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Retailing
Objectives <ul><li>To Understand the Functions of Retailers in the Marketing Channel </li></ul><ul><li>To Identify the Maj...
Retailing <ul><li>Retailers implement and conclude the actual sale of products to the final consuming units, the ultimate ...
Importance Of Retailing <ul><li>Impact on the Economy …  - 18% of employment (24 mil 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution ...
A Retailing Career Retail  Career Salary Career Progression Geographic mobility Women in retailing Societal Perspective
Prerequisites for Success Success Hard Work Analytical Skills Creativity Decisiveness Flexibility Initiative Leadership Or...
Retailing: Major Types of Product (Retail Stores & Services) <ul><li>General Merchandise Retailers </li></ul><ul><li>-  De...
Department Store <ul><li>Chain operations </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety & selection </li></ul><ul><li>Full service - deli...
<ul><li>Supermarkets  - Large, self service stores with wide variety of food & some nonfood products </li></ul><ul><li>Low...
Hyper-markets:  A Sure - Fire Hit, Bombs . Average size (in square feet ) Employees Annual sales per store (in millions) G...
Specialty Stores <ul><li>Deep Selection  (Product line) </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion response leader  </li></ul><ul><li>Perso...
Other Types of In-Store Retailing <ul><li>General mass merchandiser </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalog showroom </li></ul></ul>...
Category Killers Just For Feet, the category killer in the athletic footware and apparel sector founded in 1977, cruised t...
The Wheel of Retailing High : status, margin, price (Specialty store) -  retailers usually enter the market with low servi...
Wheel of Retailing High Prices & Markups,  Many services,  Expensive Surroundings,  Low prices & Low markups,  few service...
History <ul><li>In 1936,at age 30, Paul D'Amour , a bread route salesman for the Wonder Bread Baking Co. purchased the Y C...
<ul><li>MARCH 25, 2003  --  It expanded its online shopping service to include Unlimited Choices, a  program to give  cust...
3 Major Types of Non Store Retailing <ul><li>A. Direct Selling </li></ul><ul><li>(face to face) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Direc...
A. Forms of Direct Selling <ul><li>Direct Selling </li></ul><ul><li>Bank Retailing  </li></ul>Sales Visits
B. Forms of Direct Marketing <ul><li>Catalog Marketing </li></ul>Direct-Response  Marketing Television Home Shopping Telem...
On line Retailing (E-Tailing): Advantages Not location bound Interactive Convenient Shopbots Forms of Direct Marketing E-t...
Percentage of Sales Online by Retail Segment Source:  Investor’s Business Daily,  Wednesday, September 5, 2001, p. A6.
Internet Retailing: Disadvantages Forms of Direct Marketing Examination Privacy/Security
C. Forms of Automatic Vending <ul><li>The use of machines to dispense products includes items such as candy, chewing gum, ...
Strategic Retailing Issues: The Marketing Mix #1  Customers Product  Price Place  Promotion Merchandise Assortment Store A...
Strategic Issue #1.   Retail Store Location <ul><li>Factors affecting location </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intended target m...
Strategic Issues  #1. Location Dynamics <ul><li>Consumers want convenience,  a subjective measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Co...
LOCATION sets the  trading area <ul><li>Free standing structure </li></ul><ul><li>Central Business District (CBD) </li></u...
Consumer Shopping Patterns <ul><li>% of Retail Chains’ Customers  also shopping at </li></ul><ul><li>Retail Chains  Sears ...
Strategic Issue #2  Merchandise Assortment <ul><li>Retail buyers must match their product selection, quality, price with c...
Types of Merchandise Change <ul><li>-  The retail store merchandise must change as consumer wants change </li></ul><ul><li...
Strategic Issue #2   Merchandise Assortment Plus: Store Location Store Promotions Store Layout/Image Store Personnel Store...
Many consumers value finding bargains.
Store Atmospherics <ul><li>The sum total of all store stimuli, interior & exterior physical characteristics that appeal to...
Store Atmospherics <ul><li>Design Factors   ( Perceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>-  Floor covering  - Ceilings   -  Wall cover...
<ul><li>Social factors:  In store service   (sales personnel social & emotional labor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Courteous  ...
