TRAINING REPORT SUBMITTED BY DARSHAK BHUPTANI BRANCH B.Tech in AEROSPACE ENGINEERING (BTAE) ENROLLMENT NUMBER 093574710 COLLEGE ROLL NUMBER 2009-AEP-S12 INDIAN INSTITUTE FOR AERONAUTICAL ENGINEERING &INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY PSC OF INDIRA GANDHI NATIONAL OPEN UNIVERSITYS.NO 85, SHASTRI CAMPUS, NDA ROAD, SHIVANE, PUNE411023 2011-2012
Acknowledgment It brings me a great pleasure to be the part of ALBATROSS FLYINGSYSTEMS for the training period of twenty one days. My special thanks to Mr. Javad Hassan, Director of Albatross FlyingSystems, for taking a lot of pain to see that I can learn something new whichwould not be possible to get in any books. It is because of him only I have been able to prepare this report. I would also thanks to all the staffs of Albatross Flying Systems for guidingand teaching us something new which is practical. I request him to be always there to guide me and show the correct pathwhenever I need. Thank you Sir once again.
AbstractWith jumbo jets you see a lot of things but nothing is vivid, everything is too tiny from highabove to observe or enjoy the variation. This is where sports in aviation play its role. Yes, thepowered hang gliders, hang gliders and micro lights are the ways to enjoy sports in aviation. Infollowing pages one will have a bird eye view of gliders micro lights, float trikes and the mostimportant propellers.Power is derived from propellers for powered hang gliders and microlights.it won’t be anexaggeration if we say that propellers were one of the turning points in aviation industry.Report starts with engines then the gliders and their use as sport in aviation. Also details of RCmodel which we prepared during training are covered.For the manufacturing of these products there are various process and procedure which has to becarried out are broadly explained with an example in various units of Albatross Flying Systems.This is the report which has been made from the exposure which I have got from AlbatrossFlying Systems, Bangalore. This includes various topics such as manufacturing of propellers forDRDO, HAL, CAE, Indian Army, ISRO, ADE, private sectors, individuals etc, introduction tovarious hang gliders, flight star micro light aircraft, parameters and different parts which areusing in this systems like engines, wings etc.This also includes the maintenance of single seater husky aircraft and RC plane manufacturing.
IntroductionWe got to know one more facet of aviation industry that is sports in aviation. The sports inaviation have a very wide scope with the use of hang gliders, powered hang gliders.The sports in aviation are very popular in European countries especially in USA, UK, andCanada.In the training at Albatross Flying Systems we were made aware of various hang gliders,powered hang gliders, parachutes and various engines that are used on these micro lights and themaintenance of these engines.
COMPANY PROFILEAlbatross Flying Systems, was started in 1987 at Ootacamund, and involved inBuilding of hang gliders and progressed to single seat PHG’s in 1993.They have been providing maintenance and servicing of Paramotors, including overhaulof engines, supply of Paramotors and Para gliders for the various Aero-Nodal Centres ofthe Indian Army for the past few years.They have had a manufacturing facility in Ootacamund for manufacture of PHG forexport to USA.In 2002 we were on the team for design and development of the ASTRA PHG’s using theRotax 503 and HKS 700 E engines for M/s. Sport flight International, USA.They successfully manufactured two prototype Powered hang gliders one with a Rotax503 engine and another with a HKS 700 E engine that were shipped to the USA fortesting and evaluation in early 2003.In early 2005 they developed the Rotax 912 series of ASTRA PHG’s which is inproduction presently.In 2007 they introduced the FLIGHTSTAR Micro light from USA and have been offeringthis aircraft to various organisations.This company have created the vital infrastructure for the aviation manufacturingbusiness using advanced technology Laser cutting, water jet and CNC machines formilling components to ensure high quality of the finished products.These products are constructed from high quality raw materials. Some sourced from Indiaand some specific materials like fabric for the wing and engines are imported.The materials they use are consistent with worldwide standards for manufacture of aerosports equipment and accessories.
3. Cruiser Powered Hang GliderThe “Cruiser” is a twin seat flex wing micro lights (also known as a powered hangglider) and is a natural choice of aircraft for people who want to share the enjoyment offlying.It also allows a high cruise speed for those who want to achieve cross-country flights.The cruiser’s climb performance with two people on board is at 45 degrees off therunway.The average fuel economy fully loaded with maximum all up weigh at cruise speed is 9litters per hour. With its long-range fuel tanks it has a range of approx 400 kilometres intest conditions.The cruiser has been developed to suit the needs of progressive flex-wing pilots. It iscapable of carrying 2 people over long distances at a high cruise speed.The cruiser has been designed as a modular aircraft. The standard version comescomplete with a full pod, windscreen, etc, which clean up the airflow significantly aswell as creating a comfortable flying environment for the pilot.The CRUISER range of trikes is most suited for training as well as serious cross-countryflying.
Specification: HKS700 E ROTAX 503 Rotax 582 Rotax 912 Empty weight: 215 Empty weight: 192 Empty weight: 212 Empty weight: 225 KG KG kG KG Max. Takeoff Max. Takeoff Max. Takeoff Max. Takeoff weight: 375 kilos weight: 375 kilos weight: 375 kilos weight: 375 kilos Wing area: 15 sq. Wing area: 15 sq. Wing area: 15 sq. Wing area: 15 sq. meters meters meters meters Climb rate: 750 Climb rate: 650 Climb rate: 850 Climb rate: 1100 FPM FPM FPM FPM Stall speed: 56 kph Stall speed: 56 kph Stall speed: 56 kph Stall speed: 56 kph Cruise Speed: 104 Cruise Speed: 104 Cruise Speed: 104 Cruise Speed: 120 kph kph kph kph Maximum speed: Maximum speed: Maximum speed: Maximum speed: 112 kph 112 kph 120 kph 144 kph Fuel capacity: 45 liters Fuel consumption: Fuel consumption: Fuel consumption: Fuel consumption: 15-18 liters per 9-10 liters per hour 12-15 liters per hour 12-15 liters per hour hour Range: 400 kilometers (250 miles) Take off distance: Take off distance: Take off distance: Take off distance: 100 mtrs 100 mtrs 85 mtrs 70 mtrs Propeller : Aerolux Propeller : Powerfin Propeller : Ivo Prop Propeller : Aerolux 3 blade carbon 3 blade carbon 3 blade carbon 3 blade carbon
The cruiser is also available in a basic version without the pod and additional cosmetic fittings.Optional equipment • Lynx headsets and intercoms • Training bars • Icom radios • Gas struts • Intercoms • Floats for trikes • Binnacle pod-basic version • Reserve parachute • Trailer for trikesThe cruiser is manufactured in India under license from Sport Flight International.
