Basf Linked In Presentation

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This is a presentation that examines the nature of effect pigments and how they can be used in plastic applications

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Basf Linked In Presentation

  1. 1. Presented by Doreen Becker Technical Marketing Manager BASF Effect Pigments for Plastics Effect Pigments in Plastics
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction: overview of effect pigments </li></ul><ul><li>Features and benefits of product lines for plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Common resins employed in processing </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges of using effect pigments in plastics </li></ul><ul><li>Styling for trend and color forecasts </li></ul><ul><li>Real-world examples and finished products </li></ul>
  3. 3. Effect pigments <ul><li>Pearlescent pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White pearlescent mica-based pigments such as MagnaPearls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interference pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mica-based pigments that change color on the flop angle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Metallescent pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mica-based pigments have metallic and pearlescent effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Borosilicate-based pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glass flake pigments that have color travel and transparency </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Special effect pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynacolors, Black Olive, Mark-It etc </li></ul></ul>                                                    
  4. 4. Pigment structure Mica Mica TiO 2 or other metal oxides With optional absorption colorant layer Substrates Mica Borosilicate Al 2 O 3 SiO 2 Graphite Others? 50 nm TiO 2 50 nm TiO 2 500 nm Mica
  5. 5. Metal oxide coated mica pigment / / / Metal oxide coated mica O O O O O M M M M >700  C O O O O O O H H H H H H M M M
  6. 6. Oxide thickness determines interference color TiO 2 TiO 2 Mica TiO 2 TiO 2
  7. 7. Titanium dioxide coated mica by reflectance microscopy Gold Red Violet Blue Green
  8. 8. Absorption color depends on oxide color and thickness Mica Bronze Fe 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3 Mica Russet Fe 2 O 3 Fe 2 O 3
  9. 9. Iron oxide coated mica by reflectance microscopy Bronze Russet
  10. 10. Mica versus metallic pigments Reflectance of a pearlescent and metallic flake pigment in a transparent resin Pearlescent pigment transparent platelets Metallic flake pigment opaque platelets
  11. 11. White pearlescent pigments MagnaPearl® <ul><ul><li>Highest luster pigments (blue shade) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Least mica undertone contribution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed for plastics packaging industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Particle sizes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP3000= 2-10 microns (high hiding) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP2000= 5-25 microns (velvet effect) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP1000= 8-48 microns (satin effect) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP 5000= 14-95 microns (sparkle effect) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP8000= 5-80 microns </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP4000= 15-150 microns (glittery effect) </li></ul></ul></ul>                                                                         
  12. 12. Interference Pigments <ul><li>Lumina® Colors (D Fraction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher, purer chroma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6-48 microns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hi-Lite Super pigments (Z Fraction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Older coating technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower chroma, more pearly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6-48 microns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mearlin® Micro-Pearl pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small particle size, 2-24 microns </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Metallescent Pigments <ul><li>Combines a metallic appearance with the softness of pearl </li></ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul><ul><li>Gold/Brass </li></ul><ul><li>Bronze </li></ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Russet </li></ul>
  14. 14. Firemist ® pigments <ul><li>Firemist ® </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-300um </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 microns thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High transparency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No flow lines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Firemist ® Super pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-60 um </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.5 microns thick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth appearance </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Special effect pigments <ul><li>Black Olive ™ pigment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mica-based product that imparts a dark silvery effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in men’s packaging, electronics, styling tint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynacolor ® pigments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interference mica pigment with additional organic layer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in kid’s packaging and other brightly colored applications </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mark-it ™ Laser marking pigment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides high-definition marking for barcodes and graphics-YAg </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Special effect pigments <ul><li>Mearlite ® pigments (UFI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bismuth oxychloride pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-25um sized crystals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imparts a very white lustrous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appearance to plastics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in high-end cosmetic packaging </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Common resins employed in processing <ul><li>Styrenics: GPPS, K-resin for bottles </li></ul><ul><li>Polycarbonate: PC/ABS for compacts, PC for closures,clear packaging and lenses </li></ul><ul><li>Polyolefins: LDPE for pinch tubes, PP& HDPE for closures and blowmolded bottles </li></ul><ul><li>Polyester: PET & PETG used for bottles </li></ul><ul><li>and films </li></ul>
  18. 20. PVC <ul><li>Products: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pinch tubes, closures and blowmolded bottles, calendered film (flexible) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vertical blinds, capstock, trim etc (rigid) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect Pigment loading </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5.0% or more in Banbury (batch process) or two roll mill </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5.0% in 20mil flexible films (from concentrate) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.0% in injection molded pieces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexible concentrate up to 20% in a twin screw extruder </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Add pigments incrementally, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally not needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral Oil or phthalate (1g in 1000g batch) for dry blends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Plateout </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease loading of pigment and or plasticizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extrude films more slowly to achieve better contact with rolls or use air knife </li></ul></ul>
