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Creating A Singapore Identity


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Creating A Singapore Identity

  1. 1. Creating a Singapore Identity Written by: Bani Muhamad Iyad
  2. 2. Contents Introduction The National Flag The National Anthem The State Crest The Pledge The National Flower The Lion Head Symbol Presidents in Singapore Being United as Singaporeans Quiz
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>When Singapore obtained full internal self-government, its leaders had to look into many important matters. </li></ul><ul><li>One of the main challenges was to ensure the people of Singapore feel that Singapore was their homeland. </li></ul><ul><li>A sense of common identity had to be developed among the people of Singapore. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Creating national symbols was one way to help develop a sense of common identity among the people. </li></ul><ul><li>These symbols were introduced in 1959. </li></ul>The National Anthem The State Crest The National Flag
  5. 5. Introduction <ul><li>Dr Toh Chin Chye, the then Deputy Prime Minister, led a committee to design the State Crest, State Flag and State Anthem. </li></ul><ul><li>These symbols were unveiled on 3 December 1959 at the City Hall. </li></ul><ul><li>The State Flag and the State Anthem became known as the National Flag and National Anthem when Singapore became independent in 1965. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Introduction <ul><li>These symbols were created after Singapore obtained independence in 1965. </li></ul>The Lion Head Symbol The National Flower <ul><ul><li>We, the citizens of Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pledge ourselves as one united people, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regardless of race, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>language or religion, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to build a democratic society, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>based on justice and equality, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>so as to achieve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>happiness, prosperity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and progress for our nation. </li></ul></ul>The Pledge
  7. 7. The National Flag The crescent moon represents a young nation. The five stars stands for the nation’s beliefs of democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality. Red symbolises universal brotherhood and equality of man. White symbolises everlasting purity and virtue. <ul><li>The National Flag is a symbol of Singapore’s independence. </li></ul>Let us find out what the crescent moon, five stars and colours on the flag represent.
  8. 8. The National Flag <ul><li>The National Flag should not touch the ground at any time. </li></ul><ul><li>When raising the flag, it should rest on the flag-bearer’s shoulder before hoisted. </li></ul><ul><li>When lowering the flag, it should rest on the flag-bearer’s shoulder before being removed from the flag pole. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The National Flag <ul><li>The flag should be cleaned when dirty or replaced when faded. </li></ul><ul><li>After washing the flag, it should not be hung together with the other laundry. </li></ul><ul><li>Any damaged flag should be sealed in a trash bag before disposal. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The National Flag <ul><li>The flag is flown halfway up a flag pole when a country is in mourning. </li></ul><ul><li>This is known as flying the flag at half-mast. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually when a national leader in the country has passed away, all flags will be flown at half-mast. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The National Anthem <ul><li>Singapore’s National Anthem is the Majulah Singapura. </li></ul><ul><li>The National Anthem is in Malay because Malay is the national language of Singapore. </li></ul>
  12. 12. The National Anthem <ul><li>The National Anthem was created to unite the different races in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>It reflects Singapore’s identity as a nation. </li></ul><ul><li>The song is about enduring hope and spirit of Singaporeans to make progress. </li></ul><ul><li>It rallies Singaporeans together to succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>Zubir Said was the composer of the National Anthem. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The National Anthem Majulah Singapura Mari kita rakyat Singapura Sama-sama menuju bahagia Cita-cita kita yang mulia Berjaya Singapura Marilah kita bersatu Dengan semangat yang baru Semua kita berseru Majulah Singapura Majulah Singapura
  14. 14. The National Anthem Onward Singapore Come, fellow Singaporeans Let us progress towards happiness together May our noble aspiration bring Singapore success Come, let us unite In a new spirit Let our voices soar as one Onward Singapore Onward Singapore