In Store Pre sale Service <ul><li>Personal Service Climate -  Calls for  a  highly motivated, experienced & well paid work...
Post-Sale Services <ul><li>Complaints and adjustments </li></ul><ul><li>Credit Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Product maintena...
Strategic Issue    Retailer Advertising <ul><li>Location + Merchandise + Services + Atmospherics + ?    Store Image </li>...
Ideal Stores:  W hat factors are most important in deciding where to shop? surveyed women said: <ul><li>Price and Value </...
Retail Positioning <ul><li>Identifying an underserved market niche, or segment, and serving it through a strategy that dis...
Segmentation, targeting and positioning <ul><li>Sam Walton computerized operations to lower costs to lower prices to meet ...
Packaged Retail Environments <ul><li>Functional Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-  Focus on customer satisfaction </li></...
Potential Channel Conflicts <ul><li>Retailers   Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive Distribution   Intense Distribution ...
<ul><li>Perception as an Excellent Company </li></ul><ul><li>     Company               Executives          Analysts </li>...
Consumer Relevancy Awards  <ul><li>Consumer Relevancy Awards,… Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to shop/access </li></ul><...
Consumer Relevancy Award Winners  (2001) <ul><li>Department Stores </li></ul><ul><li>Grocery Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Drug ...
RESEARCH Knowing Your Customer Level of Customer Service ? High - - - Low Sales Personnel ? Hurried - - - Apathetic Produc...
Dual Wage Earners and Their Effect on Hours Spent Shopping 1965  1980  1995 Year 200% 100% 12 8 4 0 Families with Dual Inc...
Hypothesis <ul><li>Matching high arousal scent and high arousal music conditions will lead to enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>(...
Experiment Variables <ul><li>For Scents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lavender  = low arousal scent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gr...
<ul><li>Survey Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>343 customers were asked/270 participated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most were...
Focus Group Interview Consumer Summary  (1 of 2) <ul><li>Overall Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Merchandise Positive   Negat...
Focus Group Interview Consumer Summary   (2 of 2) <ul><li>Overall Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Store Positive   Negative <...
Bloomsburg Retailing Viewed From Three Distinct Perspectives: <ul><li>Older” Consumers Working Consumers </li></ul><ul><li...
Retail Information System (RIS) and Merchandise Management Issues Company Goals Human Resources Information Accounting and...
Franchising <ul><li>A franchiser licenses (to  the franchisee) the right to distribute/sell specified products (trademark ...
 
 
Franchising: Advantages <ul><li>Less Capital Required </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Experience of Others </li></ul><ul><li>Ass...
Franchising:  Disadvantages <ul><li>Controlled by Franchiser (Power) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Franchise </li></ul><ul><li...
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Retailing 1224232380049014 9

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Retailing 1224232380049014 9

  1. 1. Retailing
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>To Understand the Functions of Retailers in the Marketing Channel </li></ul><ul><li>To Identify the Major Types of Retailers </li></ul><ul><li>To overview the Major Types of Franchising </li></ul><ul><li>To identify Strategic Issues in Retailing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Retailing <ul><li>Retailers implement and conclude the actual sale of products to the final consuming units, the ultimate user. </li></ul>Possession Utility Time, place, form & information utility
  4. 4. Importance Of Retailing <ul><li>Impact on the Economy … - 18% of employment (24 mil 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution Functions - Time, Place </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing Functions - Information & Possession Utility </li></ul>
  5. 5. A Retailing Career Retail Career Salary Career Progression Geographic mobility Women in retailing Societal Perspective
  6. 6. Prerequisites for Success Success Hard Work Analytical Skills Creativity Decisiveness Flexibility Initiative Leadership Organization Risk Taking Stress Tolerance Perseverance Enthusiasm
  7. 7. Retailing: Major Types of Product (Retail Stores & Services) <ul><li>General Merchandise Retailers </li></ul><ul><li>- Department Stores --Discount Store </li></ul><ul><li> - Supermarket -- Superstore--Hypermarket </li></ul><ul><li>- Warehouse Club --- Catalog Showroom </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty Retailers </li></ul><ul><li> - Limited Line </li></ul><ul><li>- Off Price Retailers </li></ul><ul><li>- Category Killers </li></ul><ul><li>- C onvenience stores </li></ul>In-Store
