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UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS
FACULTY OF SCIENCE
DIPLOMA IN SANITARY SCIENCE
Title: Discuss the importance of understanding norm...
Table of contents
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Definition
Table 1. Physical development
Table 2. Social and emotional development
...
1.0 Introduction
The first five years of life are a time of critical growth and learning. An understanding of the
rapid
ch...
“No one has yet fully realized the wealth of sympathy,
kindness and generosity hidden in the soul of a child. The
effort o...
“Every child is unique”
1.2 UNDERSTANDING CHILD DEVELOPMENT
Physical development: this refers to the body increasing in sk...
Table 1. Physical development
Age Physical development ( Gross and Fine Motor)
Birth to 4 weeks Lies on back with head to ...
Table 2. Social and emotional development
Age Social and emotional development
Birth to 4 weeks Responds positively to mai...
Table 3. Language and communication development
Age Language and communication
Birth to 4 weeks Cries when basic needs req...
Table 4. Intellectual development
Age Intellectual development
Birth to 4 weeks Blinks in reaction to bright light, turns ...
1.3 Principles of normal child development
1) Development starts from the head and works down the
body.
A new baby cannot ...
1.4 Importance of understanding normal child development
Understand the importance of child development and early learning...
1.5 Proper child development benefits
A close relationship between the child and the caregiver is the best way to nourish ...
1.6 Promoting normal child development
Affection, attention and stimulation
Children's minds develop rapidly when they are...
1.7 Problems associated to normal child development
Growth and development are dependent on many factors with some affecti...
1.8 Child development unit in Mauritius
The Child Development Unit has as main objectives:
To provide for Protection Servi...
1.10 References
http://gender.gov.mu/English/Pages/Units/Child-Development-Unit.aspx
Bergen, Doris. 1988. “Stages of Play ...
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Discuss the importance of understanding normal child development

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Discuss the importance of understanding normal child development

  1. 1. UNIVERSITY OF MAURITIUS FACULTY OF SCIENCE DIPLOMA IN SANITARY SCIENCE Title: Discuss the importance of understanding normal child development. Module name: Community Health Module code: DSS 2110 Diploma in sanitary Science Student Name: Casimir Robinson Student ID: 1200135 Submitted to: Dr (Mrs.) BASANT RAI
  2. 2. Table of contents 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Definition Table 1. Physical development Table 2. Social and emotional development Table 3. language and communication development Table 4. Intellectual development 1.3 Principles of normal child development 1.4 Importance of normal child development 1.5 Proper child development benefits 1.6 Promoting normal child development 1.7 Problems associated with child development 1.8 Child development unit in Mauritius 1.9 Conclusion 1.10 References
  3. 3. 1.0 Introduction The first five years of life are a time of critical growth and learning. An understanding of the rapid changes in a child‟s developmental status prepares parents and caregivers to give active and purposeful attention to the preschool years and to guide and promote early learning that will serve as the foundation for later learning. Understanding child development is an important part of teaching young children. Developmental change is a basic fact of human existence and each person is developmentally unique. Although there are universally accepted assumptions or principles of human development, no two children are alike. Children differ in physical, cognitive, social, and emotional growth patterns. They also differ in the ways they interact with and respond to their environment as well as play, affection, and other factors. Some children may appear to be happy and energetic all the time while other children may not seem as pleasant in personality. Some children are active while others are typically quiet. You may even find that some children are easier to manage and like than others. Having an understanding of the sequence of development prepares us to help and give attention to all of these children. Actually in Mauritius there is the The Child Development Unit (CDU) was set up in 1995. It ensures that the survival, protection, development and participation rights of the Mauritian child are upheld as per the Convention on the Rights of the Child whereby the best interests of the child shall be of primary consideration in all policies, programmes and actions pertaining to children‟s welfare. The State has the obligation to ensure parental role wherever parents fail to do so and this role is ensured by the CDU. Any child may be a potential victim of violence, and the CDU has to intervene promptly and is expected to provide comprehensive service delivery with a view to provide immediate assistance and follow up to the child.
