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The Impact of External Events on Singapore


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The Impact of External Events on Singapore

  1. 1. chapter four How did external events before WWII affect Singapore?
  2. 2. Lesson Objectives <ul><li>Impact of the Industrial Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of the opening of The Suez Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of WWI </li></ul><ul><li>Impact of the The Great Depression </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) <ul><li>The revolution took place largely as a result of the setting up of factories and the invention of steam-power machines . </li></ul><ul><li>In the steam engine, coal was burnt to change water into steam. The pressure from the steam provided energy for machines to produce goods in great quantities. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Industrial Revolution (1750-1850) <ul><li>The Spinning Jenny produced more cloth easily and at a faster rate in great quantities. ---  Raw materials for the factories and new markets for the manufactured goods were needed. </li></ul><ul><li>The invention of steam-powered ships meant that ships could travel faster, at any time of the year, and over longer distances. </li></ul><ul><li>Significance: These changes transformed the way people lived and worked. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Singapore <ul><li>Great Increase in Trade </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With the invention of the steamship, more Europeans could sail to the East to obtain raw materials and find markets for their goods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: More ships visited Singapore ---  Growth in volume of trade </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Singapore <ul><li>Singapore’s role was enhanced </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the 1880s, Western steamships made Singapore their port-of-call, where their ships stopped to refuel, get new food supplies, sell their good and buy raw materials. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Asian traders also used steamships to transport their goods between Singapore and other neighbouring ports. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: Singapore gained importance as a port for the collection of goods from the East and the distribution of manufactured goods from the West. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Singapore <ul><li>Closer links with the World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communications improved with the arrival of steamships. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letters, instead of taking months to arrive, now took weeks. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Result: With a speedier delivery time for letters and documents, Singapore came into closer contact with the world. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Industrial Revolution Great Increase in Trade Singapore’s role was enhanced Closer links with the world
  9. 9. The Suez Canal (1869) <ul><li>The need for raw materials and new markets for the goods prompted merchants to seek a shorter route to the East. </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to the opening of the Suez Canal, ships traveling between Europe and Asia had to sail around the Cape of Good Hope. </li></ul><ul><li>This journey was often a perilous one, spanning the duration of 120 days. Ships could not sail during certain periods of the year as winds were not always favourable. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Suez Canal (1869)
  11. 11. The Suez Canal (1869) <ul><li>Ferdinand de Lesseps, a French engineer, drew plans to shorten the sea route around Africa by cutting a long canal to link the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea. </li></ul><ul><li>With the opening of the Suez route, the trade route was shortened significantly. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Impact of the opening of the Suez Canal on Singapore <ul><li>Lowered Shipping costs </li></ul><ul><li>Cargo and mail took a shorter time to travel from Europe to Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Due to the savings in distance and time, the cost of shipping goods was reduced. Traders now found it faster and cheaper to get their goods from overseas . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Impact of the opening of the Suez Canal on Singapore <ul><li>Singapore’s role was enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>A great expansion in Singapore’s trade occurred. </li></ul><ul><li>This was due to the increased volume and ships passing through the area to refuel and collect food supplies. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Singapore maintained its role as a port-of-call and as an important trading centre. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Impact of the opening of the Suez Canal on Singapore <ul><li>New Developments in Port Facilities </li></ul><ul><li>The Old Harbour in Singapore became overcrowded. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: The New Harbour was built. Due to the deep waters, steamships and sailing ships could sail right up to the harbour. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Impact of the opening of the Suez Canal on Singapore <ul><li>The Singapore Harbour Board was set up to make improvements to the port. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: New buildings were built (wharves, docks, storehouses and machine shops) and modern machinery (forklifts, cranes and tractors) were used. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: A railway system was set up to link the port to other parts of Malaya. </li></ul><ul><li>Implication: These improvements provided better and faster services in handling goods brought in by ships. Singapore became one of the busiest ports in Asia. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Opening of the Suez Canal Lowered shipping costs Singapore’s role was enhanced New Developments in port facilities
