Review Map and Chart (A)/ Read Historians’ Views (B)In what ways were the southern colonies different than the New England and middle colonies? According to the historians, why was the South a logical place for the development of the slave system? In your opinion, could the South have prospered without African slaves?
The CarolinasImpact of the British West IndiesWest Indies, especially Barbados, developed sugar plantation economy.Slaves in British West Indies outnumbered whites 4 to 1.Slave codes adopted in Barbados to control slaves.West Indies increasingly relied on mainland British America for foodstuffs.As sugar plantations began to crowd out small farmers, many came to Carolina with their slaves to farm.Carolina adopted slave code in 1696American colonization interrupted during English Civil War (1640s) and Cromwell's Protectorate (1650s)New colonies not founded until restoration to the throne of Charles II (1660-1685)New restoration colonies included the Carolinas, New York and PennsylvaniaCarolina created in 1670 after restoration and named after Charles II.Goals: grow foodstuffs for sugar plantations in Barbados and export non-English products like wine, silk, and olive oil.Exported Indians as slaves to West Indies and New England colonies (perhaps as many as 100,000).Rice became main cash crop in Carolina for export; by 1710 blacks outnumbered whites.Charles Town (Charleston) became most active seaport in the South.Became a center for aristocratic younger brothers of English aristocrats (who inherited father's fortune due to primogeniture laws)Religious toleration existed.Indians and Spanish soldiers attacked southern Carolina settlements; resented British intrusion into the region.North Carolina created officially in 1712 as a refuge for poor whites and religious dissenters from Carolina and Virginia.Became most democratic, independent and least aristocratic of original 13 colonies (similar to Rhode Island).Yet, treated Indians ruthlessly and sold many into slavery.Georgia became last British American colony founded (1733).Founded by James OglethorpeFounded as a haven for debtors as well as a buffer state against Spanish and Indian incursions from the South.Savannah emerged into a diverse community (included German Lutherans and Scottish Highlanders; but no Catholics)
Colonial SlaveryMost slaves came from West African coast (Senegal to Angola)Originally captured by African coastal tribes who traded them to European & American buyers. -- Estimated 40% of slaves captured by Africans in interior died en route to coast.Estimated 50 million Africans died or became slaves during 17th & 18th c.Of about 10-15 million Africans sent into slavery in the New World, 400,000 ended up in North America. (Majority sent to Spanish and Portuguese South Am. or to W. Indies)Between 20% to 1/3 of slaves died during the “Middle Passage”Horrific conditions:Slaves often chained by neck and extremities to deck floor.Packed into spaces about the size of a coffin; lay in own excrementIn some cases, next deck only 18” above deck floor; slaves could not turn over; lay on their back the entire voyage.Survivors eventually sold at auction blocks at ports like Newport, RI, or Charleston, SC (giant slave market)Most slaves came after 1700Some came to Jamestown as early as 1619 but only 2,000 in Virginia in 1670 -- Accounted for about 7% of southern plantation population in mid 17th c.Rising wages in England in 1680's reduced immigration to America. -- By 1680's, black slaves outnumbered white servants.1698, Royal African Co. lost its monopoly on the slave trade.Some Americans, esp. from RI, took advantage of lucrative slave tradeNumbers of slaves in America dramatically increased. -- Accounted for more than 1/2 Virginia population by 1750 -- In SC, outnumbered whites 2 to 1.A few slaves gained their freedom & some even became slave owners. -- However, this fact should not be over exaggerated! Constituted minuscule number relative to entire slave population.Slave CodesAs Africans grew in numbers, threatened whites passed laws to severely control the slave population.Most common codes stated:blacks and their children were property for life of white masters.it was a crime to teach literacy to slaves.conversion to Christianity was not grounds for freedom.South Carolina’s inherited Barbados slave codes influenced codes in other colonies.Slavery became the root of racism in America as a distinct color line was drawn. -- The notion of inferiority based on skin color was imbedded in U.S. law until the 1960s!Slave LifeSlavery harshest in the deepest South (esp. SC); least harsh in the middle colonies.Brutal & isolated conditions in rice and indigo farming led to many deathsFresh import of slavery needed to sustain productivityTobacco-growing in middle south less deadlyPlantations larger and closer together -- Afforded slaves more contact with friends and relativesIncrease of female slave populations made family life more possible by 1720.Slave pop. increased through higher birthrate.America became one of few slave societies in history to grow by natural reproduction.Slave culture became a mixture of American and African folkwaysGullah language evolved on islands off South Carolina coast. -- Blended English with several African languages: Yoruba, Ibo, HausaBanjo and bongo drum imported to America from Africa Ringshout dance contributed to development of Jazz.Religion a combination of Christianity and African rituals -- The free afterlife became a beacon of hope; story of Exodus particularly appealingSlave rebellions -- approx. 250 instances when minimum of ten slaves joined in a revolt or conspiracy. -- Stono Rebellion (1739): largest slave revolt in history of the 13 coloniesSC slaves tried to march to Spanish Florida after Spanish authorities offered freedom to any slave who reached Florida.Stopped by militia after 25 whites killed; eventually scores of slave rebels killed by militia and settlers.