  4. 4. “No one has yet fully realized the wealth of sympathy, kindness and generosity hidden in the soul of a child. The effort of every true education should be to unlock that treasure.” Emma Goldman 1.1 DEFINITIONS A child is biologically is a human between the stages of birth and puberty. The legal definition of child generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority. Child development refers to the changes that occur as a child grows and develops in relation to being physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally sound, socially competent and ready to learn. Developmental milestones are a set of functional skills or age-specific tasks that most children can do at a certain age range. Your pediatrician uses milestones to help check how your child is developing. Each milestone has an age level, the actual age when a normally developing child reaches that milestone can very quite a bit.
  5. 5. “Every child is unique” 1.2 UNDERSTANDING CHILD DEVELOPMENT Physical development: this refers to the body increasing in skill and performance and includes: Gross motor development (using large muscles), for example legs and arms Fine motor development (precise use of muscles), for example hands and fingers. Social and emotional development: this is the development of a child‟s identity and self-image, the development of relationships and feelings about him or herself and learning the skills to live in society with other people. Intellectual development: this is learning the skills of understanding, memory and concentration. Communication and speech development: this is learning to communicate with friends, family and all others.
  6. 6. Table 1. Physical development Age Physical development ( Gross and Fine Motor) Birth to 4 weeks Lies on back with head to one side Head lags when pulled up to sit Primitive reflexes, i.e. rooting, sucking, stepping, grasping 1 to 4 months Head control still unsteady, hands in tight fists, grasps objects, kicks legs and waves arms, can lift head and turn when on front, uses arms for support when lying on stomach, turns from back to side ,holds on to and shakes small items 4 to 8 months Sits with support, rolls over, pushes head, neck and chest off floor with arms when on front, sits alone without support, reaches out for toys when sitting, may crawl or shuffle, pokes at small item with index finger 1 year Stands alone and starts to walk holding on, mobile through crawling, enjoys self-feeding and holds cup with help, picks up anything tiny from the floor using neat pincer grip, starting to show hand preference 18 months Can walk alone, pushes and pulls toys when walking, can walk downstairs with hand held, tries to kick a ball, rolls and throws ball, squats to pick up objects from the floor, assists with dressing and undressing, can use a spoon 2 years Walks up and down stairs with both feet on one step. Climbs on furniture, builds a tower of six bricks, uses a spoon for self-feeding, puts shoes on, draws circles and dots, starts to use preferred hand 3 years Stands and walks on tiptoe, can kick a ball confidently, jumps from low steps, turns single pages in a book, can draw a face 4 years Can aim and throw and catch a large ball, walks backwards and on a line, runs and hops, builds a large tower, can brush own teeth 5 years Skips, runs quickly, easily dresses and undresses, hits a ball with a bat, draws a person with a head, body and legs, and a house, forms letters and writes own name, accurately uses scissors
  7. 7. Table 2. Social and emotional development Age Social and emotional development Birth to 4 weeks Responds positively to main carer, imitates facial expressions, stares at bright shiny objects 1 to 4 months Gazes intently at carers, social smile at carers (by 6 weeks) 4 months Smiles, engages and vocalises 4 to 8 months Starts to show interest in other babies, smiles, becomes more interested in social interaction, shows fear of strangers and distress at separation from carer, interacts differently with various family members, uses comfort object, Seeks attention ,very interested in all around, recognises familiar and unfamiliar 1 year More demanding and assertive, emotionally volatile, temper tantrums may start, unhappy at changes in routine, expresses rage at being told „no‟, will play alone, starting to develop object permanence 18 months Shows stranger shyness, dislikes changes in routine, starts toilet training, starts to have tantrums when upset, little idea of sharing and strong sense of „mine‟ 2 years Enjoys other children‟s company