Antebellum south

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Antebellum south

  1. 1. The Antebellum South and Slavery
  2. 2. <ul><li>MAIN IDEAS </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly agrarian (little industry) </li></ul><ul><li>Power Shift from Upper South to Lower South </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cotton Is King!” </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery the “Peculiar Institution” </li></ul>
  3. 3. “ antebellum”
  4. 4. “ antebellum” <ul><li>Latin “before the war” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cotton Gin <ul><li>1790 – Eli Whitney </li></ul><ul><li>One person could clean 50 lbs. cotton per day </li></ul><ul><li>Demand for cotton explodes </li></ul>
  6. 6. King Cotton <ul><li>More than half the world’s cotton produced in South </li></ul>
  7. 7. King Cotton <ul><li>More than half the world’s cotton produced in South </li></ul><ul><li>Cotton as % of all US exports </li></ul>
  8. 8. Cotton Production 1820 1860
  9. 9. Economics <ul><li>Focus on single cash crop heavily depleted soil </li></ul><ul><li>Little European immig. </li></ul><ul><li>Lords of the Lash v. Lords of the Loom (benefitted from cheap cotton) </li></ul><ul><li>Several in North feared a disruption to Southern labor </li></ul>
  10. 10. Planter Aristocracy <ul><li>“ Slavocracy” </li></ul><ul><li>Wide gap between rich & poor </li></ul><ul><li>1850 – Only 1,733 families own more than 100 slaves </li></ul>
  11. 12. White Majority <ul><li>About 1/4 of white southerners owned slaves </li></ul><ul><li>3/4 didn’t but staunchly supported slavery </li></ul>
  12. 13. Why Support Slavery? <ul><li>Hope to one day buy slaves – “American Dream” at time </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in racial superiority </li></ul>
  13. 14. Slaves of the System <ul><li>Prime field hands $1200 </li></ul><ul><li>$30,000 - $40,000 today </li></ul><ul><li>Four million slaves in 1860 (4x as much as 1800) </li></ul><ul><li>After 1808 ban on trade, most were born in U.S. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Free Blacks <ul><li>250,000 by 1860 </li></ul><ul><li>Owned property </li></ul><ul><li>Prohibited from some jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Couldn’t testify against whites </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of being kidnapped & sold </li></ul>
  15. 16. Free Blacks <ul><li>Unpopular in North too </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Prejudice, Competition for jobs </li></ul>
  16. 17. The Plantation <ul><li>Planters saw slaves as investments </li></ul><ul><li>Protected from dangerous work like roofing, blasting, swamp draining </li></ul><ul><li>Who will do this work? </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from Upper to Lower South (1 mil. slaves moved) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Life as a Slave <ul><li>Conditions varied by region, farm, & master </li></ul><ul><li>Dawn ‘til dusk work </li></ul><ul><li>No real civil or political rights </li></ul><ul><li>Families often separated @ auction </li></ul>
  18. 19. http://www.encyclopediaofarkansas.net/encyclopedia/media-detail.aspx?mediaID=7354
  19. 20. Life as a Slave
  20. 21. Life as a Slave <ul><li>Majority lived on plantations with twenty or more slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Some counties in deep south – over 50% slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Religion – Mix of Christianity and African religions </li></ul><ul><li>African Methodist Episcopal (AME) Church in areas with Free Blacks </li></ul>
  21. 23. Burdens of Bondage <ul><li>Slave education illegal in many states </li></ul><ul><li>Fighting back – working slowly, stealing food/supplies, breaking tools, escape </li></ul>
  22. 24. Slave Rebellions <ul><li>Handful before Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>1822 – Denmark Vesey Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Plot in Charleston, SC </li></ul><ul><li>Discovered before it began </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders hanged </li></ul>
  23. 26. Slave Rebellions <ul><li>1831 – Nat Turner Rebellion </li></ul><ul><li>Killed whites in Virginia </li></ul><ul><li>Resulted in stricter controls, fear among whites </li></ul>
  24. 27. Early Abolitionism <ul><li>Colonization – Returning Blacks to Africa (Liberia) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. – Last major country with slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Inspired by Second Great Awakening </li></ul>
  25. 28. Radical Abolitionism <ul><li>William Lloyd Garrison – Published The Liberator – anti-slavery newspaper </li></ul><ul><li>1833 – American Anti-Slavery Society </li></ul>
  26. 29. Radical Abolitionism <ul><li>Sojourner Truth </li></ul><ul><li>1851 – “Ain’t I a Woman?” </li></ul>http://etc.usf.edu/lit2go/contents/4200/4262/4262.html
  27. 30. Radical Abolitionism <ul><li>Harriet Tubman </li></ul><ul><li>“ Black Moses” </li></ul><ul><li>Conductor on Underground RR </li></ul>http://thesavvysistah.com/inspiration/savvy-sistahs-soar-harriet-tubman/
  28. 31. Radical Abolitionism <ul><li>Frederick Douglass </li></ul><ul><li>Escaped Slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass </li></ul><ul><li>Supported political end to slavery </li></ul>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part4/4h2962.html
  29. 32. <ul><li>Frederick Douglass </li></ul>Copyright Matt López 2008
  30. 33. <ul><li>Frederick Douglass </li></ul>Copyright Matt López 2008
  31. 34. <ul><li>Frederick Douglass </li></ul>Copyright Matt López 2008
  32. 35. Dates of Abolition Worldwide 1804 - slavery ended in North 1807 - end of US slave trade 1820s – Cent. & S. America 1833: British empire 1830’s: French empire 1861: Russian serfs emancipated
  33. 36. South Lashes Back <ul><li>Worried after Nat Turner, slave codes were tightened </li></ul><ul><li>After Nullification Crisis, South feels targeted </li></ul><ul><li>Defense of slavery as a “good” using Biblical quotes </li></ul>
  34. 37. South Lashes Back <ul><li>Slaves are “happy,” get to work outside, need direction </li></ul><ul><li>Northern workers are “slaves to low wages,” trapped inside </li></ul><ul><li>Southern post offices required to destroy abolitionist newspapers </li></ul>
  35. 38. Gag Resolution – 1836-1844 <ul><li>Southern reps push resolution through House </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery can not be debated </li></ul><ul><li>Former President and current Rep. John Quincy Adams fought to repeal resolution </li></ul>
  36. 40. Abolitionist Impact in North <ul><li>Radical abolitionists attacked in north. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Northern politicos avoided radical abolition, supported ban in new territories – “Free Soilers” </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict over Popular Sovereignty </li></ul>
  37. 41. Future Clash <ul><li>What happens next??? </li></ul>
  38. 42. <ul><li>MAIN IDEAS </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly agrarian (little industry) </li></ul><ul><li>Power Shift from Upper South to Lower South </li></ul><ul><li>“ Cotton Is King!” </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery the “Peculiar Institution” </li></ul>

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