Abertay4

408 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
408
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Abertay4

  1. 1. Where computer game playingmeets learning - Opportunities fornear market research andinnovative prototyping Dr. Derek Nicoll Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 1 learning
  2. 2. Games design, HCI, educationalmodels, organisation and users Software/hardware /internet Pedagogy Games HCI and technology usability Educational Training Models Particular training objective Organisational Learners/Users/ culture, aims and Players objectives Theories of the organisation Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 2 learning
  3. 3. Games design, HCI, educationalmodels, organisation and users Software/hardware /internet Pedagogy Games HCI and technology usability Educational Training Models Particular Learner Organisational Learners/Users/ culture, aims and Players objectives Theories of the organisation Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 3 learning
  4. 4. Games design, HCI, educationalmodels, organisation and users —Games for training an learning is pioneering work —Traditional corporate training often employs games-based exercises and simulations to bridge knowledge and skills gaps between novices and experts —Construtivist theories of learning ‘ learning by doing’ have gained popularity in education and training - CAI and ITS —Games, simulations and prototypes inherently offer this opportunity for ‘serious play’ in prototyping —Learners’ understanding grows as they engage in and continue to engage in new work practices -motivation/scaffolding —Unitary and modular building blocks in experience design —Cognitive, cognitive behavioural or behavioural facets Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 4 learning
  5. 5. Experiential learning Concrete experience Testing Implications of Observations and concepts in new reflections situations Formation of abstract concepts The cycle of and experiential learning generalizations after Kolb and Fry (1975) Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 5 learning
  6. 6. Opportunities —Cost - reducing training costs for individuals and firms —Effectiveness - providing more effective training —Motivation -training becoming more effective due to increased motivation to participate in and/or absorb training? —Relevance - providing training which is more focussed upon the training need of the individual learner and/or the individual organisation —Applicability, Convenience, Mobility - Easier, more accessible and immediate training, free of time and space constraints, available at any time, through multiple platforms —Provide opportunity to radically modify accepted practices and enable entirely new approaches and thus open possibilities for innovation to learning theories and theories of the organisation (learning about learning) Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 6 learning
  7. 7. Near market research —Cost - understanding how games can incorporate into existing training programs or may even replace them (organisational) —Effectiveness - Where do games work best? In which training areas? Can they be properly benchmarked against live or alternate forms of training? (user-learner research) —Motivation - Do they enhance participation, level of interest, engagement and immersion? Can they do this equally between subjects or do individual/cultural/generational differences play some role? (user-learner research) —Hogan et al. Point to the fact that motivation suffers as learners encounter obstacles - bad interfaces, gameplay not only meets learning but new kinds of usability challenge Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 7 learning
  8. 8. Cost of training —Deep understanding of the training need as seen from multiple actors’ perspective (heterogeneity) —Likewise deep understanding of technical and interface needs from these multiple perspectives (co-design) —Learning to attract and manage feedback from all actors into the innovation of training materials, game elements and interfaces (evaluation and research) —Developing models of cost and price with respect to identifying training need, capturing and codifying data? Model of software and media development, man hours? Cost of evaluation? —Developing a pioneering unitary and modular view to games production - development of suitable generic components using Java, Python?? Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 8 learning
  9. 9. Prototyping games -problems —Supply chain management issues - aligning the vision of the various actors, development of open and effective communications (user needs and requirements into engineering requirements ) —The keys to managing prototyping include knowing what you want to learn from the prototype, access to, and understanding of rapid prototyping tools and techniques, and end-user involvement in development of the prototype —Training and presentation must be cogent with company culture and ways of doing things - knowledge is in part a product of the activity, context and culture in which it is developed and used . . . Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 9 learning
  10. 10. Constituency of learning Organisational structure Organisational External climate influences Advance training resource - game Make-up of or simulation workforce Organisational Training Cost vs. benefits goals Need Proactive vs. reactive Time required Individual vs. group Nature of Training design learning required complexity Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 10 learning
  11. 11. Example cost of 1 week livetraining—Salaries 12 x £425 £5100—Classroom overhead £1479—materials £150—Admin £425—Replacement staff £1950—Instructor £475—Audio-visual £175—Transport £1400—Misc. £425—TOTAL £12,174 not including accommodation and meals Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 11 learning
  12. 12. Cost of games development — Costs over development/implementation lifecycle cost Time Training need Training need Requirements/Game Deployment/ identification and development evaluation analysis Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 12 learning
  13. 13. Cost of games development — Cost against development £,£££,£££ cost £££ Generic - Bespoke- Modular- Bespoke - software- web web based - software- based - original based Java,Python based - off the development shelf Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 13 learning
  14. 14. Cost of learning — Costs over development/implementation lifecycle ? cost Ongoing Support? iterations Time Training need Training need Requirements/Game Deployment/ identification and development evaluation analysis Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 14 learning
  15. 15. Cost of learning — Costs over development/implementation lifecycle Learning £ VALUE £? cost COST Ongoing Support? iterations Time Training need Training need Requirements/Game Deployment/ identification and development evaluation analysis Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 15 learning
  16. 16. Prototyping and learning Observation of the userConvert into design Prototype requirements experience Testing iterations Contextual in new situations User observations inquiry, and reflections Usability studies Formation of abstract concepts and generalisations Learning about how users learn - “learning about learning” action research - iterative design in whichbuild > trial > evaluate > learn > build repeat Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 16 learning
  17. 17. Monitoring/evaluation —Impact upon learners and organisation – Reactions of learners - I.e. quality of interaction, usability issues, entertainment value etc. – Learning - skills, knowledge and attitudes - have the learning objectives been met? (tests, exams, quizzes) – Behavioural - Did the learning transfer do the job? (Speed of completing processes) – Result on organisation - has the training impacted upon general efficiency (more diffuse, interviews with management) Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 17 learning
  18. 18. Threats —Danger to engage all too readily in training and/or technology as panacea for all a human performance problems —Prototyping and iterative design have a reputation for being difficult to manage —Failure to meet deadlines —Failure to gain the trust and co-operation of key actors in the organisation —Seamless - learning to use the game should not interfere with training objectives - distinctive need for good usability —Difficult to persuade companies that performing one more iteration is far less costly than releasing a flawed or incomplete product —Accurately estimating the size of the implementation challenge Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 18 learning
  19. 19. Opportunities —The research is pioneering so there are inherently vast opportunities to contribute to both training practice and also games design —Needs to draw upon an awareness of games - their potentials and constraints from a user perspective (generic), —from a technology/software/media perspective (generic) —from a human and social factors perspective (generic) —from a training perspective (generic) —from the perspective of particular organisation (learning to be customised and specific) Where Computer Games Playing meets Page 19 learning

×