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24 landmarks of europe


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24 landmarks of europe

  2. 2. 1. CANALS OF AMSTERDAM - AMSTERDAM Amsterdam, capital of the Netherlands, has been called the "Venice of the North" for its more than one hundred kilometres ofcanals, about 90 islands and 1,500 bridges. The three main canals, Herengracht, Prinsengracht, and Keizersgracht, dug in the 17th century during the Dutch Golden Age, form concentric belts around the city, known as the Grachtengordel. Alongside the main canals are 1550 monumental buildings. The 17th-century canal ring area, including the Prinsengracht, Keizersgracht, Herengracht and Jordaan, were placed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 2010. Almost half of the original water in Amsterdam was lost to landfills, but a full 25 percent of the city's surface still consists of navigable waterways. With 65 miles of ancient canals, Amsterdam is still the most watery city in the world. 2. THE GRAND PALACE - BRUSSELS The Grand Place or Grote Markt is the central square of Brussels. It is surrounded by guildhalls, the city's Town Hall, and the Breadhouse. The square is the most important tourist destination and most memorable landmark in Brussels. It measures 68 by 110 metres (223 by 360 ft), and it is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. In the 10th century, Charles, Duke of Lower Lorraine constructed a fort on Saint-Géry Island, the furthest inland point at which the Senneriver was still navigable. This was the seed of what would become Brussels. Every two years in August, an enormous "flower carpet" is set up in the Grand Place for a few days. A million colourful begonias are set up in patterns, and the display covers a full 24 by 77 metres (79 by 253 ft), for area total of 1,800 square metres (19,000 sq ft).The first flower carpet was made in 1971, and due to its popularity, the tradition continued, with the flower carpet attracting a large number of tourists.
  3. 3. 3. GRAND CANAL OF VENICE – ITALY The Grand is a canal in Venice, Italy. It forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. Public transport is provided by water buses and private water taxis, and many tourists explore the canal bygondola. At one end, the canal leads into the lagoon near the Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into Saint Mark Basin; in between, it makes a large reverse-S shape through the central districts of Venice. It is 3,800 m long, 30–90 m wide, with an average depth of five meters (16.5 ft). The banks of the Grand Canal are lined with more than 170 buildings, most of which date from the 13th to the 18th century, and demonstrate the welfare and art created by the Republic of Venice. The churches along the canal include the basilica of Santa Maria della Salute. Centuries-old traditions, such as the Historical Regatta, are perpetuated every year along the Canal. 4. EIFFEL TOWER OF PARIS - FRANCE The Eiffel Tower is an iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris, named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower. Erected in 1889 as the entrance arch to the 1889 World's Fair, it has become both a global cultural icon of France and one of the most recognizable structures in the world. The tower is the tallest structure in Paris and the most- visited paid monument in the world; 7.1 million people ascended it in 2011. The tower received its 250 millionth visitor in 2010. Since the beginning of the 20th century, the tower has been used for radio transmission. Until the 1950s, an occasionally modified set of antenna wires ran from the summit to anchors on the Avenue de Suffren and Champ de Mars. They were connected to long-wave transmitters in small bunkers; in 1909, a permanent underground radio centre was built near the south pillar and still exists today. On 20 November 1913, the Paris Observatory, using the Eiffel Tower as an antenna, exchanged sustained wireless signals with the United States Naval Observatory which used an antenna in Arlington, Virginia.
