MBA MCO101 Unit 2 Lecture 3 20080622

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MBA MCO101 Unit 2 Lecture 3 20080622

  1. 1. Unit 2: Personality traits and diversity
  2. 2. Managing Expectations <ul><li>LEARNING OUTCOMES: </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the course, students will be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain fundamental concepts and principles of management including the basic roles, skills, and functions of management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the knowledgeable of historical development, theoretical aspects and practice application of managerial process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examine the environment, technology, human resources, and organisations in order to achieve high performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discuss the ethical dilemmas faced by managers and the social responsibilities of businesses. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Managing Expectations <ul><li>SUBJECTS DISCUSSED: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management, Managers and evolution of Management theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality traits and diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organisation, Globalisation and the resulting environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decision-making and Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure and Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executing and Controlling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human Resources Management as a function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation, Leadership, Groups and Teams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication, conflicts and politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operations Management. Entrepreneurship. Innovation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Managing Expectations <ul><li>TOPIC DETAILS: </li></ul><ul><li>After going through UNIT 2, you should be able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe what personality is. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distinguish between self-esteem and self-efficacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain self-management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify and describe big five personality dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain personality dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe diversity and why it matters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the special challenges that the dimensions of surface-level diversity poses for managers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain how the dimensions of deep-level diversity affect individual behavior and interactions in the workplace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Explain the basic principles and practices that can be used to manage diversity. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Personality Traits Personality Traits Self Concept <ul><ul><li>Self Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul></ul>Form of Self Expression
  6. 6. Self Concept The concept the individual has of self as a physical, social, and spiritual or moral being Self Esteem: One’s own self worth based on one self evaluation. Self Efficacy: Believe in one’s own ability to do a task. Self Monitoring: Observing one’s own behaviour and adapting it to the situation. Unique Individual Human Being
  7. 7. Self Management <ul><li>Symbolic Coding – (visual/verbal) </li></ul><ul><li>Rehearsal – (mental/actual) </li></ul><ul><li>Self - Talk </li></ul><ul><li>Behaviour changes needed for self- improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Reminder and attention focuser </li></ul><ul><li>Self-observation data </li></ul><ul><li>Avoidance of –ve cues </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking of +ve cues </li></ul><ul><li>Personal goal setting </li></ul><ul><li>Self-contracts </li></ul><ul><li>Self reinforcement or self punishment </li></ul><ul><li>Building naturally rewarding activities (increases one’s competence, self-control and purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcements from others </li></ul>PERSON (Psychological Self) BEHAVIOUR SITUATIONAL CUES CONSEQUENCES
  8. 8. Self Management Personal Development Habit 1: Be Proactive: Principles of Personal Vision Habit 2: Begin with the End in Mind: Principles of Personal Leadership Habit 3: Put First Things First: Principles of Personal Management Habit 4: Think Win/Win: Principles of Interpersonal Leadership Habit 5: Seek First to Understand, Then to be Understood: Principles of Empathetic Communication Habit 6: Synergise: Principles of Creative Communication Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw: Principles of Balanced Self-Renewal Habit 8: Find your voice & inspire others to find theirs: Principles of greater good
  9. 9. Personality & Dimensions Personality: The relatively stable pattern of behaviour and consistent internal state that explains a person’s behavioural tendencies. Careful, dependable, self-discipline Conscientiousness Courteous, good-natured, emphatic, caring Agreeable Anxious, hostile, depressed Neuroticism Sensitive, flexible, creative, curious Openness to Experience Outgoing, talkative, social able, assertive Extroversion Big 5 Dimension People with high score tend to be…
  10. 10. Personality Dynamics Self Management Attitude Abilities Emotions Personality <ul><li>Stress and well-being </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Career Satisfaction </li></ul>Values Resilience Intelligence Emotional Intelligence
  11. 11. Diversity Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. Diversity Is NOT Affirmative Action Affirmative Action <ul><li>A purposeful, established program </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow focus </li></ul><ul><li>Legal requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Compensate for past discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Controversial </li></ul><ul><li>May exist without a program </li></ul><ul><li>Broad focus </li></ul><ul><li>Not legally based </li></ul><ul><li>Create a positive work environment </li></ul><ul><li>Generally accepted </li></ul>Diversity
  12. 12. Diversity Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. General purpose of affirmative action <ul><li>compensate for past discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>prevent ongoing discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>provide equal opportunities to all, regardless of race, color, religion, gender, or national origin </li></ul><ul><li>no one is advantaged or disadvantaged </li></ul><ul><li>“ we” is everyone </li></ul><ul><li>everyone can do his or her best work </li></ul><ul><li>differences are respected and not ignored </li></ul><ul><li>everyone feels comfortable </li></ul>of diversity
