Identification of variables


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Identification of variables

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  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONVariables are qualities, properties, orcharacteristics of person, things, orsituations that change or vary.Chinn & Kramer stated that ‘variables areconcepts at different level of abstractionthat are concisely defined to promotetheir measurement or manipulation withinstudy’.Variables are classified based on theirnature, actions, & effects on the
  3. 3. TYPES OF VARIABLESIndependent and dependent variablesResearch variableDemographic variablesExtraneous
  4. 4. Independent and dependentvariables These are to two variables which are interrelated &mainly observed in correlational, interventional,pre-experimental, quasi-experimental, experimentalresearch studies. An independent variable:It is a stimulus or activity that ismanipulated or varied by the researcher to createthe effect on the dependent variable. A dependent variable:It is the outcome or response due tothe effect of the independent variable, whichresearcher wants to predict or
  5. 5. Count…For example;“Effectiveness of planned teaching on theknowledge of staff nurses working inpsychiatric unit regarding PhysicalRestraints for psychiatric patient in selectedhospital of Vidharbha region”.in this study plannedteaching is an independent variable & knowledgeis the dependent
  6. 6. Research variable In descriptive, exploratory, comparative, &qualitative research studies, variable areobserved or measured in natural setting as theyexist, without manipulating or imposing theeffect of intervention or treatment. Here no independent variable is manipulated &no cause-effect relationship is examined; thesevariable are considered as research variable. Therefore, research variables can be defined asqualities, attributes, properties or characteristicswhich are observed or measured in a naturalsetting without manipulating & establishingcause-&-effect
  7. 7. Count…For example;„An exploratory study on factorscontributing to sleep disturbance amongpatients admitted in selected intensivecare unit of AIMS, New Delhi‟.In this research study,“factors contributing to sleepdisturbance” is a research variable,which is observed in natural settingwithout manipulating
  8. 8. Demographic variables In most of the research studies, researchersmake the attempt to study the samplecharacteristics & present them in researchfindings. Sometimes researchers even try to establishrelations of the demographic variables withthe research variables. These characteristics & attributes of thestudy subjects are considered asdemographic variables. Common demographic variables are age,gender, educational status, religion, socialclass, marital status, habitat, occupation,income, & medical diagnosis
  9. 9. Extraneous variables Extraneous variables are the factorswhich are not the part of the study butmay affect the measurement of thestudy variables. These variables are usually recognized& controlled by researchers in quasi-experimental & experimental studies. Generally, specific research design &sample inclusion & exclusion criteria areused to control the influence ofextraneous
  10. 10. Count…For example:‘A study is conducted to assess the effect of twodifferent pin site care protocols on prevention ofpin site infection among patients with externalskeletal fixation’. In this study, pin site care protocols areindependent variable, pin site infection is thedependent variable . However, the dependent variable, pin siteinfection may also be influenced by some of theother factors such as low hemoglobin level orhigher blood sugar level among these patients;these factors are considered as extraneousvariables, which may have unwanted effect
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  12. 12. Types ofstudyExample of the research problemstatementvariablesDescriptive A descriptive study on prevalence of anemiaamong adolescent girls in selected villages ofdistrict Gulbarga, KarnatakaResearch variable:Prevalence of anemiaExploratory An exploratory study on contributing factors ofanemia among adolescent girls in selectedvillages of district Gulbarga, Karnataka.Research variable:Contributing factors ofanemiaCorrelationalA correlational study on smoking & lung canceramong slum dwellers of city Mumbai.Independent variable:SmokingDependent variable: LungcancerComparative A comparative study on health problems amongrural & urban older people of district Mehsana,Gujrat.Research variable: HealthproblemsexperimentalAn experimental study on efficacy of oralmorphine in management of chronic cancer painamong advanced stage cancer patients admitted inhospice at Mehsana.Independent variable: OralmorphineDependent variable: Chroniccancer painQuasi-experimentaA quasi-experimental study of effect of needlegauge on pain perception among patientsIndependent variable:
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  14. 14. Types ofstudyExample of the research problemstatementvariablesphenomenologicalA phenomenological study on live experiences oftsunami victims in selected villages of state TamilNaduResearch variable: LiveExperiencesEthnographical An ethnographic study on the features, criticalattributes, processes, & benefits of self-helpgroups of women living with chronic alcoholichusbands in selected villages of district Mehsana,Gujrat.Research variable:Features, criticalattributes, process &benefits of self-helpgroupsGrounded theory A study on the response & adaptation process ofpatients diagnosed with cancer in Lions HospitalMehsana, Gujrat.Research variable:Response & adaptationprocessCase study A case study on availability & utilization ofemergency services in public hospital at Ludhiana,PunjabResearch variable:Availability & utilizationof emergency servicesHistorical study A historic study on experiences of ward facilitiesfor psychiatric nurses during the 1960s & 1970s inNational Institute of Mental Health &Neurosciences, BangaloreResearch variable:Experiences of wardfacilities.Action research A study on practicability of integrating the nursingservice & education in selected premier nursingResearch variable:Practicability
  15. 15. OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OFVARIABLES In research study, each variable orconcept must be operationally defined. An operational definition of variableprovides the theoretical or conceptualmeaning of variable under study. This definition of the variables may bederived from conceptual or theoreticalframework on which study is based ormay be stated in a form in whichvariables are expected to be studied inpresent
  16. 16. Count…For example:“Effectiveness of planned teaching on theknowledge of staff nurses working inpsychiatric unit regarding PhysicalRestraints for psychiatric patient in selectedhospital of Vidharbha region”.In this problem statementthere are five variables, effectiveness, plannedteaching, knowledge, nurse & physical restraint,which need to operationally
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