors increase (smiling and responding) </li></ul><u...
3 – 6 Months <ul><li>perlocutionary stage </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>less crying </li></ul><...
3 – 6 Months <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>trunk stability and sitting </li></ul><ul><li>arm control (reaching, g...
3 – 6 Months <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>mouthing - method of exploration </li></ul><ul><li>sucking provide...
3 – 6 Months <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>stops feeding to engage in social actions (smiling, attending to face...
6 – 12 Months <ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>responds to speech </li></ul><ul><li>begins to look at object...
6 – 12 Months <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>locomotion begins </li></ul><ul><li>experimenting with speech sounds ...
6 – 12 Months <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>exploration with hands </li></ul><ul><li>experiments with sounds ...
6 – 12 Months <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>joint action routines </li></ul><ul><li>increasingly verbal </li></ul>
1 – 2 Years <ul><li>locutionary stage </li></ul><ul><li>- use of true words </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></...
1 - 2 Years <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>independence </li></ul><ul><li>walking becomes more stable and coordina...
1 – 2 Years <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>mouthing of objects decreases </li></ul><ul><li>distancing - using ...
1 – 2 Years <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>sense of self begins to develop </li></ul><ul><li>likes to be center o...
3 – 5 Years <ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>expressive - lexical development accelerates (2200 words by age...
3 – 5 Years <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>very mobile </li></ul><ul><li>self-help skills - can wash self and dres...
3 – 5 Years <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>increase in memory skills (story-telling abilities) </li></ul><ul><...
3 – 5 Years <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>good sense of self established </li></ul><ul><li>sense of humor (tells...
School-aged and beyond
School-aged and beyond <ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>rate of language development slows but child expands...
School-aged and beyond <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>physical coordination increases steadily </li></ul>
School-aged and beyond <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>brain nearly adult-sized by age 8, but cognitive develop...
School-aged and beyond <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>social relationships are extremely important </li></ul><ul>...
School-aged and beyond <ul><li>Literacy skills </li></ul><ul><li>ability to link written and oral </li></ul><ul><li>abilit...
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Development Through The Years

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Development Through The Years

