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East Asia


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East Asia

  1. 1. East Asia East Asia
  2. 2. East Asia <ul><li>East Asia consist of six political entities </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>North Korea </li></ul><ul><li>South Korea </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul>
  3. 3. East Asia <ul><li>One of the world’s cultural hearths, and </li></ul><ul><li>China… continuous civilization-over 4000years </li></ul>
  4. 4. East Asia <ul><li>It is a realm in transition </li></ul><ul><li>political entities… </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul>
  5. 5. East Asia- transitional realm <ul><li>Taiwan is still regarded by mainland China as temporary wayward country </li></ul>
  6. 6. East Asia- transitional realm <ul><li>North Korea is not a full member of the United Nations, and the division between North and South Korea may be temporary </li></ul>
  7. 7. Natural Environment
  8. 8. Natural Environment <ul><li>Snowcapped mountains, </li></ul><ul><li>vast deserts, </li></ul><ul><li>cold climates, </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquakes and tremors occur almost continuously </li></ul>
  9. 9. Recent Earth Quake <ul><li>May 12, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>Earthquake measuring 7.9 occurred in Sichuan Province, South East China </li></ul>
  10. 10. Natural Environment <ul><li>VAST AND VARIED TOPOGRAPHY </li></ul>
  11. 11. Major Geographic qualities <ul><li>Avalanche is a slide of large masses of snow and ice and mud down a mountain </li></ul>
  12. 12. Geographic qualities <ul><li>The three major rivers are: </li></ul><ul><li>Huang He ( Yellow River)- in the north </li></ul><ul><li>Chang Jiang ( Long River) also known as Yangzi </li></ul><ul><li>Xi Jiang ( west River) in the south </li></ul>
  13. 13. Major Geographic qualities <ul><li>Population concentrations in the east, in river basins </li></ul><ul><li>Interior most sparsely populated </li></ul>
  14. 14. Early Cultural History <ul><li>Jomon people, </li></ul><ul><li>Origin is uncertain </li></ul><ul><li>First to have crossed into Japan about 10,000- 12000 years ago </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ainu People <ul><li>Ainu people are the modern descendents of the Jomon. </li></ul><ul><li>Subsisted on hunting, fishing. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ainu People <ul><li>Only 20,000 persons living in northernmost Hokkaido trace their ancestors to the Ainu </li></ul>
  17. 17. Dynasty of China <ul><li>The Xia was the first documented dynasty in China (2200-1700 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>Capital, Erlitou </li></ul><ul><li>lasted for 4000 years ( 1911) </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Han Dynastic <ul><li>The Han Dynasty (206 BC- AD 220) was China’s formative period </li></ul>
  19. 19. Han Achievements <ul><li>Territorial expansion of China, </li></ul><ul><li>Xian, also referred to as “the Rome of China” was the greatest city in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Time of the Silk route-the most well-known trading route of ancient Chinese civilization. </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian government and disciplined armies </li></ul>
  20. 20. Manchu dynastic <ul><li>last dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>They were a minority group that controlled millions </li></ul><ul><li>Their territorial expansion created for China, the largest empire ever. </li></ul><ul><li>Their empire included Mongolia, much of Turkestan, Xizang (Tibet). Myanmar ( Burma) </li></ul><ul><li>Crumbled under the European powers </li></ul>
  22. 22. Regions <ul><li>Five geographic realms can be identified </li></ul><ul><li>China Proper </li></ul><ul><li>Xizang (Tibet) </li></ul><ul><li>Xinjiang </li></ul><ul><li>Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>Jakota Triangle </li></ul>
  23. 23. Regions of the realm <ul><li>China proper- eastern half; the core </li></ul>
  24. 24. Xizang <ul><li>The Tibet Autonomous Region </li></ul><ul><li>Located on the Tibetan Plateau , the highest region on Earth </li></ul><ul><li>sparsely populated </li></ul>
  25. 25. xinjiang <ul><li>Xinjiang- vast desert basin and mountain rims; </li></ul>
  26. 26. Mongolia <ul><li>It is the nineteenth largest state </li></ul><ul><li>Population of around 2.9 million people </li></ul>
  27. 27. Jakota triangle <ul><li>The Jakota triangle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japan, south Korea, Taiwan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rapid economic development </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. China, Extent and Environment
  29. 29. China, Extent and Environment <ul><li>China’s total area is slightly smaller than the United states including Alaska </li></ul><ul><li>China has no west coast </li></ul>
  30. 30. Evolving China <ul><li>The teachings of Kongfuzi ( 551-479 BC) still known as Confucius, dominated Chinese life and thoughts for 20 years </li></ul>
  31. 31. Kongfuzi <ul><li>Kongfuzi abhorred supernatural mysticism </li></ul><ul><li>Dismissed notions of divine ancestries of dynastic rulers </li></ul><ul><li>Believes competence and merit should determine a person’s place in society </li></ul><ul><li>He wrote the Confucius classics ,which consisted of 13 texts </li></ul><ul><li>Until western influence began to erode their relevance, these 13 classics was the basis of education in China </li></ul>
  32. 32. A century of convulsion <ul><li>China’s cultural strength was a force that withstood European interferences </li></ul><ul><li>None of the British manufactured good attracted the Chinese: Mechanical watch, British India textiles were ignored by the Chinese </li></ul>
  33. 33. A century of convulsion <ul><li>The British were confined to small peninsular outpost-Macau. </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese minimized communication with the Europeans </li></ul>