  4. 4. 5. BUCKINGHAM PALACE & LONDON TOWER BRIDGE - ENGLAND Buckingham Palace has served as the official London residence of Britain's sovereigns since 1837 and today is the administrative headquarters of the Monarch. Buckingham Palace has 775 rooms. These include 19 State rooms, 52 Royal and guest bedrooms, 188 staff bedrooms, 92 offices and 78 bathrooms. In measurements, the building is 108 metres long across the front, 120 metres deep and 24 metres high. The Palace is very much a working building and the centrepiece of Britain's constitutional monarchy. London Tower Bridge (built 1886–1894) is a combined bascule and suspension bridge in London which crosses the River Thames. It is an iconic symbol of London. The bridge consists of two towers tied together at the upper level by means of two horizontal walkways, designed to withstand the horizontal forces exerted by the suspended sections of the bridge on the landward sides of the towers. The bridge's present colour scheme dates from 1977, when it was painted red, white and blue for Queen Elizabeth II's silver jubilee. Originally it was painted a mid greenish-blue colour. 6. NEUSCHWANSTEIN CASTLE & COLOGNE CATHEDRAL – GERMANY Neuschwanstein Castle is a 19th-century Romanesque Revival palace on a rugged hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen in southwest Bavaria, Germany. The palace was commissioned by Ludwig II of Bavaria as a retreat and as an homage to Richard Wagner. The palace has appeared prominently in several movies and was the inspiration for Disneyland'sSleeping Beauty's Castle and later, similar structures. Cologne Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church in Cologne, Germany. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Cologne and the administration of the Archdiocese of Cologne. It is a renowned monument of German Catholicism and Gothic architecture and is a World Heritage Site. It is Germany's most visited landmark, attracting an average of 20,000 people a day. Construction of Cologne Cathedral commenced in 1248 and was halted in 1473, leaving it unfinished.
  5. 5. 7. AMALIENBORG PALACE - DENMARK The winter residence of the Danish monarchy, Amalienborg comprises a total of four separate palaces, surrounding a spacious plaza and appearing almost as neighbouring stately mansions. Each of these palaces (Brockdorfske, Levetzaus, Moltkes and Schackske) are equally impressive landmarks and they all date from the mid-18th century, being adopted by the Denmark's royal family in 1794, after their present home of Christiansborg Castle was badly damaged by fire. The Copenhagen Frederikskirken stands close by and this beautiful Baroque church is famous for being constructed almost entirely out of marble. This palace just feels right - from the layout of the square to the perfectly proportioned four buildings positioned at each corner. One of the buildings is the city residence of H.M. The Danish Queen so that was out of bounds. However, the building open to the public is well worth visiting if one is interested in gaining a glimpse. 8. STOCKHOLM & ROYAL PALACE –SWEDEN Stockholm, one of the most beautiful capitals in the world, is built on 14 islands connected by 57 bridges. The beautiful buildings, the greenery, the fresh air and the proximity to the water are distinctive traits of this city. The Royal National City Park, (the first National City Park in the world), is a green space that breathes for the city, and a constant presence in the crush of the city. With its 750 year history and rich cultural life, Stockholm offers a wide selection of world-class museums and attractions. Most of the city's attractions can be reached on foot, and there’s a good chance of experiencing a lot of things in a short time. The Stockholm Palace or the Royal Palace is the official residence and major royal palace of the Swedish Monarch. Stockholm Palace is located on Stadsholmen, in Gamla Stan in the capital, Stockholm. The palace is built of brick, with midsections of the west, south, and east façades covered by sandstone. The roof slopes slightly inwards. The roof is covered with copper and is surrounded by a stone balustrade which is stretched around the entire main building.
  6. 6. 9. HELSINKI & CATHEDRAL – FINLAND Helsinki is the capital and largest city of Finland. It is in the region of Uusimaa, located in southern Finland, on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, an arm of the Baltic Sea. Helsinki is located some 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of Tallinn, Estonia, 400 kilometres (250 mi) east of Stockholm,Sweden, and 300 kilometres (190 mi) west of Saint Petersburg, Russia. The Helsinki metropolitan area includes urban core of Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, Kauniainen and surrounding commuter towns. It is the world's northernmost metro area of over one million people, and the city is the northernmost capital of an EU member state. In 2009, Helsinki was chosen to be the World Design Capital for 2012by the International Council of Societies of Industrial Design. Today the Lutheran cathedral is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Helsinki. Annually more than 350,000 visitors enter this magnificent white temple. Lutheran cathedral has original Greek cross base. It consists of a square main body and four extensions, each oriented exactly in the four directions of the world and ending with a beautiful colonnade and pediment. 10. LUXEMBOURG CITY - LUXEMBOURG Luxembourg is a small country located in the Low Countries, part of North-West Europe It borders Belgium (148 kilometres) to the westhola and north, France (73 km) to the south, and Germany (138 km) to the east. Luxembourg is landlocked, separated from the North Sea by Belgium. Despite its small size, Luxembourg has a varied topography, with two main features to its landscape. The northern section of the country is formed by part of the plateau of the Ardennes, where the mountain heights range from 1,500 to almost 2,000 feet (460–610 m) high. The rest of the country is made up of undulating countryside with broad valleys. The capital, Luxembourg City, is located in the southern part of the country. The most prominent landmark, the high plateau of the Ardennes in the north, took millions of years to carve.