  15. 15. The National Anthem <ul><li>The National Anthem is sung in schools and at the National Day celebrations. </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever the anthem is being played, a person has to stand at attention. </li></ul><ul><li>This is a sign of respect. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The National Anthem <ul><li>Zubir Mohamad Said was born on 22 July 1907 in Central Sumatra. </li></ul><ul><li>He came to Singapore in 1947 and worked as a part-time photographer and a music composer. </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote over 1000 music pieces and won many awards. </li></ul><ul><li>Zubir Said died on 16 November 1987 at the age of 80. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The State Crest <ul><li>The National Coat of Arms is also known as the State Crest. </li></ul><ul><li>Only government offices can display the State Crest within their premises. </li></ul><ul><li>It consists of a shield with a white crescent moon and five stars against a red background. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The State Crest <ul><li>Red is symbolic of universal brotherhood and equality of man, and white signifies pervading and everlasting purity and virtue. </li></ul><ul><li>The five stars represent the five ideals of democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality. </li></ul><ul><li>The lion represents Singapore itself and the tiger, the island's historical links with Malaysia. </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Pledge <ul><li>The National Pledge was written by Sinnathamby Rajaratnam in 1966 shortly after Singapore's independence. </li></ul><ul><li>Rajaratnam revealed that the dream was to build &quot;a Singapore we are proud of&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>He believed that language, race and religion were divisive factors, but the Pledge emphasises that these differences can be overcome if Singaporeans cared enough about their country. </li></ul><ul><li>The draft text was handed to the then Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew, who polished the text before submitting it to the Cabinet. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The National Flower <ul><li>Vanda Miss Joaquim is a natural hybrid between and Vanda hookeriana and was first discovered in the garden of Agnes Joaquim in 1893. </li></ul><ul><li>It was described in the same year by Henry N. Ridley, director of the Singapore Botanic Gardens at the time. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The National Flower <ul><li>On April 15, 1981, the Minister of Culture, S. Dhanabalan, announced that as part of an overall effort to foster national pride and identity Vanda Miss Joaquim was chosen from amongst 40 other flowers (including some 30 orchids) as Singapore's national flower. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability of Vanda Miss Joaquim's to bloom throughout the year was considered to reflect Singapore's continuous quest for progress and excellence in all aspects of life, and its natural resilience which is reflected the determination of the Singaporean people to stand fast through difficult times. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The National Flower <ul><li>A strong inflorescence of Vanda Miss Joaquim may carry up to 12 buds, usually with four flowers open at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Each flower is about 5 cm across and 6 cm tall, and as is the case with its parents, the petals are twisted around so that the back surface faces front. </li></ul><ul><li>The two petals and the top sepal are rosy-violet, and the lateral sepals are a pale mauve. </li></ul><ul><li>The lip is very large and broad and the middle lobe extends out like a fan. </li></ul><ul><li>It is coloured violet- rose, merging into a contrasting fiery orange at the centre. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the orange patch, the lip is finely spotted with dark purple spots. </li></ul>
  23. 23. The National Flower <ul><li>Vanda Miss Joaquim requires full sunlight, free air movement, high humidity and heavy fertilising to achieve optimum growth and flowering. </li></ul><ul><li>It needs support to grow straight and tall but it flowers only when the top of its stem rises above the support. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a robust, sun loving plant with slender stems best grown in beds against post supports. </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike most countries whose national flowers are found beyond their national boundaries, Singapore has the distinction of being the only nation to have a hybrid as its national flower and whose distribution was confined to Singapore's boundaries. </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Lion Head Symbol <ul><li>The lion head symbol was introduced in 1986 as an alternative national symbol of Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>The lion head was chosen as a logo, as it best captures, the characteristics of Singapore's reputation as a Lion City. </li></ul><ul><li>It is used in less formal occasions mainly to promote Singapore's national identity. </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Lion Head Symbol According to the Singapore government: “ The lion head symbolises courage, strength and excellence, as well as resilience in the face of challenges. It is in solid red against a white background - the colours of the national flag. Its mane's five partings represent the same five ideals that are embodied in the five stars of the national flag, namely democracy, peace, progress, justice and equality. Its tenacious mane symbolises the nation's single-minded resolve to rise to any challenges and overcome any obstacles. ”
  26. 26. The Lion Head Symbol <ul><li>An individual, organisation or company can use the lion head symbol for purposes of identifying with the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>The lion head symbol should be used in good taste. Its design should not be modified in any way nor have any words or graphics superimposed over it. However, it may be depicted in outline form, be embossed or portrayed as a watermark. </li></ul>Here are the guidelines of the symbol.