Southern Society -- 18th centurySouthern class structure (from most powerful to least powerful)Plantation owners at top of social ladder --Ruled region's economy and monopolized political power.Small farmers comprised largest social group.Considered far below the prestige and power of the planter class.Most lived meager existences; some owned 1 or 2 slavesModest sized plotsLandless Whites -- most were former indentured servantsIndentured Servants (lowest of whites)Decreased in numbers as black slavery increased (esp. after Bacon's Rebellion)Only black slaves were lower in the class structureConstituted about 20% of colonial population by 1775South remained underdevelopedFew cities emergedLife revolved around southern plantations.Poor transportation -- waterways provided principal means of transportationWhy did the colonies differ from England? (Edmund S. Morgan)Demand for labor of indentured servants in the South (indentured servants)Women came in much smaller numbersImportation of slaves from Africa
Colonial lifestyleMost colonists were farmers (about 80% by the American Revolution)RolesWomen wove, cooked, cleaned, and cared for childrenMen cleared land -- fenced, planted, and cropped it; cut firewood, and butchered livestock Children helped with adult tasks as well as being schooled when possible. Compared to most 17th century Europeans, Americans had a higher standard of living. Land was cheap, although less available in southern plantation system Wages were about three times that of Europe
Characteristics of 18th century British Colonial AmericaEnormous population growth: common feature.Demographic changes resulted in shift in the balance of power between the colonies and England. 1700 = less than 300K people; 2.5 million by 1775 (20% black) High fertility rate: ratio of English settlers for each American colonist dropped 20 to 1 in 1700. 3 to 1 in 1775.Largest colonies were Virginia, Mass., Penn., NC, and Maryland Only four major cities: Philadelphia, NY, Boston, Charleston 90% lived in rural areas.America as a melting potMost mixed population in perhaps all the world despite being mainly EnglishSouth held 90% of slavesNew England the least ethnically mixed; predominantly PuritanMiddle colonies most ethnically mixedOutside of New England, about 1/2 of population non-English in 1775 Population breakdown: 1790English & Welsh (66%): English was dominant language; British institutions Scots Irish (and Scots Highlanders) (5.6%) Comprised mainly of Presbyterian Scots Lowlanders who had been transplanted to Northern Ireland decades earlier for promises of land-- Hated the British for uprooting them from Scotland. -- Most were frustrated and poorThousands came to America in early 1700s (mostly in Pennsylvania) Squatted on frontier lands and fought Native Americans. -- Once the Allegheny was reached, they moved south into backcountry of Maryland, western Virginia, & western Carolinas. Led armed marches in 18th century against wealthy easterners: -- Carolina Regulator movement in 1739 -- Paxton Boys in Pennsylvania in 1764Scots Highlanders – smaller in population; loyal to the crown German (4.5%) Fled from religious persecution, economic oppression, and war in early 1700's Settled mostly in Pennsylvania.; comprised 1/3 of its population Primarily Lutheran No loyalty to British crown. Retained German language and customs. Dutch (2.0%): concentrated in New York, New Jersey Irish (1.6%) French (0.4%) All other whites (0.3%) (Swedes, Jews, Swiss) African: 20% of population by 1775; mostly concentrated in the South Structure of Colonial SocietyStratification began to emerge by the mid 18th c.; barriers to mobility had not been as pronounced in previous years. Small Upper-class:Aristocratic plantation owners in South dominated wealth and influence Merchants, lawyers, officials, and clergymen dominated the North Yeoman farmers constituted the majority of the population: owned land Lesser tradesman, manual workers, and hired hands: many did not own land Indentured servants and jailbirds: limited-no influence Slaves: 20% of population; had no rights Americans on average had the highest standard of living in the world.Reasons for stratification Armed conflicts in 1690's & early 1700's benefited merchants in New England & middle colonies. -- Eventually, merchants held prominent positions in their churches & schools Yet, Americans had highest standard