4. Flight star Micro light AircraftThe Flight star Aircraft manufactured in India and delivered ready to fly. The airframecomponents are all aircraft specification aluminium and protected against corrosion. Thewing is streamlined strut braced with large diameter, tubular spars reinforced with doublesleeves and stainless bushings. The custom airframe components are designed with wearlife and maintenance in mind.They are machined and finished to a very high standard. The wing and control surfacesare covered with pre-sewn, pre-colour Dacron, in a custom colour pattern you get tochoose. With the optional X-ply Mylar coverings, the wings and tails are easy to cleanand give long lasting performance without the cost and hassle of other systems. Thecoverings are computer designed and cut to ensure proper fit. The covering sets have allthe re-enforcement patches sewn with openings for inspection. The quality control andassembly method we employ produces unbelievably tight, attractive flight surfaces.The cockpit cages are made of 4130 chrome molly steel, finished in black powder coat.The various brackets are manufactured from stainless steel. The seats are made withpadded gray Corduroy and are surprisingly comfortable. Three-point shoulder harnessesare standard, with four-point harnesses available as an option. The windshields are thick,lightly tinted poly-carbonate plastic. The instrument panels are large and vibrationisolated. The composite fairings and enclosures come finished in a colour of your choice.The main landing gear is rugged and made from 4130 chrome molly-powder coated andutilizes a long travel, bungee cord suspension. The nose wheel is directly steered from therudder pedals and pivots in large oiltite bearings. The nose wheel fork utilizes pultrudedglass fibre fork rods for suspension. The main fuselage structural member is largediameter aircraft aluminium boom, which mounts the engine, wing and tail surfaces. TheFlight star dyna focal engine mounts are 1/4” thick die-stamped aluminium, with rubbervibration isolator mounts. The exhaust mount is a rubber isolated stainless assembly thatclamps around the exhaust muffler eliminating the cracking problems common in weldedattachments.All fasteners used are either AN or MS specification. The 10 gallon fuel tanks aremoulded for Flight star in thick crosslink polyethylene. This allows the use of allavailable automotive fuels without affect from oxygenated additives like Ethanol orMTBE. The tanks come with a proper sump and PMA approved lever- type cap and drainfittings
Standard Equipment • 60hp HKS 4 Stroke Air cooled Engine • Fully Enclosed Cabin With / Zippered Sport Doors • High Lift Wing With Streamlined Struts • Flight star Wing fold System • Durable Aluminium And Stainless Custom Hardware • 10 Gallon Rotational Melded Fuel Tank W/Sump • Full Dual Control System • Rugged Chromemoly Cage And Landing Gear • Heavy Duty Stamped Dynofocal Engine Mount • Anodized Airframe For Corrosion Protection • 4 Point Pilot Restraint Harnesses • Your Choice Of Custom Colours • Full Instrument Package • Complete Electrical System • In-Flight Adjustable Trim • 3 Blade Composite Propeller • Azusa Drum Brake System Flight star IISC/SpecificationWing Span 32 FtLength 19 Ft.7 In.Height 7 Ft.10 In.Wing Area 157 Sq. Ft.Aspect Ratio 6.53Empty Weight 385 LBSGross Weight 450 kgs.Fuel Capacity 10 Gal. 4 Stroke HKS 700E (680 C.C. 60 HP @Power Plant 6200 RPM) 3.47 To 1 Reduction Ratio.Propellers Power fin F Model 70 Diameter
PerformanceCruise Speed (@ 75% Power) 65 Mph.Stall Speed (Vso @ Wg) 36 Mph.VNE 96 Mph.Climb Rate (@ Wg) 600 FpmMax. Range (W/10 Gal.) 250 MilesRoll Rate(45 To 45) 2.8 SecTakeoff Roll (@ Wg) 205 Ft.Glide Ratio (Engine Off) 7 To 1Sink Rate 450 Fpm
5. Quicksilver AircraftQuicksilver produces ultralight, ultralight type, light Sport, and Experimental/Ameateur Builtaircraft kits. As the most commomnly used ultralight training aircraft in America, quicksilver’slight aircraft are recognized for being ideal for recreational flying as well as flight training. Twopopular lines of aircraft are produced: the MX series and the GT series. The MX series of aircraftoffers the best in open cockpit flying while the GT series offers high performance and partial orfull enclosure for cooler climates. Whether you have logged thousands of flight hours in large,fast and complex aircraft or you are just being introduced to flying, quicksilver has a model foryou.