  7. 7. 11. WAWEL CASTLE IN KRAKÓW - POLAND The Gothic Wawel Castle in Kraków in Poland was built at the behest of Casimir III the Great, who reigned from 1333 to 1370, and consists of a number of structures situated around the central courtyard. In the 14th century it was rebuilt by Jogaila and Jadwiga of Poland. Their reign saw the addition of the tower called the Hen's Foot and the Danish Tower. The Jadwiga andJogaila Chamber, in which the sword Szczerbiec, was used in coronation ceremonies, is exhibited today and is another remnant of this period. Other structures were developed on the hill during that time as well, in order to serve as quarters for the numerous clergy, royal clerks and craftsmen. Defensive walls and towers such as Jordanka, Lubranka, Sandomierska, Tęczyńska, Szlachecka, Złodziejska and Panieńska were erected in the same period. 12. CHARLES BRIDGE, PRAGUE – Czech REPUBLIC The Charles Bridge is a famous historic bridge that crosses the Vltava river in Prague,Czech Republic. Its construction started in 1357 under the auspices of King Charles IV, and finished in the beginning of the 15th century. This bridge was originally called the Stone Bridge or the Prague Bridge but has been the "Charles Bridge" since 1870. As the only means of crossing the river Vltava (Moldau) until 1841, the Charles Bridge was the most important connection between Prague Castle and the city's Old Town and adjacent areas. This "solid-land" connection made Prague important as a trade route between Eastern and Western Europe. The bridge is 621 m long and nearly 10 m wide, resting on 16 arches shielded by ice guards. It is protected by three bridge towers, two of them on the Lesser Quarter side and the third one on the Old Town side. The bridge is decorated by a continuous alley of 30 statues and statuaries, most of them baroque-style, originally erected around 1700 but now all replaced by replicas.
  8. 8. 13. HUNGARIAN PARLIAMENT BUILDING - HUNGARY The Hungarian Parliament Building which translates to House of the Country is the seat of the National Assembly of Hungary, one of Europe's oldest legislative buildings, a notable landmark of Hungary and a popular tourist destination of Budapest. It lies in Lajos Kossuth Square, on the bank of the Danube. It is currently the largest building in Hungary and still the tallest building in Budapest. Its interior includes 10 courtyards, 13 passenger and freight elevators, 27 gates, 29 staircases and 691 rooms (including more than 200 offices). With its height of 96 m (315 ft), it is one of the two tallest buildings in Budapest, along with Saint Stephen's Basilica. The number 96 refers to the nation's millennium, 1896, and the conquest of the later Kingdom of Hungary in 896. One of the famous parts of the building is the hexadecagonal (sixteen-sided) central hall, with huge chambers adjoining it: the Lower House and the Upper House. 14. BRAN CASTLE – ROMANIA Bran Castle situated near Bran and in the immediate vicinity of Braşov, is a national monument and landmark in Romania. The fortress is situated on the border between Transylvania and Wallachia, on DN73. Commonly known as "Dracula's Castle". As discovered by the Dutch author Hans Corneel de Roos, the location Bram Stoker actually had in mind for Castle Dracula while writing his novel was an empty mountain top, Mount Izvorul Călimanului, 2,033 m high, located in the Transylvanian Kelemen Alps near the former border with Moldavia. The castle is now a museum open to tourists, displaying art and furniture collected by Queen Marie. Tourists can see the interior individually or by a guided tour. At the bottom of the hill is a small open air museum park exhibiting traditional Romanian peasantstructures (cottages, barns, etc.) from across the country. On June 1, the Habsburgs opened the refurbished castle to the public as the first private museum of the country.