  8. 8. Department Store <ul><li>Chain operations </li></ul><ul><li>Wide variety & selection </li></ul><ul><li>Full service - delivery, credit, returns, repair </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Boscov’s, Macy’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloomingdale’s </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Supermarkets - Large, self service stores with wide variety of food & some nonfood products </li></ul><ul><li>Low mark ups & profit margins, Departmentalized with Centralized checkout, Ex: Albertson’s, Safeway </li></ul><ul><li>Superstores –Very large outlets that carry food and nonfood products found in supermarkets, plus most routinely purchased consumer products </li></ul>
  10. 10. Hyper-markets: A Sure - Fire Hit, Bombs . Average size (in square feet ) Employees Annual sales per store (in millions) Gross profit margins Stock-keeping units (Number of different kinds of items stocked) 70,000 200 - 300 $10 - $20 18% - 19% 60,000 - 80,000 150,000 300 - 350 $20 - $50 15% - 16% 100,000 230,000 400 - 600 $75 - $100 7% - 8% 60,000 - 70,000 Discount Store Super Center Hypermarket
  11. 11. Specialty Stores <ul><li>Deep Selection (Product line) </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion response leader </li></ul><ul><li>Personalized service </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow Variety (Product line) </li></ul><ul><li>High markup </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: The GAP, a SPA, bookstore </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wallpapers to Go, </li></ul></ul>Convenience Stores <ul><li>Limited variety </li></ul><ul><li>Shallow selection </li></ul><ul><li>Fast service, High markup </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: 7-11, Wawa Circle K, Sheetz </li></ul>STOP & GO
  12. 12. Other Types of In-Store Retailing <ul><li>General mass merchandiser </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catalog showroom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warehouse club </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Specialty mass merchandiser </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Off-price retailer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Category Killer - Ex. Toys R US </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Category Killers Just For Feet, the category killer in the athletic footware and apparel sector founded in 1977, cruised through the 1990s. However, Just For Feet has suffered financial setbacks from a lack of adapting to changes in the evolving retail landscape.
  14. 14. The Wheel of Retailing High : status, margin, price (Specialty store) - retailers usually enter the market with low service, low margin & price operations but evolve into higher service, cost & price merchants. Conventional department stores Mass merchandise retailers Low : status, margin price, service (Wholesale clubs) Maybry’s at the Mall
  15. 15. Wheel of Retailing High Prices & Markups, Many services, Expensive Surroundings, Low prices & Low markups, few services, (austere) surroundings Small general stores Department stores 1890 - 1910 Entry of Discount stores Department Stores 1955 - 1970 Factory outlets “ Members Only” discount outlets Category killers Low price s & markups, few services , austere 1990s Enter Department stores
  16. 16. History <ul><li>In 1936,at age 30, Paul D'Amour , a bread route salesman for the Wonder Bread Baking Co. purchased the Y Cash Market in Mass. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1947, it was incorporated, Big Y® Foods, Inc. In 1952, they leased a 10,000 square foot store (Springfield) </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1980’s it was a technology leader in scanning, information systems & security. </li></ul>Progressive Grocer, Mar. 2003
  17. 17. <ul><li>MARCH 25, 2003 -- It expanded its online shopping service to include Unlimited Choices, a program to give customers access to more than 30,000 additional products such as ethnic & special dietary foods & A wide assortment of non-food items, including toys, books, housewares and gifts not carried in a typical Big Y store. A typical 55,000 square foot Big Y store carries some 35,000 different items.( bigy.com) </li></ul>Their goal is to exceed their customers' evolving expectations by seeking better ways to create and deliver world class service and value.
  18. 18. 3 Major Types of Non Store Retailing <ul><li>A. Direct Selling </li></ul><ul><li>(face to face) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Direct Marketing </li></ul><ul><li>(non personal mediums) </li></ul><ul><li>C. Automatic Vending </li></ul>
  19. 19. A. Forms of Direct Selling <ul><li>Direct Selling </li></ul><ul><li>Bank Retailing </li></ul>Sales Visits
  20. 20. B. Forms of Direct Marketing <ul><li>Catalog Marketing </li></ul>Direct-Response Marketing Television Home Shopping Telemarketing $388
  21. 21. On line Retailing (E-Tailing): Advantages Not location bound Interactive Convenient Shopbots Forms of Direct Marketing E-tailing was about 20 billion dollars in 2000 and estimated to rise to over 100 billion by 2005.