  17. 18. World War I (1914-1919) <ul><li>The rivalry existing between the powers meant that the onset of war was highly possible. </li></ul><ul><li>War was sparked off when the Archduke of Austria Hungary – Franz Ferdinand was assassinated. </li></ul><ul><li>Austria-Hungary demanded action by Serbia to punish those responsible and, when Austria-Hungary deemed Serbia had not complied, declared war. </li></ul><ul><li>Within weeks, major European powers were at war because of overlapping agreements for collective defense and the complex nature of international alliances. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Impact of World War I on Singapore <ul><li>Temporary Inflation of food prices </li></ul><ul><li>News of the war caused the locals to rush to buy necessities . </li></ul><ul><li>Even traders from neighbouring islands stocked their shops with food they bought from Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Prices of necessities skyrocketed. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Impact of World War I on Singapore <ul><li>Controls on imports and exports </li></ul><ul><li>In a bid to fight inflation, the government forbade the export of large amounts of foodstuff to neighbouring countries. </li></ul><ul><li>The government also increased the imports of rice from Siam and Vietnam and reassured everyone that there was sufficient food. </li></ul><ul><li>Result of government actions: Prices fell and trade resumed. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Impact of World War I on Singapore <ul><li>Effect of the Emden Incident </li></ul><ul><li>When a German warship, the Emden arrived in the East in 1914, its presence affected trade between Singapore and Europe as it attacked British trading ships in the Indian Ocean. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Entrepot trade declined and food could not be imported. </li></ul><ul><li>However, this was only temporary as the ship was destroyed months later. </li></ul>
  21. 22. Impact of World War I on Singapore <ul><li>Internal security threats </li></ul><ul><li>On Feb 1915, some Sepoys rose up against the British when they heard rumours that they might be sent to Europe or Turkey to fight against Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>The rebels went around killing Europeans </li></ul><ul><li>The mutiny was eventually put down after 10 days. </li></ul><ul><li>The mutiny did not garner support from the locals despite causing much anxiety in Singapore. </li></ul>
  22. 23. Impact of World War I on Singapore <ul><li>Internal security threats </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of local Indians remained indifferent. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sikh police remained loyal to the British as well. </li></ul><ul><li>Significance: The Sepoy Mutiny reminded the British that they could not afford to be careless about Singapore’s defence. </li></ul><ul><li>It highlighted that threats to Singapore’s peace could originate internally and externally . </li></ul>
  23. 24. WWI Temporary inflation of food prices Effect of the Emden Incident Internal Security Threats Controls on imports and exports
  24. 25. The Great Depression (1930s) <ul><li>A Depression is a time when there is a great decrease in business activities with widespread unemployment. </li></ul><ul><li>While this event occurred in America, it affected many of her trading partners , including Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore was badly affected as she depended on trade to survive. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Impact of the Great Depression on Singapore <ul><li>Decrease in trade and business </li></ul><ul><li>Singapore, which was closely involved in the trading of tin and rubber, was affected as the demand for certain commodities including tin and rubber dropped. </li></ul><ul><li>Because Singapore’s economy depended largely on overseas trade, the depression caused companies in Singapore to suffer losses. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Impact of the Great Depression on Singapore Adapted from Wong Lin Ken, Singapore: Its Growth as an Entrepot 1910-1941 in Journal of Southeast Asian Studies Vol. IX No.1 282.9 1930 659.3 1925 608.4 1920 Singapore’s total trade with the West (S$m)
  27. 28. Impact of the Great Depression on Singapore <ul><li>High rates of Unemployment </li></ul><ul><li>Business sentiments were so poor that many businessmen, particularly those who depended on overseas trade, lost their wealth or became bankrupt. </li></ul><ul><li>Businessmen cut expenses by retrenching workers. </li></ul><ul><li>Result: Widespread unemployment and hardship </li></ul><ul><li>It was extremely difficult for the unemployed to find new jobs as there were limited ones available. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Indians and Chinese returned to their homeland when their family and friends could no longer support them financially. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1931, about a third of the working population was unemployed. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Impact of the Great Depression on Singapore <ul><li>British restrictions on immigration </li></ul><ul><li>To alleviate the economic situation, the government passed a law in 1930 to reduce and restrict the number of immigrants entering Singapore. </li></ul><ul><li>Large numbers of unemployed Chinese and Indians were sent back to their homeland. </li></ul>
  29. 30. The Great Depression Decrease in trade and business High Rates of Unemployment British restrictions on immigration