but reluctant to share toys, may show concern when another child is upset, engages in parallel play, becoming emotionally stable, learning to separate from carer for short periods, knows own identity 3 years Greater social awareness, stable and emotionally secure, friendly to other children, increasing in independence, but still needs support from adults, fears loss of carers, strong sense of gender identity, less anxious about separation, plays alongside others 4 years Enjoys co-operative and dramatic play, understands co-operation and competition, responds to reasoning, can take turns, enjoys independence but still needs comfort and reassurance 5 years Becomes engrossed in activities, develops fears of ghosts, things under the bed, concerned about being disliked, good sense of self awareness developed
  8. 8. Table 3. Language and communication development Age Language and communication Birth to 4 weeks Cries when basic needs require attention, for example hunger, tiredness, distress 1 to 4 months „Freezes‟ when a bell is rung gently close to the ear, moves head towards the, sound, stops crying at sound of human voice, becomes quiet and turns head towards sound of rattle near head 4 to 8 months Responds differently to different tones of voice, starts to respond to noises out of sight with correct visual response, vocalises for communication, shouts for attention, babbles loudly and tunefully using dual syllables in long strings, smacking lips, understands „no‟ and „bye-bye‟ 1 year Knows own name, jargons loudly in „conversations‟, includes most vowels sounds, understands simple messages 18 months First words appear – uses 6–20 recognisable words, understands many more, echoes prominent or last word in sentences, tries to join in with nursery rhymes, responds to simple instructions 2 years Uses two words linked together, uses more than 200 words by two years, makes simple two-word sentences, refers to own name, talks to self during play 3 years Rapidly expanding vocabulary, including plurals, holds simple conversations, enjoys repetition of favourite stories, counts to ten 4 years Imitates adult speech, can be understood by strangers, forms short, grammatically correct sentences, asks many questions 5 years Starts speaking fluently and correctly, using descriptive language
  9. 9. Table 4. Intellectual development Age Intellectual development Birth to 4 weeks Blinks in reaction to bright light, turns to soft light, stares at carer, cries when basic needs require attention 1 to 4 months Stares at soft light, gaze caught by and follows dangling ball, follows movements of large and smaller objects 4 to 8 months Very curious, easily distracted by movements, immediately fixes sight on small objects close by and reaches out to grasp them, puts everything in mouth, watches toys fall from hand within range of visible, looks in correct direction for falling toys 1 year Drops toys deliberately and watches them fall, looks in correct place for toys that have rolled out of sight 18 months Builds tower of three cubes when shown, turns pages of books, several at a time, enjoys picture books and can point to a named object, points to interesting objects outside, points to parts of the body 3 years Copies circle and cross, draws man with head, matches two or three primary colours, paints with large brush, cuts with scissors By 5 years Copies square, and range of letters, draws man with head, body, arms, legs and features, and will draw house, colours pictures neatly, names primary colours and matches ten or more colours, knows time of day for basic activities, for example breakfast, bedtime, matches symbols, letters and numbers, can decide on lighter and heavier objects There has been a lot of research into how children develop intellectual skills. Two of the most well-known theories : Piaget showed that intelligence is the result of a natural sequence of stages and it develops as a result of the changing interaction of a child and its environment. A child develops „schemas‟ to help him or her solve problems in their environment. For example, all dogs are thought to be black if a child‟s pet dog is black, seeing a white dog needs the schema to be changed. Bruner believed that as children develop they use different ways of representing the world around them. Enactive representation involves them describing their world by sensory-motor actions – that is by using their bodies – think about how you might describe a whirlpool or a spiral staircase without using your hands or body! Iconic thinking describes pictures in the mind.