  22. 22. Percentage of Sales Online by Retail Segment Source: Investor’s Business Daily, Wednesday, September 5, 2001, p. A6.
  23. 23. Internet Retailing: Disadvantages Forms of Direct Marketing Examination Privacy/Security
  24. 24. C. Forms of Automatic Vending <ul><li>The use of machines to dispense products includes items such as candy, chewing gum, soft drinks, cigarettes, newspapers, and coffee </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantages: small amount of space needed and no sales personnel </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: high costs of equipment and frequent servicing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Strategic Retailing Issues: The Marketing Mix #1 Customers Product Price Place Promotion Merchandise Assortment Store Atmospherics Customer Service Location, Location, Location! Retail List Price Discounts Credit Advertising Personal Selling Publicity Sales Promotion
  26. 26. Strategic Issue #1. Retail Store Location <ul><li>Factors affecting location </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intended target market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of products </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Suitability of site for customer access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics of existing retail operations </li></ul></ul></ul>Three most important words in retailing: Location … location … location!
  27. 27. Strategic Issues #1. Location Dynamics <ul><li>Consumers want convenience, a subjective measurement </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience Measurements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Distance - Parking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Time - Traffic congestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li> = Convenience </li></ul>
  28. 28. LOCATION sets the trading area <ul><li>Free standing structure </li></ul><ul><li>Central Business District (CBD) </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping Malls (avg. age 23 yrs 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>- Neighborhood shopping center </li></ul><ul><li>- Community shopping center </li></ul><ul><li>- Regional shopping center </li></ul><ul><li>Non Traditional Shopping Center </li></ul><ul><li>- Factory Outlets </li></ul><ul><li>- Mini warehouse mall </li></ul>
  29. 29. Consumer Shopping Patterns <ul><li>% of Retail Chains’ Customers also shopping at </li></ul><ul><li>Retail Chains Sears Penny K-Mart </li></ul><ul><li>Sears X 66 81 </li></ul><ul><li>Penny 75 X 80 </li></ul><ul><li>K-Mart 69 60 X </li></ul>Source: Scarborough Research, “Cross Shopping Patterns,” Stores (June 1986), p. 13. Locate near to competitors for comparison shopping
  30. 30. Strategic Issue #2 Merchandise Assortment <ul><li>Retail buyers must match their product selection, quality, price with constantly changing consumer wants. </li></ul><ul><li>Scrambled merchandising- adding unrelated products to generate traffic & higher margins </li></ul>
  31. 31. Types of Merchandise Change <ul><li>- The retail store merchandise must change as consumer wants change </li></ul><ul><li>Product Selling Cycles </li></ul><ul><li>Fad…..a relatively short term selling life cycle - (under six months) </li></ul><ul><li>Fashion….a relatively enduring selling lifecycle - (over 1-2 years) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Strategic Issue #2 Merchandise Assortment Plus: Store Location Store Promotions Store Layout/Image Store Personnel Store Services Store Hours Targeted Customers
  33. 33. Many consumers value finding bargains.
  34. 34. Store Atmospherics <ul><li>The sum total of all store stimuli, interior & exterior physical characteristics that appeal to emotions (psychological field) </li></ul><ul><li>Components: Ambient factors, Design and Social Factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambient Factors ( Perceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>- lighting - sounds </li></ul><ul><li>- smell </li></ul>
  35. 35. Store Atmospherics <ul><li>Design Factors ( Perceptions) </li></ul><ul><li>- Floor covering - Ceilings - Wall coverings - Dressing Rooms - Displays/Fixtures - Aisles </li></ul><ul><li>- Color - Layout </li></ul><ul><li>- Cleanliness - Signage </li></ul><ul><li>- Furnishings - windows </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Social factors: In store service (sales personnel social & emotional labor) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Courteous  Rude behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Knowledgeable  Low information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service  Insincere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee dress norms (casual ??) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make it convenient & pleasurable for customers to shop and pay for merchandise </li></ul>Store Atmospherics Body Scan computers: personal service, selling & awareness?