  27. 27. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>The President of the Republic of Singapore is Singapore's head of state. </li></ul><ul><li>In a Westminster parliamentary system, which Singapore possesses, the prime minister is the head of the government while the position of president is largely ceremonial. </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1993, the President of Singapore was appointed by Parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>Following constitutional changes brought into force in 1991, the President became a popularly-elected post. </li></ul><ul><li>The first elected President was Ong Teng Cheong, who served from 1 September 1993 to 31 August 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>The current President of Singapore is S.R. Nathan, who first became the head of state in 18 August 1999 and is presently serving his second term of office. </li></ul><ul><li>The President is a ceremonial head of state broadly analogous to the British monarch, but the 1991 constitutional amendments gave the President certain reserve powers over government expenditure of financial reserves and appointments to key public offices. </li></ul><ul><li>The President's official residence is the Istana. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>The late Encik Yusof bin Ishak, former President of the Republic of Singapore, was born on 12th August, 1910 at Padang Gajah, Trong about 18 miles from Taiping, Perak. </li></ul><ul><li>Encik Yusof is a Malay of Sumatran descent and can trace his lineage on the paternal side to Minangkabau, and on the maternal side to Langkat. </li></ul><ul><li>They first settled in Penang and later, Perak. </li></ul><ul><li>Encik Yusof is the eldest son in a family of nine. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>His father, Encik Ishak bin Ahmad now deceased, was the Acting Director of Fisheries, Straits Settlements and Federated Malay States. </li></ul><ul><li>Encik Yusof received his early education in the Malay school in Kuala Kurau, Perak. </li></ul><ul><li>Two years later, Encik Yusof was transferred to the Malay School at Taiping and in 1921 he began his English studies at King Edward VII School, Taiping. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1923 when his civil-servant father was posted to Singapore, Encik Yusof accompanied his parents and studied at the former Victoria Bridge School until December 1923. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>In 1924 he was admitted to Raffles Institution where he passed the Cambridge School Certificate in 1927 with distinction, and prolonged his studies for two more years in the Queen's Scholarship class. </li></ul><ul><li>While in School Encik Yusof joined in practically all forms of sport, played by boys. </li></ul><ul><li>While at the Raffles Institution he played hockey and cricket, and took part in swimming, weight lifting, water-polo and boxing. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Yusof was well known both as a journalist and the founder of the Malay newspaper Utusan Melayu prior to becoming head of state of Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>He was married to Noor Aishah. </li></ul><ul><li>He first served as Yang di-Pertuan Negara (head of state) between 1959 and 1965, remaining in office during the time that Singapore was part of the Federation of Malaysia between 1963 and 1965. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Following Singapore's departure from Malaysia in 1965, he served as the first President of the Republic until his death in 1970. </li></ul><ul><li>Yusof is buried at Kranji State Cemetery. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1933 he became the Singapore light-weight champion. </li></ul><ul><li>As the most outstanding cadet of the School Cadet Corps, he became the first student ever in Singapore to have been commissioned by the then Governor as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Cadet Corps. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a school prefect and was co-editor of the 'Rafflesian'. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Benjamin was born the second child of six children in Singapore to an Eurasian family with an English lineage. </li></ul><ul><li>His father Edwin H Sheares, a technical supervisor of the Public Works Department, was born in England and raised in India. </li></ul><ul><li>Edwin later migrated to Penang and married Singapore-born Lilian Gomez, of Chinese Singaporean and Spanish descent, and had six children - the first died in infancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Life was hard for the Sheares family with the meagre pay that Edwin received from his post, but they were still happy. </li></ul><ul><li>The young Ben or Bennie as he was affectionately known, was a quiet boy keeping very much to himself and loved to play at the Pierce Reservoir where his father worked. </li></ul><ul><li>He had a close relationship with his sister Alice and often loved to play doctor with her. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>There was one incident when he made Alice swallow a one-cent coin as a medical “pill” in their game. </li></ul><ul><li>Benjamin was six years old then and receiving a good hiding from his mother Lilian. Throughout his growing years Benjamin showed ambition to become a doctor - a dream deemed an almost impossible one for someone coming from a poor family and being an Asian in early colonial days in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Alice continued to spirit him on with that dream, against his mother's wishes for his son to take up a job as a clerk and start helping out with the family bills when he completes his Senior Cambridge Examinations (O-Level equivalent). Ben attended the Methodist Girls' School and then in 1918 went to Saint Andrew's School, Singapore. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>He transferred himself to study at the Raffles Institution in 1922, as the Institution was the only school with equipped with scientific laboratories and that it was an ideal place to further his ambition to become a doctor. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1923, he enrolled into the King Edward VII College of Medicine Singapore to begin his medical training. </li></ul><ul><li>But he knew too well that his family could not see him through the hefty school fees afforded by the College, and he won a generous scholarship offered by the Council of the Medical College with his exemplary academic performance. </li></ul><ul><li>He was able to part his $50 monthly award to his mother to help support his family. </li></ul><ul><li>He continued to excel in his studies and was awarded four medals by his College and passed his Obstetrics and Gynaecology (O&G) final examinations with distinctions. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Upon graduation and working as an obstetrician in the Kandang Kerbau Hospital and a professor at the University of Malaya he continued to support his family, and assuming full responsibility for his family when his father died in 1940. </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Sheares was also the first Chancellor of the National University of Singapore. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Benjamin Sheares became Singapore's second president on 2 January 1971. </li></ul><ul><li>His mother was 91 years of age, when she learnt that he had become President of the Republic of Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Just two weeks before she died, she had said God has blessed Bennie especially after the way he looked after us and me. </li></ul><ul><li>He continued to serve faithfully and was well-loved by the people in Singapore, and held the office until his death in 1981. </li></ul><ul><li>He was succeeded as President by C. V. Devan Nair, and buried in the Kranji State Cemetery. </li></ul><ul><li>The Benjamin Sheares Bridge is named after him, as is a student's residence hall, Sheares Hall, in the National University of Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>One of Sheares' main contributions to medicine was a technique to create an artificial vagina for those born without one. A modification of it is still used for sex change operations today. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Nair was born in Malacca, Malaysia, the son of an Indian immigrant I.V.K. Nair, from Thalassery, Kerala. </li></ul><ul><li>He and his family migrated to Singapore when he was 10 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>When he was young, he received his education first at Rangoon Road Primary School and then at Victoria School where he passed his Senior Cambridge examination in 1940. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Initially, a member of the Communist Anti-British League, he joined Lee Kuan Yew's People's Action Party in 1954. </li></ul><ul><li>He was the only PAP member to win in the Malaysian general election, 1964, winning the Bangsar constituency, near Kuala Lumpur. </li></ul><ul><li>He stayed in Malaysia after the Separation, forming the Democratic Action Party, but returned to Singapore to lead the labor union movement and founded the National Trades Union Congress. </li></ul><ul><li>He won the Anson seat in the Singapore Parliamentary Elections, (1979|1979 elections) and accepted the largely ceremonial office of President in 1981, resulting in a by-election of the Anson seat which was then won by opposition leader J.B. Jeyaretnam (this was seen as one of the major upsets of Singapore politics). </li></ul>