  19. 21. Solid Surfaces <ul><li>Polyester </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corian </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polyester & Quartz </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zodiac </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PMMA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aristech </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. Processing challenges- Injection Molding & Blow Molding <ul><li>Flow Lines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by poorly designed molds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow lines enhanced by color and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> effect pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Change label placement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mold design or redesign </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce sharp angles of molded piece </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce mold openings or pins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Center gating rather than edge gating </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hot runners or static mixers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use CAD programs to predict where flow lines will emerge </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slower injection speeds </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower injection pressures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Processing challenges- Injection Molding & Blow Molding <ul><li>Flow Lines (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Processing changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced clamping pressures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased mold temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Longer residence time (curing) in the mold </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formulation changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Larger particle sized pigments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Less opaque pigments </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More transparent resins </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower pigment loadings </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 24. Processing challenges- Injection Molding & Blow Molding <ul><li>Splay </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatibility of additives or letdown resins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dry pigments and resin prior to processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overloading of pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add less than 2% of effect pigments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Poor resin clarity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatibility of additives or letdown resins </li></ul></ul>Splay from gated edge
  23. 25. Processing challenges- Injection Molding & Blow Molding <ul><li>Streaked bottles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Raise processing temperatures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase screw speed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use an olefin screw if possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirty equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mandrel becomes clogged with charred resin or pigments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molder isn’t thoroughly purged from prior resin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Weld line failure & stress fractures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moisture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incompatibility of additives or letdown resins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wall thickness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigment selection </li></ul></ul>Streaked bottle Clean bottle
  24. 26. Mechanical Solutions-Injection Molding <ul><li>Metering Screw Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>L/D ratio-smaller ratio is better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screw length to outside diameter (20:1) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profile- use a longer transition and shorter meter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Length of each zone (10:5:5) feed:transition:meter </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Channel depth of meter zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deeper channel is better for effect pigments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compression ratio- lower compression ratios are better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depth of feed channel:depth of meter channel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helix angle-larger helix angle is better </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pitch of screw flights </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Processing challenges-Extrusion <ul><li>Loading limits </li></ul><ul><li>Dusting </li></ul><ul><li>Strand breakage </li></ul><ul><li>Processing temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Throughput limits </li></ul><ul><li>Pigment damage </li></ul>
  26. 28. MagnaPearl ® X Series High performance pigment <ul><li>High performance white pearlescent pigment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed for the master batch industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigment is encapsulated in a proprietary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>preparation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance benefits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique performance attributes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Approved for food contact applications </li></ul></ul>Engelhard’s high performance effect pigments improve manufacturing efficiency & reduce costs
  27. 29. MagnaPearl ® X2100 High performance pigment <ul><li>Increased throughput </li></ul><ul><ul><li>50% improvement vs untreated product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25% improvement vs competitive products </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enhanced visual appearance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less damage to pigments from extrusion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduction in processing additives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces dusting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improves feed flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces strand breakage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased loadings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater than 35% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduced processing temperatures </li></ul><ul><li>Easier cleanup and purging </li></ul>Experiments *Not attainable 35 160 MagnaPearl ® X2100 35 N/A* MagnaPearl ® 2100 25 160 MagnaPearl ® X2100 25 100 MagnaPearl ® 2100 Loading % pigment Throughput Grams/minute Sample
  28. 30. Mechanical solutions-extrusion <ul><li>Twin screw extrusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for higher pigment loading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yields higher throughput </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2 feed system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for higher pigment loading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less pigment damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Screw design and Static Mixers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low shear design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distributive rather than dispersive mixing </li></ul></ul>Distributive Mixing (elongational flow)* Dispersive Mixing (shear flow)* *Courtesy of Rauwendaal Extrusion Engineering
  29. 31. Blending Guide for Effect Pigments <ul><li>For Polypropylene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1% Pearlescent pigment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.125% Mineral Oil or DOP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% LDPE Wax or other plasticizer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For ABS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2% Pearlescent pigment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.125% Mineral Oil or DOP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.125% Magnesium Stearate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Polystyrene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>0.5% to 1.0% Pearlescent pigment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>0.125% Mineral Oil or DOP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1% LDPE Wax or other plasticizer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blending Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Blend resin and oil for five minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Add the wax or stearate </li></ul><ul><li>Add the pearlescent pigment </li></ul><ul><li>Tumble for 20 minutes </li></ul>
  30. 32. Styling for trend and color forecasts <ul><li>Packaging Trend </li></ul><ul><li>Trendance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Teletronics/Interior Automotive) </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Real-world Technical Experience <ul><li>Technical Services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Color/Effect matches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resin compatibility issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customer requests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Styling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product updates and offsets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plant and production trials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industries Served </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentrate Houses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molding and Extrusion Customers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other raw material suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electronics, packaging and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appliance designers </li></ul></ul>
  32. 34. Interested in an Innovation Session for your products? Contact Information <ul><li>Doreen Becker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Office: 914-737-0985 x 227 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email: doreen.becker@basf.com </li></ul></ul>

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