  37. 37. In Store Pre sale Service <ul><li>Personal Service Climate - Calls for a highly motivated, experienced & well paid work force </li></ul><ul><li>- Retail jobs often pay poorly, are not challenging and produce high turnover </li></ul>Average length of employee tenure with retailers Estimates: 2005
  38. 38. Post-Sale Services <ul><li>Complaints and adjustments </li></ul><ul><li>Credit Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Product maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Product information </li></ul><ul><li>Pick up/Delivery </li></ul>
  39. 39. Strategic Issue Retailer Advertising <ul><li>Location + Merchandise + Services + Atmospherics + ?  Store Image </li></ul>Advertising Medium(s) Newspapers - Television - Radio - Magazine - Direct Mail - Videos-Web
  40. 40. Ideal Stores: W hat factors are most important in deciding where to shop? surveyed women said: <ul><li>Price and Value </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and Selection of Merchandise </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping Environment </li></ul>44% 34% 11% 11% Source: Newspaper Advertising Bureau Inc. (1986)
  41. 41. Retail Positioning <ul><li>Identifying an underserved market niche, or segment, and serving it through a strategy that distinguishes the retailer from others in the minds of consumers in that segment </li></ul><ul><li>Target Market - Middle class family </li></ul><ul><li>Position - Price Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Every Day Low Prices” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Rollback” gimmick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Special Buys” </li></ul></ul>Example : Wal-Mart
  42. 42. Segmentation, targeting and positioning <ul><li>Sam Walton computerized operations to lower costs to lower prices to meet target market needs with four different retail concepts: </li></ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart discount stores </li></ul><ul><li>Supercenters </li></ul><ul><li>Neighborhood Markets </li></ul><ul><li>Sam’s Club </li></ul>
  43. 43. Packaged Retail Environments <ul><li>Functional Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Focus on customer satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Integrate “total” product offerings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Result </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Added value to product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Consumer loyalty increases </li></ul></ul>Examples: Disneyland, Sea Cruises, Destination Resorts
  44. 44. Potential Channel Conflicts <ul><li>Retailers Suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Exclusive Distribution Intense Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Store Loyalty Brand Loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>High Markup +Volume Low Markup/High Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Love - Hate Relationship </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Perception as an Excellent Company </li></ul><ul><li>     Company               Executives          Analysts </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>BJ's (BJ)                   44%                81% </li></ul><ul><li>Costco (COST)                54%               100% </li></ul><ul><li>Dillard's (DDS)             63%                  6% </li></ul><ul><li>Federated (FD)              33%                56% </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>J.C. Penney (JCP)           40%                24% </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Kmart (KM)                  33%                 0% </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Kohl's (KSS)                46%                94% </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>May (MAY)                   46%                50% </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Saks (SKS)                  52%                 6% </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Sears (S)                   57%                11% </li></ul><ul><li>---------------------------------------------------------------------- </li></ul><ul><li>Target (TGT)                 69%                89% </li></ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart (WMT)              75%                94% </li></ul>
  46. 46. Consumer Relevancy Awards <ul><li>Consumer Relevancy Awards,… Criteria: </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to shop/access </li></ul><ul><li>Price/Value </li></ul><ul><li>Product Assortment </li></ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoyable Shopping experience </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer Rankings of store attributes: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cleanliness </li></ul><ul><li>2. Courtesy & Respect </li></ul><ul><li>3. Easily visible prices </li></ul><ul><li>4. Well packaged products to avoid damage </li></ul><ul><li>5. An “honest” price </li></ul>
  47. 47. Consumer Relevancy Award Winners (2001) <ul><li>Department Stores </li></ul><ul><li>Grocery Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Drug Store Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Stores </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty Store </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing, shoes & accessories </li></ul><ul><li>Discount Store Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Overall . . . . . . . . . . . </li></ul><ul><li>J C Penny </li></ul><ul><li>Publix </li></ul><ul><li>CVS </li></ul><ul><li>Best Buy </li></ul><ul><li>Barnes & Noble </li></ul><ul><li>GAP </li></ul><ul><li>Wal-Mart </li></ul><ul><li>??? </li></ul>