  13. 13. Diversity makes good business sense Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. Cost Savings Attracting and Retaining Talent Driving Business Growth <ul><li>Reduces turnover </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases absenteeism </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids expensive lawsuits </li></ul><ul><li>Attracts better and more diverse job applicants </li></ul><ul><li>Have higher stock market performance </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages workers to stay </li></ul><ul><li>Improves understanding of the marketplace </li></ul><ul><li>Improves quality of problem solving </li></ul>
  14. 14. Diversity levels Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. Surface-Level Diversity Age Race/ Ethnicity Gender Deep-Level Diversity Personality Attitudes Values/Beliefs Physical Capabilities
  15. 15. Surface level Diversity Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. <ul><li>Treating people differently because of their age </li></ul><ul><li>Performance does not decline with age </li></ul><ul><li>Older employees show better judgment, and are less likely to quit, show up late, or be absent </li></ul><ul><li>Age discrimination is more pervasive than managers think </li></ul><ul><li>Treating people differently because of their gender </li></ul><ul><li>Glass ceiling: invisible barrier that keeps women and minorities from advancing to the top of the organisation </li></ul><ul><li>Can be diminished by: [1] mentoring and [2] stopping unintentional behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>Treating people differently because of their race or ethnicity </li></ul><ul><li>Employment disparities do exist </li></ul><ul><li>Legislation has lessened the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce by: [1] eliminating unclear selection and promotion criteria [2] training managers who make hiring and promotion decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Disability is a mental or physical impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities </li></ul><ul><li>Disability discrimination means treating people differently because of their disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce by: [1] educating to address incorrect stereotypes [2] committing to reasonable workplace accommodations [3] recruiting qualified workers with disabilities </li></ul>Race/Ethnicity Mental or Physical Disabilities Age Gender
  16. 16. Socio-Economics & Diversity Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. Can the model of surface- and deep-level diversity accommodate socio-economic difference as a metric? Why or why not?
  17. 17. Incorporating Religion into the Mix Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. Amric Singh filed a lawsuit against Manhattan’s police department claiming he was fired for wearing a turban on the job.
  18. 18. Deep-Level Diversity Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. “ Big Five” Dimensions of Personality Work-Related Aspects of Personality Conscientiousness Agreeable Neuroticism Openness to Experience Extroversion Authoritarianism Machiavellian Tendencies Type A/B Personality Locus of Control Positive / Negative Affectivity
  19. 19. Work-Related Aspects of Personality Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. Authoritarianism : the extent to which an individual believes there should be power and status differences Machiavellianism : believe that virtually any type of behaviour is acceptable if it leads to goal accomplishment <ul><li>Type A/B personality dimension : the extent to which people tend toward impatience, hurriedness, and hostility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type A personalities: hard driving, competitive, perfectionist, angry, unable to relax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type B personalities: Easygoing, patient, able to relax, engage in leisure activities </li></ul></ul>Authoritarianism Machiavellian Tendencies Type A/B Personality
  20. 20. Work-Related Aspects of Personality Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. <ul><li>Locus of control : the degree to which people believe that their actions influence what happens to them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal locus of control: what happens to you is under your control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>External locus of control: what happens to you is beyond your control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Affectivity : the stable tendency to experience positive or negative moods and to react in a generally positive or negative way. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positive affectivity : consistently focusing on the positive aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative affectivity : consistently focusing on the negative aspects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood linkage : a phenomenon where one worker’s negativity spreads to others </li></ul></ul>Locus of Control Positive / Negative Affectivity
  21. 21. Managing Diversity Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. Diversity Training and Practices Different Diversity Paradigms Diversity Principles
  22. 22. Diversity Paradigms Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. <ul><li>Organisational Plurality – a work environment where: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All members are empowered to contribute in a way that maximises the benefits to the organization, customers, themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The individuality of each member is respected by not segmenting or polarising people based on their membership in a group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Benefits of the Learning and Effectiveness Diversity Paradigm : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Values common ground </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes a distinction between individual and group differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to encounter conflict, backlash, and divisiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focuses on bringing different talent and perspectives together </li></ul></ul>Discrimination and Fairness Access and Legitimacy Learning and Effectiveness Acceptance and celebration of differences Integrating deep-level differences into organization Equal opportunity Fair treatment Recruitment of minorities Strict compliance with laws DIVERSITY PARADIGM FOCUS
  23. 23. Diversity Principles Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. <ul><li>Carefully and faithfully follow and enforce all equal employment opportunity laws </li></ul><ul><li>Treat group differences as important, but not special </li></ul><ul><li>Tailor opportunities to individuals, not groups </li></ul><ul><li>Reexamine, but maintain, high standards </li></ul><ul><li>Solicit negative as well as positive feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Set high but realistic goals </li></ul>
  24. 24. Diversity Training and Practices Source: South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. <ul><li>Awareness Training </li></ul><ul><li>Skills-Based diversity Training </li></ul>Training Practices <ul><li>Diversity Audits </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity Pairing </li></ul><ul><li>Minority Experiences </li></ul>© http://www.diversityweb.org/
  25. 25. Why personality and diversity matters? <ul><li>Your opinion please… </li></ul>

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