  9. 9. 15. ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS – GREECE The Acropolis of Athens is an ancient citadel located on a high rocky outcrop above the city of Athensand containing the remains of several ancient buildings of great architectural and historic significance, the most famous being the Parthenon. Although there are many other acropoleis in Greece, the significance of the Acropolis of Athens is such that it is commonly known as "The Acropolis" without qualification. While there is evidence that the hill was inhabited as far back as the fourth millennium BC, it was Pericles (c. 495 – 429 BC) in the fifth century BC who coordinated the construction of the site's most important buildings including the Parthenon, the Propylaia, the Erechtheion and the temple of Athena Nike. The Parthenon and the other buildings were seriously damaged during the 1687 siege by the Venetians in the Morean War when the Parthenon was being used for gunpowder storage and was hit by a cannonball. The Acropolis was formally proclaimed as the preeminent monument on the European Cultural Heritage list of monuments on 26 March 2007. 16. ST. ALEXANDER CATHEDRAL OF SOFIA - BULGARIA The world-famous St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral, which is the landmark not only of Sofia but of all of Bulgaria, has got no owner to take care of it. Built in Neo-Byzantine style, it serves as the cathedral church of the Patriarch of Bulgaria and is one of the largest Eastern Orthodox cathedrals in the world, as well as one of Sofia's symbols and primary tourist attractions.The St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral in Sofia occupies an area of 3,170 square metres (34,100 sq ft) and can hold 10,000 people inside. The technical lack of an owner of what is probably Bulgaria's most famous landmark prevents any projects for its repairs just as the cathedral is about to celebrate 100 years since its completion. This temple has the greatest murals and the best marble.
  10. 10. 17. GUIMARAES CASTLE - PORTUGAL Castelo de Guimarães located in the city of Guimarães, Portugal, was ordered to be built by Dona Mumadona Dias in the 10th century in order to defend its monastery fom Muslim and Norman attacks. Count Dom Henrique chose Guimarães to establish his court. The fortress, then over a century old, needed urgent renovation. The nobleman chose to destroy what remained from Mumadona's construction, while extending the area of the castle and adding two entrances. The castle became the official royal residence from 1139, when Portugal became independent from the Kingdom of León, until circa 1200. In 1910, the castle was declared a national monument. In 1937, the General Service for National Buildings and Monuments started its great restoration, which concluded with the inauguration of the castle's present symbolic status on 4 June 1940. 18. SKOCJAN CAVES – SLOVENIA Skocjan Caves is a cave system in Slovenia. Due to its exceptional significance, Škocjan Caves was entered on UNESCO’s list of natural and cultural world heritage sites in 1986. International scientific circles have thus acknowledged the importance of the caves as one of the natural treasures of planet Earth. Ranking among the most important caves in the world, Škocjan Caves represents the most significant underground phenomena in both the Karst region and Slovenia. One of the largest known underground canyons in the world, examples of natural beauty with great aesthetic value due to particular microclimatic conditions, a special ecosystem has developed and the area has great cultural and historical significance as it has been inhabited since the prehistoric times. Explored length of caves is 6,200 m, caves have formed in 300 m thick layer of Cretaceous and Paleocene limestone.
  11. 11. 19. RIGA & RIGA CATHEDRAL – LATVIA Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 696,618 inhabitants (January 2013), Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial, cultural and financial centre of the Baltic Sea region. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga, at the mouth of the river Daugava. Riga's territory covers 307.17 km2 (118.60 sq mi) and lies between 1 and 10 metres (3.3 and 33 ft) above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain. Riga Cathedral is the Evangelical Lutheran cathedral in Riga, Latvia. It is the seat of the Archbishop of Riga. The Latvian word doms, an archaic term for cathedral, is often mistranslated in English as dome. It is one of the most recognisable landmarks in Latvia, and is featured in or the subject of paintings, photographs and television travelogues. Built near the River Daugava in 1211 by Livonian Bishop Albert of Riga, it is considered the largest medieval church in the Baltic states. It has undergone many modifications in the course of its history. David Caspari was rector of the cathedral school in the late 17th century. His son Georg Caspari also served at the cathedral. 20. BLUE GROTTO – MALTA The Blue Grotto is actually a number of sea caverns on the south coast of Malta. It is located right across from the small uninhabited islet of Filfla. Every day from sunrise until about 1 pm a unique sight can be observed here. The location of the cave combined with the sunlight lead to the water mirroring showing numerous shades of blue. Several caverns mirror the brilliant phosphorescent colours of the underwater flora; other caverns show a deep dark shade of blue. The Blue Grotto is a popular destination for tourists on the island of Malta with boat trips to visit the caves, scuba diving snorkeling and rock climbing being the most popular activities here. It also has some typical local restaurants that offer good food with stunning views.