  34. 34. Colonial Influence The colonial powers conquered China during the Manchu era, economically and Politically
  35. 35. Economically <ul><li>Economic- </li></ul><ul><li>lower prices and better qualities of European commodities </li></ul>
  36. 36. Politically <ul><li>Politically </li></ul><ul><li>Growing presence of English and the demand of European merchants created conflicts: </li></ul><ul><li>Importation into China of Opium from British India </li></ul><ul><li>Armed hostilities (The first Opium war 1839-1842) </li></ul><ul><li>China was forced to Cede Hong Kong to the British </li></ul><ul><li>The British opened five ports, Including Guangzhou (Canton), and Shanghai to foreign commerce </li></ul>
  37. 37. Colonial Sphere
  38. 38. China colonial control <ul><li>The German also obtained a lease on the city of Qingdao </li></ul><ul><li>The French- Zhanjiang </li></ul><ul><li>Portuguese- Held on to Macau </li></ul><ul><li>The Russians took control over Liaodong </li></ul><ul><li>Japan- Annexed Ryukyu Islands ( 1879) and Formosa ( Taiwan) in 1879 </li></ul>
  39. 39. The Doctrine of Extraterritoriality
  40. 40. The Doctrine of Extraterritoriality <ul><li>European international law employed in China during the late 1800s </li></ul><ul><li>Foreign states and their representatives are immune from the jurisdiction of the country in which they are based </li></ul><ul><li>Sha Mian Island </li></ul>
  41. 41. China Revival <ul><li>Boxer rebellion in 1900 </li></ul><ul><li>Formation of political parties – The nationalist (leader –Sun Yat-Sen) and the Chinese communist party ( prominent member-Mao Zedong) </li></ul><ul><li>Aim: targeted foreign presence </li></ul>
  42. 42. China’s revival <ul><li>By 1927 foreigners began to run for their lives </li></ul><ul><li>Communists were also pursued by the nationalist </li></ul><ul><li>Mao and his cronies resisted the nationalist invasion </li></ul>
  43. 43. Japan in China <ul><li>Japan seized the opportunity over the nationalist and communist contest and took control over the Northeast China </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese and Japanese war in 1937- the Nationalist party bore much of the brunt of the war </li></ul><ul><li>The Japanese committed atrocities on the Chinese </li></ul><ul><li>The communist party gained power </li></ul><ul><li>China quickly resumed after the US-led western powers defeated Japan in 1945 </li></ul>
  44. 44. Mao Zedong <ul><li>Leader of the communist party of China </li></ul><ul><li>He ruled china from 1949 to 1976 </li></ul><ul><li>His population policy resented any population control because such policy was deemed as a capitalist plot to constraint China’s human resources </li></ul>
  45. 45. China’s human geography
  46. 46. Population of China <ul><li>1.6 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Annual natural increase 0.7% (1970s - 3%) </li></ul><ul><li>Doubling time : 100 years </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy : 70 (males), 73 (females) </li></ul><ul><li>TFR 1.8 born/women (1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% of the land is arable and 69% of the population lives on this land </li></ul>
  47. 47. Population concentration
  48. 48. Economic and social problems <ul><li>State controlled economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy shortage </li></ul><ul><li>poorly developed transportation infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Popular resistance have weakened china’s population control program. </li></ul>
  49. 49. Reorganization under communist <ul><li>1950s- 1976 reconstruction and reform based on the soviet model </li></ul><ul><li>Land was expropriated. </li></ul><ul><li>Farming was collectivized. </li></ul><ul><li>Industries were reorganized as state-owned communal enterprises. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on “heavy industry” </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic social changes- education, religion, population growth </li></ul>
  50. 50. XIZANG (TIBET) <ul><li>A harsh physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>Sparsely populated </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese control during the Manchu dynasty in 1720 </li></ul><ul><li>Gained separate status in the late 19 th century </li></ul><ul><li>China’s communist regime took control in the 1950s </li></ul>
  51. 51. Extra credit <ul><li>What is the relation between China and Tibet? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does China want Tibet? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is Dalai lama? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the Future of Tibet with China? </li></ul>
  52. 52. Geography of Development <ul><li>Geographers view development process spatially </li></ul><ul><li>Walt Rostow formulated a global model of the development process </li></ul>
  53. 53. Traditional Society <ul><li>Traditional society-engages in mainly subsistent farming, locked in rigid social structure, resists technological change </li></ul>
  54. 54. Precondition to take off stage <ul><li>Progressive leaders move the country toward greater flexibility. </li></ul><ul><li>Openness and diversity. </li></ul><ul><li>Old ways are abandoned, </li></ul><ul><li>workers move from farming to manufacturing, </li></ul><ul><li>Transport improves </li></ul>
  55. 55. Take off stage <ul><li>The country experiences a type of industrial revolution, </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Mass-production break through occurs </li></ul>
  56. 56. Drive to maturity <ul><li>Continued expansion of the economy brings with it sophisticated industrial specialization and increasing international stage </li></ul>