6. Paramotors Albatross Flying Systems has designed a high quality paramotor unit. It is powered by either a SIMONINI, Hirth F33 engine that delivers 22HP or the proven SOLO 210 engine. Paramotor is a generic name for the propulsive portion of a powered paraglider. It consists of a frame that combines the motor, propeller, harness (with integrated seat) and cage. It provides two attachment points for the risers of a paraglider wing that allows for powered flight. The term was first used by Englishman Mike Byrne in 1980 and popularized in France around 1986 when La Mouette began adapting power to the then-new paraglider wings. Pilots who fly these engage in paramotoring, also known as powered paragliding. Engines used are almost exclusively small two-stroke types, between 80cc and 350cc, that burn mixed gasoline and oil. These engines are favored for their high output power and light weight and use approximately 3.7 liters (1 US Gal.) of fuel per hour depending on paraglider efficiency, weight of motor plus pilot and conditions. At least one manufacturer is producing a 4-stroke model. Electrically powered units are on the horizon. Csaba Lemak created the first electric PPG, flying it first on June 13, 2006. Flight duration for electrics is considerably shorter. Wankel rotary engine paramotors are also available, but rare. The pilot controls thrust via a hand-held throttle and steers using the paragliders brake toggles similar to sport parachutists. Engine: Hirth F 33 with electricstart.Total engine and cage weight: 22kilosFuel tank capacity: 10 litersFuel burn rate at cruise speed: 2.5liters per hourClimb rate (maximum): 500 feet perminute (2.5 meters per sec)Propeller Type: 2 blade 122 cm.multi laminate (4 blade option)Maximum duration: 3.5 hours
7. Rotax 503 UL DCDI 50HPThe Rotax 503 features piston ported, air-cooled cylinder heads and cylinders, utilizingeither a fan or free air for cooling. Lubrication is either by use of pre-mixed fuel and oilor oil injection from an externally mounted oil tank. The 503 has dual independentbreakerless, magneto capacitor-discharge ignition (CDI) systems and can be equippedwith either one or two piston-type carburetors. It uses a manifold-driven pneumatic fuelpump to provide fuel pressure. An optional High Altitude Compensation kit is available. Combustion chambers 2.84 / 72.0mm Bore Stroke 2.40 / 61.0mm Displacement 30.31cu.in. / 496.7cm³ Theoretical: 10.8 Compression ratio Effective: 6.2 Weight Engine with 73.2lbs / 33.2Kg carburetors Exhaust system 11.2lbs / 5.1Kg Air filter 1.1lbs / 0.5Kg No gearbox, no 85.5lbs / 38.8Kg electric starter B gearbox, 95.4lbs / 43.3Kg no electric starter B gearbox, 106.2lbs / 48.2Kg electric starter C gearbox, 103.1lbs / 46.8Kg no electric starter C gearbox, 113.9lbs / 51.7Kg electric starter E gearbox 110.2lbs / 50.0Kg
Performance 49.6HP / 37.0kW Maximum power @6500 RPM 41.3ft-lb / 56NM Maximum torque @6000 RPM Maximum RPM 6800 RPM The engines propeller drive is via a Rotax type B, C or E style gearbox. The standard engine includes a muffler exhaust system with an extra after-muffler as optional. The standard starter is a recoil start type, with an electric starter optional. An integral alternating current generator producing 170 watts at 12 volts with external rectifier- regulator is optional. The engine includes an intake air filter and can be fitted with an intake silencer system.• 2-stroke engine specially developed for recreational aircraft• 2 cylinders, cooled by fan• Piston ported intake• Dual capacitor discharge Ignition (DCDI)• Dual Bing carburetors• Mikuni pulse driven diaphragm fuel pump• Recoil or electric starter• Available with various exhaust system configurations• Operates on automotive fuel with a minimum of 87 octane rating (Canadian standards) and super 2-stroke oil of API-TC classification, automatically provided by oil injection, or premixed with a 50:1 ratio• Challenger owners, we make the installation of oil injection possible!• Time Between Overhauls (TBO): 300 hours
8. ROTAX 582The Rotax 582 is a 48 kW (64 hp) two-stroke, two-cylinder, rotary intake valve, oil-in-fuel or oil injection pump, liquid-cooled, gear reduction-drive engine manufactured byBRP-Rotax GmbH Co. KG. It was designed for use on light sport and ultra lightaircraft.The Rotax 582 is based upon the earlier Rotax 532 engine design. The 582 increased thebore from the 532 engines 72 to 76 mm (2.8 to 3.0 in) and increased the stroke from 61to 64 mm (2.4 to 2.5 in) This increased the displacement from 521.2 cc (31.81 cu in) to580.7 cc (35.44 cu in), an increase of 11%. The increased displacement had the effect offlattening out the 532s torque curve and allowed the 582 to produce useful power over awider rpm range. Reliability over the 532 was also improved.The 582 features liquid-cooled cylinder heads and cylinders with a rotary valve inlet.Cooling is via an externally-mounted radiator. Lubrication is either by use of pre-mixedfuel and oil or oil injection from an externally-mounted oil tank. The 582 has dualindependent breaker less, magneto capacitor-discharge ignition (CDI) systems and isequipped with two piston-type carburetors. It uses a manifold-driven pneumatic fuelpump to provide fuel pressure. An optional High Altitude Compensation kit is available.The engines propeller drive is via a Rotax type B, C or E style gearbox. The standardengine includes a muffler exhaust system with an extra after-muffler as optional. Thestandard starter is a recoil start type, with an electric starter optional. An integralalternating current generator producing 170 watts at 12 volts with external rectifier-regulator is optional. The engine includes an intake air filter and can be fitted with anintake silencer system.
9. HKS 700EThe HKS 700E is a twin-cylinder, horizontally opposed, four stroke, carburetted aircraftengine, designed for use on ultra light aircraft, powered parachutes and ultra light trikes.The engine is manufactured by HKS, a Japanese company noted for its automotive racingengines.The HKS 700E is equipped with dual capacitor discharge ignition, dual carburetors andan electric starter. The cylinders are nickel-ceramic coated. Cooling is free air, with oil-cooled cylinder heads. The engine has a single camshaft operating overhead valves; eachcylinder has four valves. The lubrication is a dry sump system with a trochoid pump.The reduction drive is a choice of two integral gearboxes. The A-type gearbox has a2.58:1 ratio and can accommodate propellers of up to 4,000 kg/cm2 inertial load. The B-type gearbox has a 3.47:1 ratio and can accommodate propellers of up to 6,000 kg/cm2.The 700E burns 9 L (2.4 US gal) per hour in cruise flight at 4,750 rpm.The recommendedtime between overhauls is 800 hours, although this is expected to be increased asexperience is gained.Producing 60 hp (45 kW) at 6,200 rpm for three minutes for take-off and 56 hp (42 kW)at 5,800 rpm continuously, the 700E was designed to compete with the Rotax 582 andRotax 912 engines.
10.Float trikeIt is a variation of an aerorboat. The float trike design is based on a twin float platformincorporated with a trike base the engine installed is a rotax 503.Uses:- 1) It can be used in monitoring water bodies in case of natural calamities like flood. 2) It can be used to inspect wildlife which has very large water bodies.
