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Constructivist Learning


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Constructivist Learning

  1. 1. Information Processing EDU223 Educational Psychology
  2. 2. Memory Sensory, Short Term, Long Term,Working <ul><li>Functions: What do you use memory for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making decisions based on experience; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Where’s the cereal? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remembering appointments & faces. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orienting yourself in space & time; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remembering people; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remembering how to do things (skills); </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preferences; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Identity … </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The Importance of Memory <ul><li>Where would you be without memory? </li></ul><ul><li>The Case of Clive Wearing </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is Memory? <ul><li>Everything in life is memory, save for the thin edge of the present (Gazzaniga, 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: Memory is the processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present. => Mental ‘time travel’ … </li></ul>
  5. 5. Information Processing & Memory
  6. 6. The Modal Model <ul><li>Atkinson & Shiffrin’s (1968) </li></ul>
  7. 7. An Example…………….
  8. 8. Sensory Memory <ul><li>Definition: Sensory memory is the retention, for </li></ul><ul><li>brief periods of time (…), of the effects of sensory stimulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>The Sparkler’s Trail => persistence of vision (film) </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sensory Memory- Moving Images
  10. 10. Visual Memory <ul><li>Questions: How much information is stored in the visual icon? For how long? Sperling (1960): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>.5 sec. presentation; => 4–5 letters remembered </li></ul></ul>B N F A T L M X P Z D C
  11. 11. Sensory Memories <ul><li>Not just visual, but also auditory (‘echoic’ memory, 1–5 sec.). </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of Sensory Memory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collection or information to be processed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding information while processing; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filling in blanks of intermittent stimulation. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. The Modal Model
  13. 13. Short Term vs Long Term <ul><li>Question: </li></ul><ul><li>What is the evidence for two separate entities or mechanisms? </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration: Serial position curve </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stimuli (Murdoch, 1962; Neth & Myers, 2005) <ul><li>Try to remember the following items… </li></ul>
  15. 15. Stimuli (Murdoch, 1962; Neth & Myers, 2005) <ul><li> Barricade </li></ul><ul><li> Children </li></ul><ul><li> Diet </li></ul><ul><li> Racket </li></ul><ul><li> Gourd </li></ul><ul><li> Antenna </li></ul><ul><li> Folio </li></ul><ul><li> Meter </li></ul><ul><li> Game </li></ul><ul><li> Journey </li></ul><ul><li> Mohair </li></ul><ul><li> Phoenix </li></ul><ul><li> Crossbow </li></ul><ul><li> Doorbell </li></ul><ul><li> Muffler </li></ul><ul><li> Sandwich </li></ul><ul><li> Mouse </li></ul><ul><li> Colt </li></ul><ul><li> Menu </li></ul><ul><li> Airplane </li></ul>
  16. 16. Serial Position Curve
  17. 17. What does the SPC mean? <ul><li>Glanzer and Cunitz (1966): </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis 1: Recency due to STM. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test: intermediate task (30 seconds counting backwards) prior to recall => delete STM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: Reduced recency effect. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis 2: Primacy due to more rehearsal. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test: slower pace => more rehearsal possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: Increased primacy effect. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. SPC Summary
  19. 19. Differences in Coding <ul><li>Types of coding or ‘representational formats’: </li></ul>
  20. 20. Visual & Phonological Coding in STM <ul><li>Zhang & Simon (1985): </li></ul>
  21. 21. Semantic Coding in STM <ul><li>Wickens et al. (1976): </li></ul>
  22. 22. Result: Proactive Interference
  23. 23. Coding in Long-Term Memory <ul><li>Demonstration (Sachs, 1967): </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Galileo Story There is an interesting story about the telescope. In Holland, a man named Lippershey was an eyeglass maker. One day his children were playing with some lenses. They discovered that things seemed very close if two lenses were about a foot apart. Lippershey began experiments and his &quot;spyglass&quot; attracted much attention. He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. [0] Galileo at once realized the importance of the discovery, and set out to build an instrument of his own. He used an old organ pipe with one lens curved out and the other curved in. On the first clear night he pointed the glass towards the sky. He was amazed to find the empty dark spaces filled with brightly gleaming stars! [80] Night after night Galileo climbed to a high tower, sweeping the sky with his telescope. One night he saw Jupiter, and to his great surprise discovered with it three bright stars, two to the east and one to the west. On the next night, however, all were to the west. A few nights later there were four little stars [160].
  25. 25. The Galileo Story (cont’d) <ul><li>Which sentence did you read? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. He sent a letter about it to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Galileo, the great Italian scientist, sent him a letter about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. A letter about it was sent to Galileo, the great Italian scientist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. He sent Galileo, the great Italian scientist, a letter about it. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Changes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Identical. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Semantic: A difference in meaning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Voice: Changed from active to passive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Formal: syntactic change, but same meaning </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Galileo Story: Results
  27. 27. LTM vs. STM: Neuropsychology Evidence => new LTM
  28. 28. The (Magical) Capacity of STM <ul><li>George Miller (1956): ‘magical 7±2’ items </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: A chunk is a collection of elements that are strongly associated with each other and weakly associated with other chunks. </li></ul><ul><li>Chunking: Small units (letters, words) are combined into larger meaningful units(words, sentences). => Magic! </li></ul>
  29. 29. Chase & Simon (1973): Results
  30. 30. <ul><li>Baddeley (2000): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Working Memory is a limited capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks (e.g., comprehension, learning, reasoning). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>limited capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multiple parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function: store and manipulate information </li></ul></ul>STM as Working Memory
  31. 31. Baddeley (2000)’s Working Memory
  32. 32. Examples: Specialization of WM
  33. 33. Examples: Integration in WM
  34. 34. WM and the Brain