  10. 10. 1.3 Principles of normal child development 1) Development starts from the head and works down the body. A new baby cannot hold up his or her head alone. Yet, within a few months, the baby will be able to sit alone. This is because control of the spine and central nervous system develops from the top of the head down to the base of the spine. You can see this control developing in a baby as he or she starts to hold the head without support. Similarly, a new-born baby waves his or her arms around vaguely, yet in nine months‟ time will find the tiniest crumb or piece of Lego easy to pick up with the thumb and finger. This is because the nervous system also develops from the spinal cord out to the extremities (hands and feet). 2) All development happens in the same order, but can occur at different rates. A baby has to hold his or her head up, learn to sit with support, and then without support, before he or she can stand by holding on to furniture and then eventually walk alone. No baby can learn to walk before sitting up. But it is perfectly normal for one baby to walk at ten months and another not to learn this skill until the age of 18 months. 3) All areas of development are linked together. A baby cannot start to finger feed until he or she can sit up and is developing the ability to pick things up between the fingers and thumb. The speech development of a child is affected if the child has difficulties in hearing clearly or if no one talks directly to him or her. A child who does not receive love and attention may fail to grow and develop
  11. 11. 1.4 Importance of understanding normal child development Understand the importance of child development and early learning. In order to spread the message, it is important to know the facts. The basics are: The early years, especially the first three years of life, are very important for building the baby's brain. Everything she or he sees, touches, tastes, smells or hears helps to shape the brain for thinking, feeling, moving and learning. Babies learn rapidly from the moment of birth. They grow and learn best when responsive and caring parents and other caregivers give them affection, attention and stimulation in addition to good nutrition, proper health care and protection. Encouraging children to play and explore helps them learn and develop socially, emotionally, physically and intellectually. This helps children get ready for school. Children learn how to behave (socially and emotionally) by imitating the behaviour of those closest to them. Entering primary school on time is critical to ensure the continuity of a child's development. Support from parents, other caregivers, teachers and the community is very important Understanding the stages of child development helps parents know what to expect and how to best support the child as she or he grows and develops. In many settings, early childhood programmes support parents and their children from infancy through age 8, which includes the important transition from home to school. All children have the right to be raised in a family and to have access to quality health care, good nutrition, education, play and protection from harm, abuse and discrimination. Children have the right to grow up in an environment in which they are enabled to reach their full potential in life. It is the duty of parents, other caregivers and family members, communities, civil society and governments to ensure that these rights are respected, protected and fulfilled
  12. 12. 1.5 Proper child development benefits A close relationship between the child and the caregiver is the best way to nourish the child's growing brain. When a caregiver plays with and sings, speaks, reads or tells a story to the child and nurtures her or him with healthy food, love and affection, the child's brain grows. Being healthy, interacting with caregivers and living in a safe and clean environment can make a big difference in a child's growth, development and future potential. Babies need lots of care and affection in the early years. Holding, cuddling and talking to the child stimulate brain growth and promote emotional development. Being kept close to the mother and breastfed on demand provide the infant with a sense of emotional security. The baby suckles for both nutrition and comfort. For young children, crying is a way of communicating. Responding to the child's cry by holding and/or talking soothingly to her or him will help establish a sense of trust and security. This kind of early bonding and attachment to the mother, father or other close caregiver helps a child develop a broad range of abilities to use and build upon throughout life. These include the ability to: learn be self-confident and have high self-esteem have positive social skills have successful relationships at later ages develop a sense of empathy Children who are physically or mentally punished in anger are more likely to become violent themselves. More positive and effective ways to address children's behaviour can include: providing a child with clear explanations about what to do and what not to do responding consistently to certain behaviours praising good behaviour.
