1.MAP AND THE SIZE OF THE COUNTRY Area: total: 697 sq km land: 687 sq km water: 10 sq km Land boundaries: 0 km Coastline: 193 km
2. CAPITAL CITY THE CAPITAL OF SINGAPORE IS THE CITY OF SINGAPORE.As a city-state, Singapore is both the country and itscapital. Singapore Island is the main island ofSingapore, which is also called Pulau Ujong. This island isthe largest island of Singapore as well as the mostpopulous, with a population of over 5 million. SingaporeIsland has an area of about 710 square kilometers.
3. POPULATION AND ETHNIC GROUPTHE POPULATION OF SINGAPORE IS5.8 MILLION Ethnic groups: Chinese 76.8%, Malay 13.9%, Indian 7.9%, other 1.4% (2000 census) As of 2011, the population of Singapore is 5.18 million people, of whom 3.25 million (63%) are citizens while the rest (37%) are permanent residents or foreign workers. Twenty-three percent of Singaporean citizens were born outside Singapore i.e. foreign born citizens. There are half a million permanent residents in Singapore in 2011. The resident population does not take into account the 11 million transient visitors who visit Singapore annually
4.OFFICIAL LANGAUGEMALAY IS THE NATIONAL LANGAUGE OFSINGAPOREThe national language of Singapore is Malay forhistorical reasons but the official languages areEnglish, Chinese (Mandarin), Malay and Tamil. Eachcarries equal weight under our constitution. English iswidely used as the lingua franca amongst the differentcommunities. It is also the language ofadministration.
5. RELIGIONTHE MAIN RELIGIONOF SINGAPORE ISBUDDHISM WITHLITTLE MORE THAN34 % OFPOPULATIONFOLLOWING
6.SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT THE TYPE OF GOVERNANT IN SINGAPORE IS THE PERLIAMENTARY REPUBLICThe politics of Singapore takes theform ofa parliamentary representativedemocratic republic wherebythe President of Singapore isthe head of state, the Prime Ministerof Singapore is the head ofgovernment, and of a multi-partysystem.Executive power is exercisedby the cabinet. Cabinet has thegeneral direction and control of theGovernment and is collectivelyresponsible to Parliament.
8.NATIONAL SYMBOL LION HEAD IS THE NATIONAL SYMBOL OF SINGAPOREThe Lion Head symbolises courage, strength and excellence, aswell as resilience in the face of challenges. It is in solid red againsta white background - the colours of the National Flag. Its manesfive partings represent the same five ideals that are embodied inthe five stars of the National Flag, namelydemocracy, peace, progress, justice and equality. Its tenaciousmien symbolises resolve to face and overcome any challenges.
9.NATIONAL FLAGSINGAPURIA IS THENATIONAL FLAG OFSINGAPOREThe red represents brotherhoodand equality, while the whiteshows purity and virtue. Themoon, a waxing crescent, issymbolic of the new nation, ayoung nation just beginning toreach its peak. The starsrepresent democracy, peace,progress, justice, and equality,each ideals of the newSingapore nation
10.ECONOMICSSingapore has a highly developed andsuccessful free-market economy. It has anopen, pro-business environment, relativelycorruption-free and transparent, stableprices, low tax rates (14.2% of GDP)compared to other developedeconomies, and one of the highest per-capitagross domestic products (GDP) in the world.Its innovative yet steadfast form ofeconomics that combines economic planningof Singapore Economic Development Boardwith free-market has given it the nicknamethe Singapore Model. Singapores sovereignwealth fund Temasek Holdings is a largeinvestor in the economy, holding majoritystakes in several of the nations largestcompanies, such as SingaporeAirlines, SingTel, ST Engineering andMediaCorp.