of living in world history up until that time. Later generations of farmers struggled as unclaimed land dwindled and the average size of farms shrank. -- Many sons became wage laborers or sought land beyond the Appalachians. Plantation owners bolstered by substantial ownership of slaves -- "Poor whites" increasingly forced to become tenant farmers Steady influx of indentured servants swelled lower class Paupers and convicts came often involuntarily (about 50,000) Slaves completely denied rights; no chance for upward mobility. -- Some southerners wanted to restrict further importation of slaves; crown refusedProfessionals: Clerics, Physicians, and Jurists Christian ministry most honored although less influential than in earlier times Physicians poorly trained and not highly regarded Trained lawyers by 1750 generally viewed positively (defended colonial rights and important in creating new constitutions in the colonies) 90% of population were farmers; most were subsistence farmers, many were tenant farmers. Fishing and whaling also important, especially in New England
Commerce and TradeTriangular trade (illegal trade designed to circumvent Navigation Laws)New Englanders exported timber, fish, cotton goods, and light manufacturing to French Caribbean in return for molasses.New England ships brought molasses back home to be distilled for rum production. -- RI in 1763 became the center for rum distillation in the colonies. Rum from New England shipped to West Indies where slave ships that had disposed of their human cargo, took rum to Gold Coast of Africa. Slave traders bartered with chieftains for slaves; rum used to stupefy native blacks and lure them on ships. Slaves transported on the Middle Passage to the colonies (e.g. Newport, RI) Land speculation made many investors wealthy Manufacturing Secondary in importance to farming Small industries such as tailoring, shoemaking, baking, ironworking, rope making’ coppering, and furniture making were part of small industries. Lumbering most important: shipbuilding Women spinners and weavers at home produced large output of cloth. Large variety of other enterprises: naval stores, beaver hats, rum, carpentry Increased trade Growth of American population created increased demand for British goods Once British demand for American products peaked Americans sought other markets Heavy exports to France and West Indies brought in cash to buy British goods. Molasses Act, 1733: British sought to stop colonial trade w/ French West Indies; colonists ignored it Transportation Inland transportation poor by road Waterways most important: Population located near rivers Taverns became important places to discuss politics; crystallized public opinion Postal system emerged by mid 1700s
Religion State of Religion Only about 1 in 7 in the North were church members; less in the South Toleration came about in large part due to non-church members. Two major issues: Rights of dissenters in established churches Religious style and conviction during the Great Awakening Eventually, campaign for full religious rights led to separation of church and state after the Revolution except for New EnglandDifferent religious groupsAnglican Church -- Church of England; tax supported Official faith in Virginia, Maryland, N & S Carolina, Georgia, & part of NY Church was a branch of royal authority Faith was less fierce and more worldly in contrast to Puritan faith Weakened by lack of a resident bishop in US who could ordain young ministers -- An attempt by the crown to create a bishopric met with intense protest by non-Anglicans who saw it as a conspiracy to impose royal power Established College of William and Mary in Virginia to train ministers, 1693 Congregational Church (Grew out of the Puritan church) Prominent in New England Initially, all citizens, regardless of faith, supported the church through taxes -- Eventually, non-members of other well- known denominations protested and became exempted. Emphasized Church of Christ's existence in each individual Congregation. Presbyterian Church Closely associated with the Congregational Church -- both were Calvinist Contrast to Congregationalists: Presbyterians believed all Presbyterian churches constituted a unified body Not an official religion in any of the colonies Quakers Quakers existed in large numbers in PA, NJ, DE, and Rhode Island. Avid protesters of New England slave trade