  40. 40. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>On March 28, 1985, Nair resigned in unclear circumstances. </li></ul><ul><li>Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew stated in Parliament that Nair resigned to get treatment for alcoholism, a charge Nair hotly denied. </li></ul><ul><li>According to Nair's counterclaim, he resigned under pressure when their political views came into conflict and Lee threatened to seek a motion in parliament to oust him as president. </li></ul><ul><li>Nair also alleged that he was fed drugs to make him appear disoriented, and rumours were spread about his personal life in an attempt to discredit him. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1999, an article about the case in the Canadian newspaper Globe and Mail resulted in a libel suit by Lee. </li></ul><ul><li>The suit was thrown out of court after Nair's counterclaim. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1995, Nair, with his family, migrated to Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>His wife, Avadai Dhanam, died on April 18, 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Nair died in the same year at around 2 pm, SST on December 6. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Nair is survived by his daughter, three sons, and five grandchildren. </li></ul><ul><li>His eldest son, Janadas Devan, is a senior editor with the Straits Times. </li></ul><ul><li>His second son, Janamitra Devan, is a Senior Fellow at McKinsey & Co, and his third son, Janaprakash Devan is a private entrepreneur in Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>His only daughter, Vijaya Kumari Devan continues to reside in Hamilton, Ontario. </li></ul><ul><li>His granddaughters are Gitanjali Devan, a psychology graduate from the University of Maryland, Priyanjali Devan, currently attending Middlebury College, and Kiran Devan, a high school student in Minnesota. </li></ul><ul><li>His grandsons are JanaAvinash Devan, currently attending the University of Washington, and JanaShaan Heng-Devan, attending high school in Texas. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Born into a humble family, Wee Kim Wee was the son of a clerk, Wee Choong Lay and his wife Chua Lay Hua. </li></ul><ul><li>His father died when he was eight. </li></ul><ul><li>Wee studied at Outram School, and he started out as a clerk working for The Straits Times , before becoming a reporter focusing on political issues. </li></ul><ul><li>He eventually became one of the paper's main reporters. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1941 he joined the United Press Associations, and was its chief correspondent in the 1950s. </li></ul><ul><li>He returned to The Straits Times in 1959, and was appointed deputy editor in Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1966, he interviewed the former Indonesian president, General Suharto, reporting Suharto's intention to end the three-year confrontation with Malaysia (see Konfrontasi). </li></ul><ul><li>He broke the news with a front-page headline using Suharto's own words: &quot;Suharto: 'Peace: The sooner the better’’ </li></ul>
  43. 43. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Wee was editorial manager when he retired in 1973 to become the High Commissioner to Malaysia, a position he held for seven years. </li></ul><ul><li>He was appointed ambassador to Japan in September 1980, and to South Korea in February 1981. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of his diplomatic career in 1984, he was appointed chairman of the Singapore Broadcasting Corporation – the predecessor of the current MediaCorp Studios – and became president a year later. </li></ul><ul><li>A highly popular president, he was noted by people from all walks of life for his approachability and humility during his term in office. </li></ul><ul><li>Modest, friendly, and sincere, he is remembered as the People's President. </li></ul><ul><li>Up until Wee's second term as President, the selection of the presidential candidate was determined solely by the Parliament of Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>During Wee's second term, the Singapore Parliament amended the constitution in January 1991 to allow for the direct election of the President, who would have the right of veto over civil service appointments and the use of government reserves. </li></ul><ul><li>The creation of an elected presidency was a major constitutional and political change in Singapore's history as under the revision, the President is empowered to veto government budgets and appointments to public office. </li></ul><ul><li>This allows him to examine the Government's exercise of its powers under the Internal Security Act and religious harmony laws, and in investigations into cases of corruption. </li></ul><ul><li>For the ensuing initial Presidential election - the first in Singapore to be decided by popular poll - Wee decided not to enter his candidacy, and went into retirement upon the completion of his second and final term as President. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004 he published his autobiography, Glimpses and Reflections . </li></ul><ul><li>From the royalties and other donations, half a million Singapore dollars were donated to eight charities. </li></ul>