11.Buckeye powered parachute It is backpack paramotar. It is purely for sport flying and powered by rotax 582 65 hp engine. The wing is a ram air type parachute. It has a pusher 3 blade propeller. The machine is equipped with dual controls with hand start and electric start both. The fuel capacity is 30lt which provides for about 2hr of flying. Take off distance is less than 100m all up wt 450kg. It is powered by 2 stroke engine. It is used for sport and hobby flying. This form of sport is getting very popular in India. The backpack paramotor is powered by solo 210cc engine 2 stroke single cylinders with a reduction belt drive. Fuel used is normal petrol and has capacity of 10lt for 3 hours of flying. The wing is an electrical ram air parachute. Highly evolved for foot launch. It has top speed of 60kmph. Other engines that are commonly installed are simonini and harth.PRE-FLIGHT PLANNINGPlanning is pivotal to the legal safe operation of all aircraft. Please ensure that the followingconditions always apply:
12. Crusier 503Air LawBefore flight, check that your aircraft documents and pilot qualifications qualify in the state orcountries in which you intend to operate. Air Law can vary from country to country and fromstate to state; be sure to always fly within the letter of the Air Law that operates in your state orcountry. Make sure you have permission to fly from both your take-off site and your intendedlanding site.Weather ConditionsFlex wing Ultralights and Sport planes should only be flown in calm conditions. The prudentpilot takes care to avoid flying in strong winds (more than 10mph), gusts, thermal conditions,crosswinds, rain and any kind of storm. Remember also that the weather at your destination maybe different from your starting point, so check before you set off. Detailed aviation weatherreports are usually available from your local Airfield, and on the internet. If the weatherunexpectedly changes for the worse during a flight, then the safest option is to land at a suitablelanding site at the earliest opportunity.Route PlanningPlan your route using an appropriate pilot’s map, properly folded and stowed in an appropriatemap-holder which is securely fastened to the pilot/passenger or airframe. Ensure that yourplanned route remains within the operational Air Laws of your state/country. Always plan yourroute so that you fly within safe gliding distance of a suitable landing area in the event of powerloss or complete engine failure. Avoid flying over mountains or large hills, seas or lakes, built-up areas, woods or forests, deserts with soft sand or anywhere else that renders a safe landingimpossible in the event of an emergency. Remember that there is a greater risk of turbulencewhen flying near mountains. Never fly in the lee of hills or mountains if the surface wind isanything other than calm, since lee rotor can be extremely dangerous. Always plan for thepossibility of having to divert to an alternate airfield because of bad weather, and make sure youcarry enough fuel to reach your alternate destination with a further 60 minutes of flying time inreserve. Use the advice in this paragraph in conjunction with that obtained in your formaltraining. This advice must not be taken as a substitute for proper training.ClothingBoth extreme heat and extreme cold can be dangerous to pilot and passenger, since they canaffect the human brain’s decision making process. Please ensure that you wear clothingappropriate to the conditions in which you fly. Crash helmets, ear defenders, gloves and apurpose-built flight suit should always be worn, irrespective of the conditions! In brightconditions, high quality unbreakable sunglasses are also a sensible precaution. Remember thatthe temperature drops 2-4 degrees F per 1000 feet of altitude, so clearly if your route demandshigh altitude flying you should dress appropriately. Remember also that the pilot and passengerin open cockpit aircraft will suffer from wind chill, which has the effect of making the ambient
temperature seem much lower than it actually is. Finally, check that neither pilot nor passengerhas any objects which can fall out of their pockets since any loose objects are likely to passthrough the propeller arc, destroy the propeller in doing so and seriously threaten the safety ofthe aircraft and its occupants.The PayloadThe aircraft available payload is the difference between its dry empty weight (see Section 3.1)and its maximum authorized takeoff weight (MAUW - see Section 3.1). Before each flight youshould calculate the combined weight of the aircraft, fuel, pilot and passenger and ensure that itnever exceeds (375 kilograms).FuelBefore each flight, you should calculate your fuel requirement. (For an approximate fuelconsumption guide, see Section 3.5; remember that fuel consumption can be affected by manyfactors including engine condition, takeoff weight, density altitude, speed). You should ensurethat you have enough fuel and reserve for your planned flight (See paragraph on Route Planningabove) by carrying out a visual check of the fuel level before you set off and calculating theendurance limit of the aircraft leaving at least a 30% reserve factor. Never rely only on fuelgauges, use them only in conjunction with your calculated fuel endurance notes. Check the fuelis of the appropriate quality (see Section 3.2), properly filtered against impurities. Drain a smallquantity of fuel via the drain valve before each flight to check for water. Check the fuel filterand dual bowls daily.Human FactorsBefore flying, check the Human Factors detailed in Appendix A, Human PerformanceLimitations. Never fly with a cold, under the influence of drink or drugs, after anillness/accident without clearance from your Doctor, or when feeling depressed.MODIFICATIONSYou must not carry out unauthorized modification to the aircraft. It is extremely unsafe to carryout unauthorized modifications to your aircraft and all warranties will be deemed to be cancelledif the aircraft is found to be modified from its original state.PRE-FLIGHT CHECKSIt is essential that rigorous checks are carried out daily before flight, exactly to the schedule insection 6. In addition to the full daily inspection and pre-flight checks detailed in section 6.Ensure that SERVICING: the engine and airframe are within Service limits (see section 12.5).