  48. 48. RESEARCH Knowing Your Customer Level of Customer Service ? High - - - Low Sales Personnel ? Hurried - - - Apathetic Product Selection ? Broad - - - Narrow Store Image ? Conservative - - - Modern? Consumer Profile ? Sex Age Education Income Retail Store Characteristics
  49. 49. Dual Wage Earners and Their Effect on Hours Spent Shopping 1965 1980 1995 Year 200% 100% 12 8 4 0 Families with Dual Incomes (1965 - 100%) Shopping Hours per Month Dual incomes rose ... … and shopping hours dropped SOURCE: Vision for the New Millennium . . .(Atlanta: Kurt Salmon Associates, 1997). Used with permission
  50. 50. Hypothesis <ul><li>Matching high arousal scent and high arousal music conditions will lead to enhanced </li></ul><ul><li>(a) pleasure,(b) store environment, (c) impulse buying and (d) satisfaction, compared to mismatched conditions (ie. high/low or low/high). </li></ul>Matilla,A.&J.Wortz, Jrl of Retailing,Sumr2001 Congruency of scent and music as a driver of in-store behavior Applied Research In Retailing
  51. 51. Experiment Variables <ul><li>For Scents: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lavender = low arousal scent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grapefruit = high arousal scent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>For Music: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow tempo classical = low arousal music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fast tempo classical = high arousal music </li></ul></ul>                                 
  52. 52. <ul><li>Survey Method </li></ul><ul><ul><li>343 customers were asked/270 participated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most were female and under 20 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>62% said they purchased something in the store </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Matching conditions produced higher responses than the mismatching conditions. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex) When low arousal music was paired with low arousal scent, the perceived pleasure was higher than when low arousal music was paired with high arousal scent. </li></ul></ul>+
  53. 53. Focus Group Interview Consumer Summary (1 of 2) <ul><li>Overall Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Merchandise Positive Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Selection - </li></ul><ul><li>Quality + (Mixed) - </li></ul><ul><li>Prices + - </li></ul><ul><li>Store </li></ul><ul><li>Variety + - </li></ul><ul><li>Personnel + - </li></ul><ul><li>Appearances + </li></ul>
  54. 54. Focus Group Interview Consumer Summary (2 of 2) <ul><li>Overall Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Store Positive Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Hours - </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants + - </li></ul><ul><li>Bloomsburg Town </li></ul><ul><li>Convenience + </li></ul><ul><li>Parking - </li></ul><ul><li>Atmosphere + </li></ul><ul><li>Malls + </li></ul>
  55. 55. Bloomsburg Retailing Viewed From Three Distinct Perspectives: <ul><li>Older” Consumers Working Consumers </li></ul><ul><li>- limited expenditures - economy is causing minimum </li></ul><ul><li>- buy basics purchases </li></ul><ul><li>- sees average/good - sees limited variety </li></ul><ul><li>variety - mobile, parking is inconvenient </li></ul><ul><li>- captured “in town” - willing to travel to get it </li></ul><ul><li>market </li></ul><ul><li>College Student </li></ul><ul><li>- spending limited amounts - waits to go home </li></ul><ul><li>- sees poor variety - very selective </li></ul><ul><li>- can walk to stores </li></ul>
  56. 56. Retail Information System (RIS) and Merchandise Management Issues Company Goals Human Resources Information Accounting and Financial Information Operating Information Promotion Information Merchandise Information System Technology updates: Computer Body Scanner Internet Strategy Database Marketing RFID
  57. 57. Franchising <ul><li>A franchiser licenses (to the franchisee) the right to distribute/sell specified products (trademark s) according to operational guide-lines (Time, place, price, supplies, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Develops & controls marketing strategies </li></ul>
  58. 60. Franchising: Advantages <ul><li>Less Capital Required </li></ul><ul><li>Use the Experience of Others </li></ul><ul><li>Assurance of Customers </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid Product Distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller Probability of Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising Assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Highly Motivated owner/operators </li></ul>
  59. 61. Franchising: Disadvantages <ul><li>Controlled by Franchiser (Power) </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of Franchise </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Work and Long Hours </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced Personal Control </li></ul>

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