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Bonding Singapore


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Bonding Singapore

  1. 1. Mustafa/ Mustapha Arranged by Dick Lee 1:15
  2. 3. Review What did I learn?
  5. 6. An Overview
  6. 7. Managing different racial groups Threats from external forces Managing different religious groups Building a national identity Developing common space Safeguarding the interests of the minority Economic progress Security and peace
  7. 8. Managing different racial groups Threats from external forces Managing different religious groups
  8. 9. Lesson Objectives <ul><li>Explain and list the challenges of a multi-ethnic society </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of historical happenings that disrupted the peace and harmony of Singapore in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Give examples of strategies Singapore undertook to deal with each challenge/threat </li></ul>
  9. 12. Brainstorm! Different races , cultures and religions
  10. 15. Lack of understanding can create suspicion and unhappiness amongst the different races, which can lead to outbreaks in violence among racial groups
  11. 18. UMNO led an anti-PAP campaign Created feelings of dissent and discontentment among Singaporean Malays towards PAP
  12. 19. The PAP government called for a meeting with the Malay organizations to explain their policies “ We promise to improve your social and economic positions through education and training….”
  13. 21. Video: Racial Riots Documentary
  14. 22. Clash between a Chinese policeman and some Malay participants in the celebration July 1964: Prophet Muhammad’s birthday Consequences?
  15. 23. <ul><ul><ul><li>Goodwill committees formed to foster stronger bonds between people of different races & religions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Went house to house to spread message of living peacefully with one another </li></ul></ul></ul>PAP’s efforts to calm the situation :
  16. 24. <ul><li>Need to address the views and perceptions of different racial groups appropriately and timely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inflammatory reporting in the media helped fan racial emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dangers of communal politics in Singapore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communal politics: government favors one race over the other </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ensure that the views and interests of the minority are represented in the government </li></ul>
  17. 26. Differences in religious beliefs and practices can also be issues used to create tension and conflict among different religious groups in Singapore
  18. 27. The 1950 Maria Hertogh Riots <ul><li>A Dutch girl , Maria Hertogh , came under the foster care of a Malay lady, Aminah, after their parents were imprisoned by the Japanese in the 1940s </li></ul><ul><li>After the war, her parents wanted to claim her back </li></ul><ul><li>This case attracted intensive media attention worldwide </li></ul>
  19. 28. The 1950 Maria Hertogh Riots <ul><li>Photographs in newspapers of a Muslim girl in a Catholic convent and claims that she had bowed down to the Virgin Mary affected religious sensitivities and whipped up emotions </li></ul>
  20. 29. The 1950 Maria Hertogh Riots <ul><li>After many court trials, the court decided to give custody to the Hertoghs and annul her marriage to the Malay teacher </li></ul><ul><li>The Muslims were angered as they felt that the welfare of Muslims was not looked into and the court and legal system were prejudiced against the Malays </li></ul><ul><li>This led to an outbreak of protests and rioting by the Malays and Indian Muslims against the Eurasian community. </li></ul>
  21. 30. The 1950 Maria Hertogh Riots <ul><li>After the riots, the government placed a 24-hr curfew for two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>The British and Malayan troops, as well as the Singapore police, were called in to maintain peace </li></ul>
  22. 31. 18 Killed 173 Injured Consequences?
  23. 32. <ul><li>The need for the media to exercise greater discipline in the coverage of sensitive religious and racial issues </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of understanding and being sensitive to the culture and customs of other religions </li></ul><ul><li>Religious issues need to be addressed timely and appropriately to prevent hostility and distrust from festering </li></ul><ul><li>Upon independence in 1965, Singapore instituted legislation against racial discrimination : offence to incite racial and religious hatred in Singapore </li></ul>
  24. 35. The acts of violence which are global in terms of aims , organization and impact In multi-ethnic societies like Singapore, race and religion may be used to create ill feelings among the different ethnic groups, which can in turn, threaten racial and religious harmony in SG How can it affect Singapore?