LIFED COMPONENTS: the engine and airframe are within life limits (see section 12.6). Ifthere are any grounds for suspicion about any element of your aircraft’s safe operation, do notfly.SAFETY HARNESSESCRUISER aircraft are equipped with a harness for the pilot, and a four point harness for thepassenger. These should be worn at all times; it is particularly important for the safety of thepilot in an accident that the passenger should wear the shoulder straps provided. Double checkthat both harnesses are secure as part of the Pre-take-off check (See Section 7.2). If flying solo,ensure the rear seat harness is secured so that the straps and in particular the shoulder strapscannot flap around in the wind and get into the engine magneto or catch the hot exhaust pipe,which may cause them to melt and lose some or all of their strength.GROUND HANDLINGA flight has not been successfully and safely concluded until the engine has been stopped, theaircraft has been securely parked and picketed or hangared, and the pilot and passenger havedisembarked. Do not make the mistake of losing concentration just because you have landedsafely. Never taxi at more than walking pace. Use the brakes gently. Remember to makesufficient allowance for the span of the aircraft when maneuvering in confined spaces. Alwaysbe ready to switch off the engine in the event of any problem. Respect ground handlinglimitations and avoid taxiing in strong winds and gusty conditions. For fixed wing pilots,remember the nose-wheel steering operates in the opposite direction to that which you are usedto.AIRSTRIP CRITERIAYour airstrip should be smooth, flat, devoid of obstructions, clear of stones and other obstacleswhich may damage the aircraft and more particularly the propeller. Short cut grass or asphalt isideal surfaces. The strip should be sufficiently long to allow for a straight ahead landing in theevent of an engine failure on climb out. Both the approach and the climb out zones should befree of any high obstructions like trees, towers, electric poles, cables buildings, and ideallythere should be some alternate landing fields in these zones to allow for safe landings in theevent of engine problems, when landing or taking off. Airstrips surrounded by trees or otherobstacles should be avoided, particularly in windy conditions, since low-level turbulence androtor are likely to be present. Exercise great care when visiting other airstrips for the first time,since it is quite possible that they are not suitable for safe Ultralight operations.SPECIAL HAZARDSYou should be aware of the following special hazards and it is your duty to point them out topassengers and spectators:
PropellersRotating, and indeed even stationary propellers pose potential dangers. Rotating propellers arevery hard to see, so special attention should be made to keep persons, and especially children andpets, clear of the aircraft once it has been started. Persons should never stand either in line withthe arc of the propeller or behind it since there is always a possibility that stones or other objectscan be picked up and hurled at great speed in any direction. In the event of a propeller strikeshut down the engine immediately and does not re-start until you are satisfied that no structuraldamage has been done to the propeller. If any damage is visible, do not fly until the damagedblade has been repaired or replaced and the engine has been inspected for shock load damage.GENERAL ARRANGEMENT DRAWINGS 10350 WING 3864 TRIKE 1640 3685 10350 3500
PRIMARY STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS - THE WING KING POST LUFF LINES AND TOP RIGGING WIRES A-FRAME UNDER-SURFACE INSPECTION POCKET BATTENS TOP SURFACE BATTENS WASHOUT ROD KEELThe SailThe CRUISER wing is the product of one the most experienced flex wing design teams in theworld today. The sail fabric is cut with exacting accuracy from stabilized polyester using a tight,virtually non-porous and tear-resistant weave construction. Double-stitched seams using acompatible thread ensure complete panel join integrity. Sail reinforcement is achieved byincluding extra material at high stress points. A Tri lam sandwich or Mylar leading edge and aKevlar trailing edge maintain the wing’s performance over a long life.The aerofoil section is defined by pre-formed aluminum and pre-formed aluminum/compositeribs, with chord wise tension being maintained by attachment to the trailing edge. Thepredictable low speed stall exhibited by the CRUISER is achieved mainly by the clean lines ofthe airfoil’s leading edge radius.The AirframeAll the main tubing used in the airframe is a high quality aluminium alloy from aircraft qualitybillets using a special process of mandrel extrusion followed by being drawn to agreed industryspecifications. All tubes and inserts are anodized to give protection against corrosion.There are no welded components in the wing frame, and sheet fittings are plated, anodized ormade from stainless steel. All bolts are of high tensile steel. Rigging wires are vinyl coveredwhere necessary to afford protection to the occupants and to also serve as an anti-kink measure.
PRIMARY STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS - THE TRIKEPOD OPTIONAL APRON OPTIONAL HANG POINT PASSENGER NECKREST PULL START 1860 FUEL DRAIN VALVE SIDE STRUT PITOT 1640
The Power Units ROTAX Type 2 stroke Model 503 Power 49 bhp Ignition Dual CDI Cylinders 2 Reduction 3.47 :1 Fuel/oil mix 2% Fuel min. 92 RON ratingENGINE CONTROLSThrottleThe primary throttle control is foot-operated (forward for full power and rearward for power off)and complemented by the friction-damped hand throttle (forward power on and rearward off) onthe left side of the seat frame.ChokeThe choke control is by means of a lever located on the left side of the seat. The lever isREARWARD for choke OFF, forward for choke ON. Normal operation is always with chokeoff.Contact SwitchesTwo ignition-kill switches - one for each ignition system - (up for on/down for off) are fitted, onein front of the other, on the starboard side of the seat frame. The two switches should normally beoperated together by stroking with a finger or thumb.BRAKE SYSTEMA drum brake is mounted in the nose wheel and operated by a foot pedal on the left side of thefront fork steering bar.FUEL SYSTEMThe Fuel Tank and SystemFuel is fed from a single fuel tank mounted beneath the seats. The fuel system has an externalfilter backed up by an internal strainer fitted to the end of the fuel tank pick-up pipe. There is amechanical and electric pump fitted to the CRUISER. In the case of the CRUISER themechanical pump may not provide sufficient fuel flow to keep the engine running so it is advisedto keep the electric pump running at all times while the engine is running.