11.LOCATIOIN LOCATION:Southeastern Asia, islands between Malaysia and Indonesia GEOGRAPHIC CORDINATES: 1 22 N, 103 48 E MAP REFERNCE: Southeast Asia
13. GEOGRAPHYLand boundaries: 0 kmCoastline: 193 kmClimate: tropical; hot, humid, rainy; two distinct monsoon seasons - Northeastern monsoon from December to March and Southwestern monsoon from June to September; inter-monsoon - frequent afternoon and early evening thunderstormsTerrain: lowland; gently undulating central plateau contains water catchment area and nature preserveElevation extremes: lowest point: Singapore Strait 0 m highest point: Bukit Timah 166 mNatural resources: fish, deepwater portsLand use: arable land: 1.64% permanent crops: 0% other: 98.36% (2001)
14.CULTURAL ECOLOGY2.1.1 CULTURESingapore was a part of British Malaya formany centuries. It was ruled bythe Sultanate of Johor. In 1819, the Britishcame to the Island and set up a port andcolony. During British rule, the port ofSingapore flourished and attracted manymigrants. After World War 2, Singaporebecame an independent nation and arepublic, which it remains today.Singapore has a diverse populace ofnearly 5 million people which is made upof Chinese, Malays, Indians, Caucasiansand Eurasians (plus other mixed groups)and Asians of different origins, which is inline with the nations history as acrossroads for various ethnic and racialgroups. The temples of Chinatown can stillbe seen in certain towns in Singapore.In addition, 42% of Singapores populaceare foreigners, which makes it the countrywith the sixth highest proportion offoreigners world wide. Singapore is alsothe third most densely populated in theworld after Macau and Monaco.Singaporean culture is best described as amelting pot of mainlyChinese, Indian, British, and Malaycultures, a reflection of its immigranthistory.
2.1.2CULTURAL INFLUENCE ON ARCHITECREVernacular architecture is commonly believed to be a quaintrepresentation of the history and traditions of a culture, built byaveragepeople using traditional technologies over a long period of time but inSingapore there are several indications that the Modernist high risehousing and new towns have become a new vernacular. The factorsthat support this point of view are: I) the ubiquity of the high riseandnew town way of life; 2) a shared value system and culture within thenew towns that is shaped by and reflected in the architecture andplanning of the new towns; 3) the importance of relationshipsbetweenspaces in the new towns; 4) the ability of the architecture andplanningof new towns to adapt to changes within Singaporean society; 5) theacceptance, legitimacy, and identification of the high-rise way of lifebySingaporeans. A vernacular in Singapore based upon high-risehousingand new towns profoundly impocts the understanding of vernaculararchitecture, Modernist planning, and the industrialization of formerThird World countries in response to the globalism.
Singapore may be a thriving modern city, but it does try topreserve buildings with historical or heritage value. These ofteneclectic styles are mainly the result of adapting period Europeanarchitecture to the islands tropical climate.Pre-modern architecture in Singapore consists primarily ofcolonial civic and commercial structures in the EuropeanNeoclassical, Gothic, Palladian and Renaissance styles. Out ofthese styles grew the unique black-and-white bungalows thatdot the island, and the traditional shophouses found mainly incommercial districts.Singapores modern buildings, on the other hand, tend to bepragmatic affairs, especially the apartment blocks developed bythe Housing Development Board, the government agency incharge of public housing. Recent developments have focused onmixed-used buildings that fully utilise the islands limited landarea.Some of these projects have also begun to take environmentalsustainability into consideration, resulting in a generation ofpostmodern neo-tropical buildings that are beginning to changeSingapores skyline.
Architecture in colonial Singapore divides largely intofour styles: Classical Revival for government buildings,Gothic Revival for churches, the Chinese chophouse,and the bungalow. One expects to find the classicalstyle with its implicit reference to imperial Rome ingovernment offices and buildings associated with theimperial elite, such as Raffles Hotel. Elements of theclassical style, particularly pilasters, columns, andcapitals, also appear vernacular architecture as well. (Iwrite "vernacular" because, strictly speaking, Singaporehas no indigenous architecture, since Sir StamfordRaffles created this thriving entrepot or trans-shipmentport from a small island and invited Indians, Chinese,and Malays to settle as a work force for the newsettlement, the land for which Raffles purchased fromthe Sultan of Johor.)