  13. 13. 1.6 Promoting normal child development Affection, attention and stimulation Children's minds develop rapidly when they are talked to, touched and cuddled; when they see and hear familiar faces and voices; and when they handle different objects. Children learn quickly when they feel loved and secure from birth and when they play and interact with family members and other people close to them. The more often mothers, fathers and other caregivers play with, talk to and respond to the child, the faster she or he learns. Parents and other caregivers should consistently talk, read and sing to infants and young children. Even if the child is not yet able to understand the words, these early 'conversations' help to develop social and language skills and learning capacities. Parents and other caregivers can help children learn and grow by giving them new, interesting and safe things to look at, listen to, smell, hold and play with. Children who feel secure and loved usually do better in school, are more self-confident, have good self-esteem and are able to cope more easily with life's challenges. Good nutrition Exclusive breastfeeding on demand for the first six months, timely introduction of safe and nutritious foods at the age of 6 months and continued breastfeeding for two years or beyond provide the child with optimal nutrition and health benefits. Feeding time is also an opportunity for the child to receive affection and have contact with the mother, father or other caregiver. Good nutrition is vital for a child's growth and development. The diet of a pregnant woman and that of a young child should be varied and nutritious. It should include essential nutrients such as proteins and essential fats to help a child's body grow and have energy, vitamin A to help a child resist illness, iodine to help ensure the healthy development of a child's brain, and iron to protect a child's mental and physical abilities. While the mother has the primary role of breastfeeding the child, the father can support her by making sure she has nutritious food, helping with household and childcare responsibilities, and being emotionally supportive of her, the baby, the older children and other family members. Proper health care The health worker should inform parents and other caregivers about: necessary immunizations and the schedule to follow how to avoid anaemia and parasitic diseases in children over 6 months of age how to ensure that the child gets enough nutrients, such as iron and vitamin A, for her or his healthy mental and physical development.
  14. 14. 1.7 Problems associated to normal child development Growth and development are dependent on many factors with some affecting some children more than others. The impact can be positive as well as negative. For example, the opposite of poverty is wealth and a child growing up in a home with no financial worries may be well fed and clothed and have lots of opportunities for educational development. However, these advantages can lose their impact if the child does not have a loving and supportive family. Factors that can affects normal child development : cultural background expectations of different groups social class impact of long term poverty, attitudes to educational development family background different expectation for development, love and support health status long term illness, acute illness e.g. meningitis genetics effect of inheritance e.g. height, skills gender different rates of growth for girls and boys Examples of problem associated with child development : disruptive behavior problems; oppositional and attentional difficulties; emotional problems such as fears; phobias and depression; and feeding problems in the age period 0–5 years
  15. 15. 1.8 Child development unit in Mauritius The Child Development Unit has as main objectives: To provide for Protection Services to victims of violence, abuse and neglect on a 24 hr 7 days basis To provide victims with follow-up sessions to ensure recovery from trauma and thereafter their re-insertion in society; To provide for hotline service with respect to reporting of a case and counseling as appropriate; To prepare and support children victims of violence for legal encounters ; To provide parents with life skills through a National Parental Empowerment Programme and Ecole des Parents; To provide for Early Childhood Development services to the cohort of 0-3 years; To provide Alternative care to abused children, ranging from temporary removal to a shelter for children in distress, to foster caring and eventually, as a last resort, committal to a charitable institution; To provide victims of Commercial Sexual Exploitation with curative, rehabilitative and reintegration services; To provide periodic review of placement of children in shelters and charitable institutions; To provide tardy declaration of birth services to both children and adults who have not been declared within the prescribed time delay; To provide trained mentors to children seen to be in distress because of mild behavioural problems through a well spelt child Mentoring Programme 1.9 Conclusion An understanding of normal development patterns and concepts is necessary for parents and caregivers to create a nurturing and caring environment which will stimulate young children‟s learning. The growth and development of infants are periods of rapid change in the child‟s size, senses, and organs. Each change brings about new abilities. A child‟s development in motor coordination, forming concepts, learning and using language, having positive feelings about self and others prepares them to build upon new abilities that will be needed for each change in a new stage of development. Caregivers can provide activities and opportunities for child that encourage exploration and curiosity to enhance children‟s overall development. For child to have a normal development is crucial as it is determent for the future livelihood of the child, this is the ultimate pathway to the development of any human being
  16. 16. 1.10 References http://gender.gov.mu/English/Pages/Units/Child-Development-Unit.aspx Bergen, Doris. 1988. “Stages of Play Development,” Play as a Medium for Learning and Development. Doris Bergen,ed.,Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann. Wisconsin Child Welfare Training System http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/ http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/childdevelopment/index.html http://www.pbs.org/parents/child-development/ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1511901/

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