GENERAL INFORMATIONEMPTY WEIGHTTypical empty weight for the CRUISER is as follows: Rotax 503 194kgFUEL LOADSThe fuel tank is 49 liters capacity, including 0.6 liters unusable, giving 15 liters useable for dualflying, for single flying without passenger 48.4 liters is usable fuel. Prior to takeoff pilot shouldmake weight and balance calculations to ensure that the maximum takeoff weight does notexceed 375 kg.CENTRE OF GRAVITYTrikeThe center of gravity (CG) of the trike is not very critical – it only affects the range of pitchcontrol movement, not the trim speed. The CG of the both the rear seat occupant and the fuel areas close as possible to the hang point with the trike in the suspended attitude, so the suspendedattitude is little affected with load variation. Solo flight is from the front seat only.WingThe CG of the wing is critical. Due to the materials used and the quality control in manufacture,the CG of the CRUISER wing does not vary significantly in production. Items should not beattached to the wing which significantly changes the CG. The hang point position on the wingkeel must not be moved from the designed and tested position.AIRCRAFT DIMENSIONSWing Data Wing Span: 33.95 ft. 10.35 m. Sail Area: 160 sq ft. 15.0 sq. m. Aspect Ratio: 6.86Trike Data Length (erect): 113.0 ins 282.0 cm Length (fold down): 114.0 ins 289.0 cm Width: 72.0 ins 83.0 cm Track: 65.0 ins 165.0 cm Height (erect): 98.0 ins 249.0 cm Height (fold down): 61.0 ins 155.0 cm Minimum payload: 156.0 lbs 70.8 kg
POWERPLANT SPECIFICATIONSMODEL RotaxType 2 strokeModel 503Power 49 bhpIgnition system Dual CDICylinders 2Reduction ratio 3.47:1Fuel/oil ratio n/aMin fuel rating 92 RONProp manufacturer WoodenProp type 2 blade woodenProp pitch 16°Measured @ radius @75 RRUNNING GEAR Tire Pressures – front and rear 22.0 psi 1.5 barPERFORMANCEGeneral PerformancePerformance data in mph feet Rotax 503Best safe descent rate, power off, MAUW 450 fpmIAS for best safe descent, power off 40 mphGlide Distance from 2000’ = 3.0 miles @ 40 mphGlide Distance from 2000’ = 2.5 miles @ 46 mphVNE 90 mphFlight manoeuvre loads +4g/-0gBest rate of climb, MAUW (ISA) 550 fpmAirspeed for best rate of climb 45 mphTake off distance to 50’, Max AUW** 880 ftLanding distance from 50’, MAUW 640 ftTrimmed cruise @ Max/Min AUW 60 mphPerformance is given at 375 kg AUW.Fuel ConsumptionApprox. values, 375 kgs TOW Rotax 503At 50 mph (80 km/h) 13 L/hrAt 60 mph (100 km/h) 14 L/hrFull takeoff power 15 L/hr
Stalls All Models At 375 kg max AUW 285kg min AUW Wings level stall, power off, MAUW Mush 33 mph Height loss during recovery, MAUW 50 ft Max. pitch down below horizon 30° Wings level stall, power on, MAUW Mush 29 mph Max. pitch down below horizon, MAUW 0° 30 degree banked stalls, power on, @ Max AUW n/a No stall exhibited, min. possible speed is 40 mph Wings level stall, power off, @ Min AUW 27 mph Height loss, power recovery @ Min AUW 30 ft Max. pitch down below horizon @ Min AUW 30° Wings level stall, power on, @ Min AUW Mush 26mph Max. pitch down, power on recovery, @ Min AUW 0° 30 degree banked stalls, power off, @ Min AUW Mush 30 mphOPERATING LIMITATIONSGENERAL LIMITATIONSThe CRUISER trike must be operated in compliance with the following limitations: • The aircraft is to be flown only under Visual Flight Rules (VFR). • The minimum instrumentation required to operate the aircraft: tachometer (RPM), dual CHT (for air-cooled engines). Oil temp oil pressure. • When flown solo, the aircraft must be flown from the front seat only. • The aircraft must be flown such as to maintain positive normal acceleration (positive ‘g’) at all times. • The aircraft must not be flown in negative ‘g’. • Do not pitch nose up or nose down more than 45° from the horizontal. • Do not exceed more than 60° of bank. • ALL aerobatic manoeuvres including whipstalls, wingovers, tail slides, loops, rolls and spins are prohibited.
GENERAL LIMITATIONS – ALL MODELS Max. Empty weight (Subject to 194 kgs approved equipment fit) Max. takeoff weight 375 kgs Min. total occupant weight 68 kgs Max. front seat weight 115 kgs Max. number of occupants 2 Max. pilot + passenger weight 150 kg Max. useable fuel ( pilot and 30 liters passenger) Max. useable fuel (single-only pilot) 40 liters Maneuvering airspeed (Va) 59 mph Max. load factor at VNE +4g VNE 90 mph Max. load factor @ VNE Max. wind operating conditions 20 mph Cross wind limitations - Min. and Max. AUW, wind @ 90° ° Taxiing 15 mph Take off 10 mph Landing 10 mphPOWERPLANT LIMITATIONS Rotax 503 Max RPM 6000 Max continuous RPM 5600 Min. fuel spec. RON 92 2 stroke engine oil 2 T synthetic or semi synthetic oilWING RIGGING1. Select a clean, dry area and lay the wing down, opening the zip to reveal the control frame and underside of the wing.2. Open out the control frame and attach the base bar to the corner joints. Inspect the base bar holes for damage.3. Lift the wing from the front and rotate it so that the wing is now lying on the ground with the assembled control frame flat on the ground underneath.4. Remove all the sail ties and open each wing about 3 feet. Lift the kingpost and, checking that the crossboom restraint cables pass cleanly either side, locate the king post onto the
spigot.5. Ensure that the upper cables are free from kinks and with the over-center lever in the open position locate the king post crown into the top of the king post.6. Proceed to the front of the wing, lift and support the nose of the wing on the knee. Locate, fit and push fully home the nose rib, finally locating the front end onto the screw head provided on the keel tube.7. Open the wings in stages, alternating between wings to prevent damage to the crossboom and fittings. Stop and check if any undue resistance is felt.8. Ensure that all wires are untangled, particularly at the connections.9. Excluding the nose rib, fit all the top surface ribs starting with the out-board main ribs and working in-board towards the root. Do not force the ribs if they seem hard to push fully home.10. On all the upper surface ribs fit the single lower elastic. If the elastics appear over tight at this stage, leave them off until after the final tensioning of the crossboom when it is easier to push the ribs finally home and requires less effort to fit the elastics.11. After fitting the upper surface ribs, unzip the keel fin access panel and remove the safety pin from the crossboom restraint cable stud. Using the left nylon cord pull back the crossboom until the keyhole tang can be located on the restraint cable stud. Make sure that: a) The tang is located in the stud recess. b) The tensioning cables are not twisted. c) The safety pin secures the cable onto the stud and is re-fitted correctly into restraint cable stud. d) The fin access panel is zipped up - note that this process is much easier with a helper lifting one wing tip slightly 6 inches.12. With the crossboom now tensioned, ensure that the previously fitted ribs are pushed FULLY home and that the upper and lower elastics are fitted to all ribs.13. Locate the washout tubes onto the sockets, ensuring they are seated firmly down to the limit.14. With the assembled wing flat on the ground, ensure that its nose is into wind (with the nose facing the direction that the wind is blowing from). Line up the trike behind the wing with its nose facing the wing, but at least ten feet away to give clearance for the wing to be raised onto its control frame.15. Ensure that the lower (flying) wires are not tangled, and that the nose wires are laid out with the nose catch towards the front of the trike. When you are ready to raise the wing, stand at the nose facing the rear with a helper stood at the rear facing towards you. Have a final check that the wind is on the nose and not too strong. Lift the nose while the helper lifts the rear of the keel. Keep the wing level and allow the wing to rotate around the control bar as it is raised, by walking towards the trike, when sufficient height has been attained start to allow the A frame to take the weight of the wing. When fully up the rear wires will become taught, keep the wing horizontal and get the helper to keep constant pressure upwards and rearwards on the rear of the keel while you stoop to pick up the nose swan catch.