  25. 37. <ul><li>Militant group active in Southeast Asian countries </li></ul><ul><li>Fund-raising and purchase of materials to make bombs </li></ul><ul><li>They want to set up an Islamic state in Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bombing of J.W. Marriott Hotel in Jakarta on 5 Aug 2003 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bali bombings on 12 October 2002 </li></ul></ul>EXAMPLE
  26. 38. <ul><li>Targets in Singapore: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US embassy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Government buildings </li></ul></ul>EXAMPLE <ul><li>Internal Security Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>34 JI members were arrested from 2001 to 2002 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another arrested in Apr 2005 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>He was trained in handling weapons and making bombs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 39. Singapore is an open and cosmopolitan society that plays host to many foreign establishments, some of which are attractive targets to terrorists. Singapore is at times also a target because of our firm anti-terrorism stance A quote by the Ministry of Home Affairs in Apr 2005 on terrorism .. Because it is a developed country and friendly to the West A commentary made on Radio Singaproe International in 2003 WHY Singapore?
  28. 40. What they planned.. <ul><li>Bombing Yishun MRT </li></ul>2. Crashing into Changi Airport
  29. 41. Reactions in SG <ul><li>Calls by political and religious leaders in SG for people to remain calm and committed to racial and religious harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Muslim leaders condemned the JI group </li></ul>
  30. 42. Reactions of Singaporeans
  31. 43. A call to stand united.. SM Goh says: The Government will therefore not allow any Singaporean to discriminate against and blame our Malay/Muslim community ... We must all work together to prevent any distrust from building up.. ..But non-Muslim Singaporeans must go beyond simply refraining from letting suspicion and distrust affect their relations with our Malay/Muslim community. We must pro-actively reach out to our Malay/Muslim community... This way, we will develop greater confidence, friendship and trust with each other… build a successful, multi-racial, multi-religious society.
  32. 44. <ul><li>Ensure religion is not used as an issue to create conflict or threaten Singapore’s harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages Singaporeans to respect one another’s freedom of religion </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the building of common space between races and religions </li></ul><ul><li>Supports fostering of inter-religious communications </li></ul>Subsequently, an Inter-Religious Harmony Circle (IRHC) was formed to promote the Declaration DECLARATION ON RELIGIOUS HARMONY
  33. 46. Building a national identity Safeguarding the interests of the minority Developing common space Common practice Bilingualism Multi-racialism Minority Representation Self- help groups Grassroots organization Educational Institutions Common living space (public housing) National Service Inter-Racial Confidence Circles (IRCCs) & Harmony Circles (HCs)
  34. 47. <ul><li>Building a National Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Creation of Common Space </li></ul><ul><li>Safeguarding the interests of the Minority </li></ul>
  35. 48. Singaporeans must have the determination to maintain the harmonious living environment that we have been fortunate to enjoy all these years. The challenge is for us to create further opportunities to nurture this spirit and allow it to flourish.. - Mr Chan Soon Sen Minister of Community Development and Sports and Education (2004)
  36. 49. <ul><li>MULTI-RACIALISM </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON PRACTICES </li></ul><ul><li>BILINGUALISM </li></ul>
  37. 50. <ul><li>Promotes equality among the different races </li></ul><ul><li>No special rights granted to any particular racial or religious group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil are all recognized as official languages in Singapore </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Everyone is a valued member of the society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government is fair to everyone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create a sense of belonging to the nation </li></ul></ul>
  38. 51. <ul><li>Singaporeans will see themselves as ONE people </li></ul><ul><li>Inculcates loyalty to the nation and national pride </li></ul>Daily flag raising Pledge taking
  39. 52. “ one united people, regardless of race, language or religion..”
  40. 53. <ul><li>Policy introduced in 1966 </li></ul><ul><li>Learn English and Mother Tongue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English as the 1 st language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother tongue used to impart values and cultural traditions of race </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non-native language, so no one has an advantage over the other </li></ul><ul><li>Common language to improve communication among Singaporeans </li></ul>Why English?