  12. 12. 21. DUBROVNIK IN ADRIATIC SEA – CROATIA Nicknamed “Pearl of the Adriatic”, Dubrovnik is one of the most prominent tourist attractions in Croatia and the Mediterranean. The walled city was built on maritime trade. In the Middle Ages it became the only city-state in the Adriatic to rival Venice and achieved a remarkable level of development during the 15th and 16th centuries. Dubrovnik is steeped in stunning architecture and sculptural detail, and boasts spectacular churches, monasteries, museums, fountains and the famous walls that surround the old city. It is one of the most prominent tourist destinations in the Mediterranean, a seaport and the centre of Dubrovnik-Neretva County. The city of Dubrovnik joined the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. 22. IBIZA & SRGADA FAMILIA-SPAIN Ibiza is an island in the Mediterranean Sea 79 km off the coast of the city of Valencia in Spain. It is the third largest of the Balearic Islands, an autonomous community of Spain. Its largest cities are, Santa Eulària des Riu and Sant Antoni de Portmany. Sagrada Família commonly known as the Sagrada Família is a large Roman Catholic church in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, designed by Catalan architect Antoni Gaudí (1852–1926). Although incomplete, the church is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, and in November 2010 Pope Benedict XVI consecrated and proclaimed it a minor basilica, as distinct from a cathedral which must be the seat of a bishop. Though construction of Sagrada Família had commenced in 1882, Gaudí became involved in 1883, taking over the project and transforming it with his architectural and engineering style—combining Gothic and curvilinear Art Nouveau forms. Gaudí devoted his last years to the project, and at the time of his death at age 73 in 1926, less than a quarter of the project was complete
  13. 13. 23. SWISS-ALPS - SWITZERLAND The Swiss Alps are the portion of the Alps mountain range that lies within Switzerland. Because of their central position within the entire Alpine range, they are also known as the Central Alps. The highest summit in the Swiss Alps is Monte Rosa (4,634 metres) near the Swiss-Italian border. The highest mountain which lies entirely on Swiss territory is the Dom (4,545 metres). Other main summits can be found in the list of mountains in Switzerland. Since the Middle Ages, transit across the Alps played an important role in history. The region north of the St. Gotthard Pass became the nucleus of the Swiss Confederacy in the early 14th century. 24. SCHÖNBRUNN PALACE - AUSTRIA Schönbrunn, the former summer residence of the imperial family, is among the most beautiful baroque palaces in Europe. In its countless rooms Habsburg family lived in most of the year. In 1830 Emperor Franz Joseph was born here, who married the charming Sisi and reigned from 1848-1916. The monarch spent his last years of life only at the palace, which went into administration just two years of the new republic after his death. Today, the palace is part of UNESCO world heritage site because of its historical importance, its unique and splendid location or furniture. The palace has 1441 rooms, of which only 45 can be visited. Furniture and rococo interior decorations are complemented by Bohemian crystal chandeliers and porcelain stoves. The Schloss is Vienna's most popular tourist destination, attended by 2,600,000 visitors in 2010. The whole Schönbrunn complex with Tiergarten Schönbrunn, Palmenhaus,Wüstenhaus and the Wagenburg, accounted for more than five million visitors.
  14. 14. FOR 24 HOURS CONTROL OF ALLERGY & ASTHMA Presenting ZENOM-M TABLETS In the Management of Chronic & Exercise Induced Asthma --------------------------------------------------  Consistent bronchodilatation and round the clock control of Asthma symptoms  Decreases Airway Inflammation & Nocturnal Episodes Significantly  Improves Exercise Tolerance and Physical Activities  Reduces the usage of Inhaled Corticosteroids & ß2 Agonists gradually  Alleviates Nasal & Systemic Eosinophillia  Suitable to treat both allergic Rhinitis & Asthma Dosage: One Tablet daily in the evening -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ZENOM-M ensures 24 hours control of Asthma & Allergy with a single dose References: 1. Kay AB (2000). Br. Med. Bull. 56 (4): 843–64. 2. "Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 88 (2): 190–197