GENERAL FLIGHT CONTROLRollRoll control is the action of the pilot moving the wing relative to the trike. The roll response isaided by the intentional flexing of the airframe and sail designed into the CRUISER wing.The CRUISER also incorporates a floating keel and hang point roll linkage to reduce the effort hang-pointrequired to produce and stop a roll, especially in response to small pilot inputs. This makes theaircraft much easier to handle if the pilot flies in turbulence.Because the wing is only deflected a certain amount by the pilot’s roll input, the roll rateachieved will be faster at high speeds than low speeds. The roll response will be typically 4seconds to reverse a 30 degree roll at 1.3V stall, fully loaded, to 2 seconds at VNE. At minimumloading, response is approximately 0.5 seconds faster.PitchThe CRUISER wing is very stable in pitch. This feature makes for easy cross-country cruising cross-performance, or slow, stable flight for climbing, gliding, or when ins instructing.The CRUISER wing exhibits very mild stall characteristics. The aircraft may not readily stalleven with the control bar pushed fully out. See Section 8.5 for stall characteristics. See alsoSection 3.5 for more information on stall speeds.
COMPONENT INSPECTION CRITERIA:GeneralIn the main, the safe working life of the structural components of the CRUISER is dictated bythe environment in which the aircraft is used and the care taken during day to day operations.Inspection, therefore, is an essential tool in deciding the continued use of most components.Some parts such as bolts are not amenable to fatigue crack inspection, therefore it is morepractical to replace them. Nyloc nuts in primary structure should not be used more than once. Atleast one complete thread must protrude. Split pins should only be used once.Unless otherwise specified, airframe bolts should be tightened so as to remove all free playwithout causing distortion of the parts (e.g. oval or denting tubes).Sail Stitching inspection:The Polyester sailcloth and stitching is subject to degradation by UV light. The Bettsometertest.gives a good indication of the capability of the sailcloth to transfer load at a stitch hole.Thesail should be checked in the root, mid span and tip areas of single thickness main body sailcloth.Enough tension should be applied to the sailcloth to prevent it puckering at the test needle.The sailcloth should be tested to 1360 grams with a 1.2mm needle in the warp direction(spanwise).Sample stitches should be tested using a 1mm diameter wire hook through the stitch andapplying 1360grams.Failure of the sailcloth or stitches at this load indicates the sail MUST be replaced.Bolts:Finish: Not corrodedWear: Not above .025mm (.001”)Must not be bent or have damaged threads.Rigging cablesNo corrosion, broken strands, kinking of cable or thimbles,Or any sign of movement at a swage.(Plastic swage covers must be slid back to inspect swages.)Any instance of swage movement should be reported to the Factory.Major airframe tubes:1) Straightness – maximum tolerance Length/600, and for leading edge outers, Length/500.Straightness is measured from the point of maximum bend to a straight line running from eachend of the tube. If both tubes have a perceptible set, leading edge outers should be replaced inpairs. Leading edges must NEVER be turned round or straightened.2) No Fretting or corrosion, e.g. between sleeves.3) No dents deeper than 0.2mm4) Any scoring up to 0.1mm deep should be blended out, finishing with 1200 grit abrasive paperand coating in clear varnish.
Hang Bracket:The hang bracket must be inspected for cracks, distortion and wear, particularly at the Hang bolthole.Maximum diameter for the hang bolt hole is 10.7mm.The hang bolt is NOT intended to rotate in the bracket, and should be tightened securely by hand.FATIGUE LIFE:At the following logged times the main airframe parts below should be replaced. Alternatively, ifthe parts are inspected in detail by a qualified inspector using dye penetrant, radiographic, orvisual high magnification methods and no cracks are found, the life may be extended by 1/3 ofthe new life. Inspections and replacements must be entered in the aircraft technical log.Any instance of fatigue cracking must be reported to the factory, ideally with a section orphotograph of the affected part and the time in service.Leading edges 1500 hoursKeel 1500 hoursPylon 1500 hoursSeat frame 1500 hoursTrike base tube 1500 hoursFront strut channels 1000 hoursFor the following items replacement is required at the following times:Hang bolt 200 hours.Control frame top pivot bolt 1500 hoursFatigue inspections should be carried out at:a) Control bar end holes.b) Control bar end knuckles.c) Leading edge/crossboom channel holes in the tube.d) Leading edge outer at the sleeve edges.e) Keel roll bearing holes.f) Trike pylon top bottom fittings.g) Trike pylon top bottom end corners.h) Trike basetube at seat frame bracket holes.i) Trike basetube at rear steering pivot holes.j) Seat frame holes.k) Uniplate bolt holesl) Engine mounting bolt holesm) Stub Pylon and Pylon retaining plates
13. PROPELLERSelection of the materials: Wood is selected to be free from defects, knots, warping and moisture contents. The selected planks are glued together with epoxy based adhesive and compressed on a frame. This is left to dry and set for 24 hours. The blocks are then removed cleaned, machined to the required size on a CNC machine. The design of this propeller is normally prescribed by the customers. The computer model is prepared and the code is generated using high ends of the software’s to provide inputs to the CNC machine. The machined blocks are then removed as semi finished propellers and further finishing is done by hands. Propeller are statically balanced and protected with a coat of epoxy based paints And it is also known POLYURETHE. The propellers are individually drilled to fit on various engines mounts.
The propellers are classified as per the denomination given on themDIAMETER X PITCHFor example 24 X 27 where 24 is the diameter and 27 is the pitch of the propeller.Some of the commonly used propellers are 1) 69 X 27 2) 54 X 27 3) 54 X 24 4) 30 X 22 5) 24 X 27 6) 24 X 29 7) 27 X 29 8) 24 X 28 9) NISHANT PROPELLER 10) LAKSHAYA PROPELLER.
14. RC MODELA highly maneuvering RC model was made as per following specifications:- 1) Wing span 1m 2) Root chord 220 3) Tip chord 170 4) Elevator 400 in span 5) 150 in clockwise 6) Flat plate aerofoil 7) Rudder weight 200 8) Chord wise 80 9) Distance between the trailing edge of wing leading edge of elevator ½ of chord 10) Location of propeller for leading edge of wing is 1 chord length.