  41. 54. <ul><li>MINORITY REPRESENTATION </li></ul><ul><li>SELF-HELP GROUPS </li></ul>
  42. 55. Gives minority groups a say in the governance Safeguards the interests of the minority groups <ul><li>Consists of members from minority racial and religious groups </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures that no racial or religious group is disadvantaged as a result of a law passed in the Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>At least 1 of the candidates in the team contesting for General Elections must come from the minority racial communities </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures that the minority racial groups are represented in the Parliament </li></ul>
  43. 56. Singapore Indian Development Association (SINDA) Eurasian Association Council on Education of Muslim Children (Mendaki) Chinese Development Association Council (CDAC)
  44. 57. <ul><li>Important role in helping members of their community who are less fortunate to get aid in their studies or training for jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Give moral support to members of their own community </li></ul><ul><li>Enables Singaporeans to cope and compete with one another on equal footing </li></ul><ul><li>People from minority groups can improve their social/ economic positions in the society </li></ul>Attending to the unique needs & circumstances of the respective communities
  45. 58. <ul><li>Joint tuition programme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows students from different ethnic groups to attend the same classes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides opportunities for interaction among youths from different ethnic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint effort between CDCs and the Self Help Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus efforts on race relations and champion racial harmony initiatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seminars and courses on different cultures and races, youth camps, library services, student care and other social assistance services </li></ul></ul>
  46. 59. <ul><li>EVENTS ORGANIZED BY GRCS </li></ul><ul><li>OPPORTUNITIES OFFERED BY EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>COMMON LIVING SPACE (PUBLIC HOUSING) </li></ul><ul><li>ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY IRCCS AND HCS </li></ul><ul><li>SHARED EXPERIENCE THROUGH NS </li></ul>Time and space that people come together Provides opportunities for interaction
  47. 60. Video The Way We Are
  48. 61. <ul><li>Creation of common space through wide range of activities </li></ul>Examples: Home stay programmes where student gets to stay with a family of another ethnic group Racial Harmony tours, guided tours, celebrations, carnivals, interest groups
  49. 62. <ul><li>Schools & tertiary institutions are open to every Singaporean </li></ul><ul><li>Singaporeans from different races and religion study together </li></ul><ul><li>CCAs also promote closer bonding among youths from all races </li></ul><ul><li>Helps develop understanding and build teamwork </li></ul><ul><li>Better appreciate talents of others </li></ul><ul><li>Respect others as individuals </li></ul>
  50. 63. <ul><li>1989: </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Integration Policy introduced </li></ul><ul><li>Puts a limit on the proportion of races in every neighbourhood and block </li></ul><ul><li>Ensures an even distribution of different races in the housing estates </li></ul><ul><li>1980s: </li></ul><ul><li>People had the freedom to buy and sell their flats </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in a higher concentration of people of the same race in particular housing estates </li></ul>Provides opportunities for people of different ethnicity to interact!
  51. 64. <ul><li>IRCCs introduced in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>Provide common space ( inter-faith and inter-ethnic themed activities ) to foster greater inter-racial understanding </li></ul>
  52. 65. <ul><li>Organize visits to places of worship, inter-faith talks, dialogues and religious celebrations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thus creating opportunities for Singaporeans to appreciate differences and develop stronger bonds </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the workplace, such activities are carried out by the HCs </li></ul><ul><li>Supports the Community Engagement Programme </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeks to strengthen the understanding and ties between people of different races and religions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build up our society's skills and knowledge in coping with emergencies </li></ul></ul>
  53. 66. <ul><li>Introduced in 1967 </li></ul><ul><li>Requires all able-bodied men to serve in the defence of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Shared experiences (e.g. military training) helps to strengthen the bond among the men </li></ul>VIDEO: Unity in Diversity
  54. 68. By Hu Hsuan-Tien
  55. 69. Security and Peace People feel safe and enjoy the peace and security the nation brings for its people Creates a sense of belonging to the homeland
  56. 70. Attracting tourists from all around the world Attracting foreign investments as investors’ confidence in SG is increased
  57. 71. 1. Need to manage racial and religious sensitivities to promote harmony in a multi-ethnic society like Singapore 2. Need to build a national identity by instilling a sense of belonging 3. Need to remain vigilant and active in identifying threats and strengthening social bonds to prevent division
  58. 72. THE END!