  1. 1. Development through the years Communication, motor, cognitive, and social skills Birth – School age +
  2. 2. Birth – 1 Month <ul><li>Perlocutionary Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Crying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>air moves across vocal cords to produce sound </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides experience in modification of breathing pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><li>while feeding - non-crying speech sounds (QRNs) </li></ul><ul><li>suck-swallow development </li></ul>
  3. 3. Birth – 1 Month <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>involuntary, automatic movements - reflexes - helps the child survive while learning to control their own body </li></ul>
  4. 4. Birth – 1 Month <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>brain growth is the greatest immediately after birth </li></ul><ul><li>myelination - myelin sheath around cranial nerves - disappearance of reflexes (because of myelination and brain growth) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Birth – 1 Month <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>differentiated crying – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>birth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>anger </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. 1 Month – 3 Months <ul><li>Perlocutionary Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><li>neuromuscular control moves forward from back of oral cavity </li></ul><ul><li>oral muscles develop sufficiently to stop and start movement </li></ul><ul><li>as vocalizations increase, crying decreases </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1 Month – 3 Months <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>increased muscular control allows for free hand object manipulations </li></ul><ul><li>vision and reach become coordinated </li></ul><ul><li>control over head </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1 Month – 3 Months <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>obtains full focus by 3 months (can appreciate visual stimuli) </li></ul><ul><li>mouthing is primary method of exploration </li></ul><ul><li>differentiates between nutritional and non-nutritional sucking </li></ul>
  9. 9. 1 Month – 3 Months <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>social behaviors increase (smiling and responding) </li></ul><ul><li>begins to differentiate among persons </li></ul><ul><li>extrinsically motivated </li></ul><ul><li>social turns </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3 – 6 Months <ul><li>perlocutionary stage </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>less crying </li></ul><ul><li>FRN and babbling emerge (sounds from surrounding environment) </li></ul>
  11. 11. 3 – 6 Months <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>trunk stability and sitting </li></ul><ul><li>arm control (reaching, grasping) </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3 – 6 Months <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>mouthing - method of exploration </li></ul><ul><li>sucking provides stimulation </li></ul>
  13. 13. 3 – 6 Months <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>stops feeding to engage in social actions (smiling, attending to faces) </li></ul><ul><li>first signs of social turns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>protoconversation </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. 6 – 12 Months <ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>responds to speech </li></ul><ul><li>begins to look at objects when named </li></ul><ul><li>start of intentionality </li></ul><ul><li>babbling, jargon, and PCFs emerge </li></ul><ul><li>echolalic speech may emerge (imitation) </li></ul><ul><li>use of protodeclaratives/protoimperatives - gestures that direct caregiver’s attention/actions </li></ul><ul><li>joint reference and action - utilize strategies and behaviors modeled by caregivers to achieve their goals </li></ul>
  15. 15. 6 – 12 Months <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>locomotion begins </li></ul><ul><li>experimenting with speech sounds and problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>increase in verbal motor abilities </li></ul><ul><li>sitting > creeping > crawling > standing > cruising > walking </li></ul>
  16. 16. 6 – 12 Months <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>exploration with hands </li></ul><ul><li>experiments with sounds and reactions (cause and effect) </li></ul><ul><li>searching for objects outside of range of vision (object permanence) </li></ul><ul><li>trial and error - problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>routines and scripts - know what comes next </li></ul>
  17. 17. 6 – 12 Months <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>joint action routines </li></ul><ul><li>increasingly verbal </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1 – 2 Years <ul><li>locutionary stage </li></ul><ul><li>- use of true words </li></ul><ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>language moves beyond single words </li></ul><ul><li>development of personal lexicon and word combinations </li></ul><ul><li>likes rhymes, songs, finger plays </li></ul><ul><li>decrease in jargon and babbling </li></ul><ul><ul><li>true words replace jargon </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. 1 - 2 Years <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>independence </li></ul><ul><li>walking becomes more stable and coordinated </li></ul><ul><li>brain growth decelerates </li></ul><ul><li>deceleration of both height and weight </li></ul><ul><li>ability to use pincher grasp (manipulate smaller objects) </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1 – 2 Years <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>mouthing of objects decreases </li></ul><ul><li>distancing - using other senses to learn - vision and hearing </li></ul><ul><li>increase in attention span </li></ul><ul><li>ability to understand cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>imitation abilities expand (swearing, body language) </li></ul><ul><li>understands means-end </li></ul>
  21. 21. 1 – 2 Years <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>sense of self begins to develop </li></ul><ul><li>likes to be center of attention </li></ul><ul><li>engages in non-social parallel play </li></ul><ul><li>needs and wants expressed vocally and w/ gestures </li></ul>
  22. 22. 3 – 5 Years <ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>expressive - lexical development accelerates (2200 words by age 5) </li></ul><ul><li>exploration - questions </li></ul><ul><li>relies on word order for interpretation of temporal information (what comes first in a sentence is what they think comes first or what they will do first) </li></ul><ul><li>80% of adult syntactic structures </li></ul><ul><li>phonological development - all vowels, most consonants </li></ul>
  23. 23. 3 – 5 Years <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>very mobile </li></ul><ul><li>self-help skills - can wash self and dress self </li></ul><ul><li>control of independent movement on right and left sides (hand preference by end of this period) </li></ul><ul><li>increased strength and coordination of fine and gross motor skills </li></ul>
  24. 24. 3 – 5 Years <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>increase in memory skills (story-telling abilities) </li></ul><ul><li>symbolic play </li></ul><ul><li>simple grasp of temporal concepts (time) </li></ul><ul><li>magic is a logical explanation for perplexing problems </li></ul>
  25. 25. 3 – 5 Years <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>good sense of self established </li></ul><ul><li>sense of humor (tells jokes) </li></ul><ul><li>engages in social play </li></ul><ul><li>participation in organized games with simple rules </li></ul><ul><li>experimentation of adult interactions and vocabulary </li></ul>
  26. 26. School-aged and beyond
  27. 27. School-aged and beyond <ul><li>Communication skills </li></ul><ul><li>rate of language development slows but child expands on existing forms </li></ul><ul><li>sentences grow about 1 word per year between 3 rd and 12 th grade </li></ul><ul><li>new vocabulary can be acquired independently </li></ul><ul><li>metalinguistic skills develop </li></ul><ul><li>figurative language skills develop </li></ul>
  28. 28. School-aged and beyond <ul><li>Motor skills </li></ul><ul><li>physical coordination increases steadily </li></ul>
  29. 29. School-aged and beyond <ul><li>Cognitive skills </li></ul><ul><li>brain nearly adult-sized by age 8, but cognitive development is still incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>ability to attend to specific stimuli (selective attention) </li></ul><ul><li>moves from concrete to abstract thought </li></ul>
  30. 30. School-aged and beyond <ul><li>Social skills </li></ul><ul><li>social relationships are extremely important </li></ul><ul><li>slang or “gang talk” </li></ul><ul><li>ability to take the perspective of others </li></ul>
  31. 31. School-aged and beyond <ul><li>Literacy skills </li></ul><ul><li>ability to link written and oral </li></ul><ul><li>ability to break words down into segments </li></ul><ul><li>ability to store verbal material </li></ul><ul><li>blending sounds into words </li></ul><ul><li>comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge of structure of sentences </li></ul><ul><li>knowledge of individual word meanings - comprehension </li></ul>

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