The shophouse, the predominant mercantile building type incolonial days (and by far kind of the largest number ofindividual buildings), has living quarters above a street-levelshop, which is recessed beneath an arcade, thus providingprotection from tropical sun and rain. Early shophouses tend tohave plain unadorned fronts. These two examples of classicalelements on the façades of Chinese Shophouses show how thestyle associated with the imperial rulers influenced vernacularstructures. More surprising, perhaps, classical elements, suchas Corinthian capitals also appear on at least one mosque, theNagore Durga Shrine (1828-1830) on Telok Ayer Street.
2.2. characteristic oftraditional singaporeanshophouse architectureThe shophouse is most characteristicof the urban landscapein Southeast Asia. Evolving inthe context of colonial cities, the shophousewas the most suitable and advanced housing model in Asia during the 19thcentury. As it combined the living with the working space, it providedshelter for most of the urban dwellers in Southeast Asia. In the currentdebate on heritage conservation and urban housing, this colonialarchitecture has awakened interest as a symbol of national history andcollective identity.Until today, the inner-city of Penang, one of the earliest British colonialsettlements in Southeast Asia, off ers the most distinctive range of stylisticvariations of the façade and lay out patterns dating back to the early timesof the settlement. The transformation of the built environment was shapedby the legislation framework of the colonial government but also by thedomestic values of a multi-ethnic community. The climate, materials andbuilding technology have also determined the architectural form. Thechange in the urban fabric is most obvious within the urbanisation processin the late 19th and early 20th century. The presentation will highlight thefeatures of the shophouse and give an overview on the architectural historyof Penangʼs shophouses from the late 18th century to the Second WorldWar.
Most Southeast Asian cities withcolonial pasts containa disparate collection of oldbuildings that reflect thecity’s historic heritage. Althoughwe admire, photographand sometimes try to conservethese vestiges of the past,how often do we stop toconsider why property ownerscommissioned certain buildingtypes or chose particulararchitectural styles? In thisarticle, let me share with youhowwe can see the British colonialempire in its socio-economiccontext through the window ofSingapore’s ubiquitousshophouses.
2.2.1. CLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE OFSINGAPORE SHOPHOUSEThe shophouses of Circular Road (BoatQuay), Club Street,China Square and FarEast Square demonstrate a range of stylesover various periods. These periods canbe classified broadly as Early Style (1840-1900), Transitional Style (1890-1910), Late or Chinese Baroque Style(1910-1930) and Art Deco Style (1930-1960).By the 18th century, rising fortunesalso enabled manyhouseholds to send their sons abroad.With its splendid collection of antiquitiesand classical Roman ruins, Italy became apopular ‘Grand Tour’ destination for youngBritish gentlemen seeking to further theireducation in the art, culture and politics ofEurope. Before long, classical designbecame a feature of British homes, whichuntil then, had been primarily of timber-frame construction in the Elizabethan orTudor styles from which Singapore’s ‘blackand white’houses descend. Classicalornamentation such as pilasters orPalladian windows on a home’s faade.
The typical shophouse in Jalan Besaris an L-shape building with a rear courtfor light, air, and service access. Thevertical segment of the ‘L’ contains akitchen, a bathroom, and a toilet whilethe main part of the house containsthe living and work spaces. This layoutbecame a standard by 1914.The commercial developmentof shophouses began with theconstruction of nine shophouses by theJalan Besar Land Investment Companyin 1919. The project occupied the blockbetween Kitchener Road and MaudeRoad. With the exception of the endunits, the shophouses (18 feet 9 inchesby 82 feet 6 inches long) were mostlyidentical. The width of 18 feet becameanother standard in shophouse design.The entire project was redevelopedinto a part of the Jalan Besar Plazasome time in the 1980s.
2.3CHANGE IN FUTUREARCHITECURAL TRENDAt the cutting-edge of contemporary architecture, there aremany trends, but three stand out: height, sustainability, andbio-inspired designs. Many future architectural trends arelikely to unfold, but these three are currently popular, andlikely to remain so for at some time, especially sustainability.Already one of the best architectural cities in the world (knownas a 1:1 scale model for ideal urban planning), Singaporesarchitecture scene is getting extremely exciting withinnovative works by many starchitects and talented localarchitects.