as Newport, RI, was one of its centers. -- Became important in the emerging 18th century abolition movement. Jews First Jews arrived in mid-17th century; located in RI, NY, PA, MD, and SC. approximately 1500 in the colonies by mid-18th century.The Great Awakening -- 1730s-1740s First mass social movement in American History -- Spread principally throughout the middle and southern colonies. Main issue was religious style: personal faith, church practice, and public decorum. Two primary issues: Crisis within the ministry (to what degree should organizational purity be maintained) Crisis between the clergy and the laity (e.g. ministers' salaries, degree of political control exercised by the Congregation) Great Awakening was a reaction against the elaborate theological doctrines, emotional stagnation, & liberal doctrines (arminianism) of established churches -- Arminianism: Directly challenged Calvinism’s predestination doctrine and was supported increasingly by liberal ministers -- Stated man is not helpless in achieving regeneration; his will can be an effective force in his being saved Enthusiasts saw themselves as beneficiaries of a direct inspiration from God: became the driving force behind the Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards (1703-1758) Credited with starting the Great Awakening (c. 1734) in Northampton in 1734 -- Most influential theological writer and thinker of the movement. Blasted the idea of salvation through good works (arminianism); dependence on God's grace is paramount Emphasized eternal damnation Style was learned and reasoned; not emotional like other "new lights" George Whitefield (1714-1770) Brilliant English orator; made 7 trips to the American colonies and traveled extensively His basic appeal was to the Bible Most influential figure of the Great Awakening; founded Methodism in GA and SC "Old Light" vs "New Light" Old Lights -- orthodox and liberal clergymen deeply skeptical of emotionalism and theatrical antics of the revivalists. -- Believed emotionalism threatened their usefulness and spiritual authority. \\New Lights -- supported the Awakening for revitalizing American religion and used emotionalism to move followers. Congregationalists and Presbyterians split over the issue Baptists attracted believers in conversion who longed for emotion in religion. Results Created schisms in other denominations which increased competitiveness of American churches. Brought religion to many who had lost touch with it Undermined the older clergy Encouraged a new wave of missionary work among the Indians and slaves Founding of "new light" colleges: Dartmouth, Brown, Rutgers, & Princeton. Laid the foundation for anti-intellectualism as part of the American character.
EducationNew England was most fervently in favor of education Stressed Bible reading by the individual worshiper -- Primary goal of clergy was to make good Christians rather than good citizens Primary and secondary schools established early (Massachusetts School of Law) Literacy much higher in New England than the Chesapeake region or deep South where only the privileged enjoyed the benefit of education. Middle coloniesAlso had primary and secondary education Some tax-supported, some privately owned Diffusion of population made establishment of effective school systems difficult Many well-to-do families sent their sons to colleges in England South Educational opportunities limited for most people except the privileged. Wealthy planters hired tutors to teach their children. Population dispersed = longer distances to travel to school = decentralized system Higher education Primary focus on the training of new clergy, not academics -- Emphasis placed on religion and on the classical languages, Latin and Greek Improvement in higher education occurred with what became Univ. of Pennsylvania Benjamin Franklin helped establish it First American college free from denominational control -- More modern curriculum: "live" languages, experimentation, reason Nine important colleges emerged during the colonial period (others existed as well) -- Harvard, William & Mary, Yale, Princeton, Pennsylvania, Columbia, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth
Final Colony Notes
AIM: How far did Colonial Society Develop before the Revolution?<br />Do Now: <br />Identify the following:<br />Triangle Trade<br />Middle Passage<br />Georgia Experiment<br />