  44. 44. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Wee passed away due to prostate cancer in his home on May 2, 2005 at 5:10am SST. </li></ul><ul><li>He was 89. </li></ul><ul><li>A humble man up to his death, he had asked to be cremated and for the ashes to be placed at Mandai Columbarium with those of ordinary citizens instead of Kranji War Cemetery, where late dignitaries are usually buried. </li></ul><ul><li>His state funeral saw a large crowd who attended to pay their last respects. </li></ul><ul><li>Wee was survived by his wife of 69 years, Koh Sok Hiong, son Bill Wee Hock Kee, six daughters, thirteen grandchildren, and fourteen great-grandchildren. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>The late Mr Ong Teng Cheong became the fifth President of the Republic of Singapore and the first President to be popularly elected by the people on 1 September 1993. </li></ul><ul><li>Born on 22 January, 1936 in Singapore, the President entered school late because of the Japanese Occupation of Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>He was an outstanding student during his school career. </li></ul><ul><li>After completing his secondary education, he enrolled at the University of Adelaide, where he was awarded the Bachelor of Architecture in 1961. </li></ul><ul><li>He acquired his post-graduate degree of Master of Civic Design (Town Planning) from University of Liverpool, UK in 1967. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>In 1972, Mr Ong was elected to Parliament and served as a Member of Parliament for 21 years. </li></ul><ul><li>He was appointed Senior Minister of State for Communications in 1975. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsequently, he held the Communications, Culture and Labour portfolios. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1983, he was appointed Minister without Portfolio when he joined the labour movement as its elected Secretary-General. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Ong was appointed Second Deputy Prime Minister in 1985 and held this post until 1990. </li></ul><ul><li>Between Nov 90 and Aug 93, he was Deputy Prime Minister in Mr Goh Chok Tong's Government. </li></ul><ul><li>He resigned from the Cabinet, the People's Action Party and as Secretary-General of the NTUC in August 1993 to stand for the presidential election. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Ong passed away on 8 February 2002. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Mr Ong had a varied career before becoming President. </li></ul><ul><li>He joined the Planning Department, Ministry of National Development in 1967 as an architect-planner. </li></ul><ul><li>He was seconded to the UNDP (Special Fund) Assistance in Urban Renewal and Development Project to lead a local team in the comprehensive transportation and land-use planning of Singapore's central area. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1971, he left the civil service and set up his own practice. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>S R Nathan was born in Singapore on 3 July 1924. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Nathan received his early education in several schools – Anglo-Chinese Primary and Middle School, Rangoon Road Afternoon School and Victoria School. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Mr Nathan started working before completing his studies. </li></ul><ul><li>After the war, whilst working, he completed his secondary education through self-study and entered the University of Malaya (then in Singapore) where he graduated in 1954 with a Diploma in Social Studies (Distinction). </li></ul>
  50. 50. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>Mr Nathan began his career in the Singapore Civil Service as a medical social worker in 1955. </li></ul><ul><li>He was appointed Seamen’s Welfare Officer the following year. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1962, he was seconded to the Labour Research Unit of the Labour Movement, first as Assistant Director and later Director of the Labour Research Unit until January 1966. </li></ul><ul><li>He continued as a Member of its Board of Trustees until April 1988. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>In February 1966, he was transferred to the Foreign Ministry. </li></ul><ul><li>He served as Assistant Secretary and rose to be Deputy Secretary before being appointed Acting Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Home Affairs in January 1971. </li></ul><ul><li>In August of the same year, Mr Nathan moved to the Ministry of Defence where he was a Director with the rank of Permanent Secretary. </li></ul>