The basic specification of the motor used in the RC Model is as follows:- 1) 300w motor 2) 11*8 propeller 3) 2.6Ah battery 4) 4 servo actuating 4 control surfaces 5) Transmitter is futaba T6 EX 6) RECEIVER R6 17 FS 7) Speed controller 3Samp 8) ESC ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROL
The basic material used in the construction of the RC model is:- 1) BLUE FOAM/ EPS 2) Depron 3) EPP 4) Fiber reinforced tape 5) Pultruded (manufacturing process)The basic features of the aircraft are:- 1) Airfoil is NACA 0012 symmetrical. 2) Elevator 20% of wing area horizontal stabilizer 3) Elevator area is more so wing is stable. 4) For rudder 10-15% of wing area (ideal).
COANDA EFFECTThe coanda effect is describing how an airstream gets pushed against a surface, even when thesurface is curved away from the direction of flow. The air pressure between the airstream andsurface is lower IF the surface is curved away from the flow. The fast air has less pressure is afalse statement, because there is no such thing as fast air.The coanda effect can be used to: 1) Make air flow outside a disc body. Adding ambient air to the airstream, thus adding weight and improving efficiency. The ambient air is pulling the airstream, and the airstream is pulling the ambient air. This causes lower air pressure inside and around the airstream. But soon will this pulling and pushing cause turbulence. When blowing an airstream close to a solid surface, the interaction of the airstream causes a drop of air pressure in between the airstream and the surface. The ambient air at the other sides of the airstream and surface pushes the two together
15. Aviat Husky Aviat Husky Aviat A-1B Husky Role Light utility aircraftManufacturer Aviat Designer Christen Industries First flight 1986Introduction 1987 Status Active serviceNumber built 650+
DevelopmentDesign work by Christen Industries began in 1985. The aircraft is one of the few in its classdesigned with the benefit of CAD software. The prototype first flew in 1986,and certification was awarded the following year.The Husky has been one of the best-selling light aircraft designs of the last twenty years, withmore than 650 sold since production began.DesignThe Husky features a braced high wing, tandem seating and dual controls. The structure is steeltube frames and Dacron covering over all but the rear of the fuselage, plus metal leading edgeson the wings. The high wing was selected for good all-around visibility, making the Husky idealfor observation and patrol roles. Power is supplied by a relatively powerful (for the Huskysweight) 180 hp (134 kW) Textron Lycoming O-360 flat four piston engine turning a constantspeed propeller. The Huskys high power loading and low wing loading result in good short-fieldperformance.Options include floats, skis and banner and glider tow hooks.Operational historyThe aircraft has been used for observation duties, fisheries patrol, pipeline inspection, glidertowing, border patrol and other utility missions. Notable users include the US Department of theInterior and Agriculture and the Kenya Wildlife Service, which flies seven on aerial patrols ofelephant herds as part of the fight against illegal ivory poaching.VariantsA 2005-built A-1B Husky at Biggin Hill, modified with a 200 hp (149 kW) Lycoming IO-360-A1D6 engine
The Husky comes in six versions:Husky A-1 Certified on 1 May 1987. Maximum gross weight is 1,800 lb (816 kg). Powered by a Lycoming 0-360-A1P or a Lycoming O-360-C1G of 180 hp (134 kW) Husky A-1A Certified on 28 January 1998. Maximum gross weight is 1,890 lb (857 kg). Powered by a Lycoming 0-360-A1P of 180 hp (134 kW) Husky A-1B Certified on 28 January 1998. Powered by a Lycoming 0-360-A1P of 180 hp (134 kW) The A-1B can be modified to accept a Lycoming IO-360-A1D6 engine of 200 hp (149 kW) and an MT MTV-15-B/205-58 propeller under an STC. Husky A-1B-160 Pup Certified on 18 August 2003 without flaps and 21 October 2005 with flaps. Powered by a Lycoming 0-320-D2A, 160 hp (119 kW). The Pup has a smaller engine, a gross weight of 2,000 lb (907 kg) and a useful load of 775 lb (352 kg) Husky A-1C-180 A Garmin equipped A-1C cockpit Certified on 24 September 2007. Powered by a Lycoming 0-360-A1P of 180 hp (134 kW). The 180 has a gross weight of 2,200 lb (998 kg) and a useful load of 925 lb (420 kg)
Husky A-1C-200 Certified on 24 September 2007. Powered by a Lycoming IO-360-A1D6 of 200 hp (149 kW). The 200 has a gross weight of 2,200 lb (998 kg) and a useful load of 880 lb (399 kg)Operators United States U.S. Border Patrol (until 1989)Accidents and incidents On 14 July 1989 a Husky A operated by the U.S. Border A-1 Patrol crashed in flat desert terrain in Arizona while tracking footprints near the US Mexican border, killing the pilot. The aircraft US-Mexican was flying with flaps set at 20 degrees, while the pilot operating handbook recommends 30 degrees for all maneuvering with flaps extended and indicates that a loss of altitude of 150 feet can be loss expected in a power power-off stall condition. The US National Transportation Safety Board determined the cause of the accident to be failure of the pilot to maintain adequate airspeed, which resulted in a stall. The lack of altitude for recovery was a related factor. The U.S. Border Patrol eliminated the Husky from its inventory following this accident  accident.Specifications (A-1C Husky) 1CGeneral characteristics Crew: one Capacity: one passenger Length: 22 ft 7 in (6.88 m) Wingspan: 35 ft 6 in (10.82 m) Wing area: 183 sq ft (17.0 m2) Empty weight: 1,275 lb (578 kg) on wheels Gross weight: 2,200 lb (998 kg) on wheels and floats Fuel capacity: 50 US gallons (190 litres) Powerplant: 1 × Lycoming O-360-A1P four cylinder, four stroke piston aircraft engine, 180 hp (130 kW) Propellers: 2-bladed Hartzell, 6 ft 4 in (1.93 m) diameter
Performance Maximum speed: 145 mph (233 km/h; 126 kn) Cruise speed: 140 mph (120 kn; 230 km/h) Stall speed: 53 mph (46 kn; 85 km/h) flaps down, power off Range: 800 mi (695 nmi; 1,287 km) at 55% power Service ceiling: 20,000 ft (6,096 m) Rate of climb: 1,500 ft/min (7.6 m/s)Avionics VHF communication radio Transponder GPS optional
16. CONCLUSIONIn the training at Albatross Flying Systems Bangalore we were made aware of varioussports aviation equipment like hang gliders, powered hang gliders, parachutes used inflying gliders, propellers.During this training we also prepaired a highly maneuverable RC Model by using bluefoam, FPP and various types of tapes to provide smooth flow of air.