  57. 57. High Mass consumption <ul><li>High Mass consumption stage:- </li></ul><ul><li>The society is marked by: </li></ul><ul><li>High income, </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread of goods and services </li></ul><ul><li>Most workers are employed in the tertiary and quaternary economic sector </li></ul>
  58. 58. challenges of the theory
  59. 59. challenges of the theory <ul><li>Little account of core-periphery contrast within individual countries </li></ul><ul><li>In China take off conditions ( stage 3) exist in much of the pacific rim, but other areas remain in stage 1 </li></ul>
  60. 60. Hong Kong
  61. 61. Hong Kong <ul><li>Means “ fragrant harbor ”- an excellent deep water port </li></ul><ul><li>Boomed during the Korean war </li></ul><ul><li>6 million people within 400 sq miles </li></ul><ul><li>Economy is larger than half of the world’s countries </li></ul><ul><li>1 July 1997- British transferred control to china </li></ul><ul><li>Hong Kong renamed Xian Gang </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired a new status as China’s only special administrative region (sar) </li></ul>
  62. 62. Jakota Triangle
  63. 63. Jakota Triangle region <ul><li>This region consists of </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Korea ( South) </li></ul><ul><li>Taiwan </li></ul>
  64. 64. The Jakota Triangle region <ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Great cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enormous consumption of raw materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State-of-the-art industries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voluminous exports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trades surpluses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CHALLENGES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political uncertainties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vulnerabilities </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. Japan historical outline <ul><li>For 250 years this policy enabled Japan to enjoy stability </li></ul><ul><li>The Treaty of Kanagawa with the US in 1854, allowed Japan to open its ports and began to intensively modernize and industrialize. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Japan history…. <ul><li>It occupied Korea, Formosa (Taiwan), and southern Sakhalin Island. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1933 Japan occupied Manchuria, and </li></ul><ul><li>In 1937 it launched a full-scale invasion of China. </li></ul><ul><li>Japan attacked US forces in 1941 - triggering America's entry into World War II </li></ul><ul><li>After its defeat in World War II, Japan recovered to become an economic power and a staunch ally of the US </li></ul>
  67. 67. Meiji Restoration <ul><li>Modernizers took control of Japan in 1868 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan turned to Britain for guidance in reforming their nation, an event known as Meiji Restoration </li></ul><ul><li>Adopted aspects of the British model </li></ul><ul><li>Launched a systematic study of the industrialized world </li></ul><ul><li>Focus was on industrialization and education system </li></ul>
  68. 68. Impact of Britain on Japan <ul><li>Layout of cities, </li></ul><ul><li>The construction of railroad networks, </li></ul><ul><li>The organization of education </li></ul><ul><li>Today, the Japanese, like the British, drive on the left side of the road </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy: T otal population: 99% male: 99% female: 99% (2002) </li></ul>
  69. 69. Korea
  70. 70. Korea <ul><li>The size of “Idaho” but with a population of 73 million </li></ul><ul><li>Turbulent political history : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A dependency of China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A colony of Japan’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divided along the 38 th parallel by Allied Powers > WWII (1945) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The division gave North Korea to the forces of the Soviet Union and the South Korea to those of the United States </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. Korea War (1950-1953) <ul><li>Communist forces from North Korea invaded the south in a forced unification drive </li></ul><ul><li>A ceasefire line was drown in 1953 </li></ul>
  72. 72. Korea <ul><ul><li>Regional complimentarity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Korea has raw materials south Korean needs and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Korea produces food that North Korea needs </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. NORTH-SOUTH CONTRASTS <ul><li>NORTH KOREA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55% of the land, 1/3 of the population, extremely rural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient, non-productive agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited trade – former Soviet Union and China </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SOUTH KOREA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>45% of the land, 2/3s of the population, highly urbanized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern factories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensive, increasingly mechanized agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive trade – US, Japan, and Western Europe </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. South Korea <ul><li>South Korea has become a prosperous country by global standard </li></ul><ul><li>Seoul is the capital with a population of 10 million </li></ul>
  75. 75. North Korea <ul><li>One of the poorest nation in the world </li></ul><ul><li>Population 23.6 million </li></ul><ul><li>Its Capital, Pyongyang, has a population one-fifth that of Seoul </li></ul><ul><li>Its nuclear capability became an international concern in 2003. </li></ul><ul><li>Multinational efforts, led by the United States, Russia, China, Japan and South Korea have proved futile </li></ul>
  76. 76. Does North Korea have nuclear Weapons?