  52. 52. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>In February 1979, he returned to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and became its First Permanent Secretary until February 1982 when he left to become the Executive Chairman of the Straits Times Press (1975) Ltd, the Singapore newspaper company. </li></ul><ul><li>At various times from 1982 to 1988, Mr Nathan also held directorship of several other companies including the Singapore Mint Pte Ltd, The Straits Times Press (London) Ltd, Singapore Press Holdings Ltd and Marshall Cavendish Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>He was Chairman of Mitsubishi Singapore Heavy Industries – a Ship-repairing and Engineering joint-venture with the Mitsubishi Group of Japan, from 1973 to 1986. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>From 1983 to April 1988, Mr Nathan was Chairman of the Hindu Endowments Board. </li></ul><ul><li>He was a founding member of SINDA – the Singapore Indian Development Association – and its Term Trustee until August 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>In April 1988, Mr Nathan was appointed Singapore’s High Commissioner to Malaysia and in July 1990, became Ambassador to the United States of America where he served until June 1996. </li></ul>
  54. 54. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>On his return, Mr Nathan was made Ambassador-at-Large and was concurrently Director of the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies at the Nanyang Technological University. </li></ul><ul><li>He held a directorship in the Singapore International Media Pte Ltd between September 1996 and August 1999. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Presidents in Singapore <ul><li>He resigned as Ambassador-at-Large and Director of the Institute of Defence and Strategic Studies on 17 August 1999 and was elected President of the Republic of Singapore on 18 August 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>He began his 6-year term from 1 September 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>On 17 August 2005, Mr Nathan was re-elected and he was sworn-in for his second term of office on 1 September 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Nathan was conferred the Public Service Star in 1964, the Public Administration Medal (Silver) in 1967, and the Meritorious Service Medal in 1974. </li></ul><ul><li>Mr Nathan, a Hindu, is married to Urmila (Umi) Nandey and has a daughter, a son and three grandchildren. </li></ul>
  56. 56. Being United as Singaporeans <ul><li>The national symbols have helped to forge a common identity among Singaporeans. </li></ul><ul><li>This common identity unites the peoples of different racial, cultural and religious background. </li></ul><ul><li>They have been many instances where Singaporeans have shown the ability to overcome difficulties together. </li></ul><ul><li>One of them was when Singapore was hit by SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) in 2003. </li></ul>
  57. 57. Being United as Singaporeans <ul><li>Schools were closed for a short period of time in March 2003 and some people were quarantined. </li></ul><ul><li>The healthcare workers continued to treat those infected by the SARS virus. </li></ul><ul><li>Other Singaporeans were seen helping their neighbours who were quarantined by delivering food and running errands for them. </li></ul><ul><li>People were willing to go out of their way to offer help. </li></ul>
  58. 58. Being United as Singaporeans <ul><li>After the SARS period, the Fabric of the Nation was put together as a reminder of the emotions and experiences of Singaporeans during difficult times. </li></ul><ul><li>The 60 Fabric of the Nation panels expressed how people bonded as one in times of adversity. </li></ul><ul><li>More than 15,000 patchwork pieces were submitted by Singaporeans, locally and overseas. </li></ul><ul><li>Some patchwork pieces came from Singaporeans who live and work in countries such as Australia, USA, Sri Lanka and Brunei. </li></ul>
  59. 59. Being United as Singaporeans <ul><li>Singapore has come a long way since its independence. </li></ul><ul><li>As a young nation, it had succeeded in overcoming many difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>Singaporeans need to continue to be united to face future challenges and create a better future. </li></ul>
  60. 60. It’s Quiz time!!
  61. 61. Quiz 1. What are all the created symbols in Singapore? a) The National Flower, The Lion Head Symbol, The National Flag, The State Crest and The National Anthem b) The National Flower, The Lion Head Symbol, The National Flag and The State Crest c) The National Flower, The Lion Head Symbol and The National Flag Ans: a)
  62. 62. Quiz 2. Which of these presidents is the first president? a) S R Nathan b) Mr Ong Teng Cheong c) Yusof bin Ishak Ans: c)
  63. 63. Quiz 3. What is the President's official residence? a) The Benjamin Sheares Bridge b) The Istana c) The Singapore Flyer Ans: b)
  64. 64. Quiz 4. Who is the composer of the National Anthem? a) Dr Wee Kim Wee b) Zubir Mohammad Said c) Dr Benjamin Sheares Ans: b)
  65. 65. Thank You for Your Co-Operation!