RecapCardiovascular System Respiratory System Cardiac hypertrophy Increased vital Increase in stroke volume capacity Increase in cardiac output Decrease in resting heart rate Increase in minute Capillarisation ventilation Increase in blood volume Increased strength Increase in blood volume Reduction in resting blood of respiratory pressure muscles Decreased recovery time Increase in oxygen Increased aerobic fitness diffusion rate
The Muscular System The muscle tissue’s response to exercise depends on the type of training and the degree of overload. High intensity resistance training causes: Increased muscle strength and size High repetition low intensity training causes: Increased muscular endurance
Long term/Chronic adaptations When we discuss chronic adaptations to training we are assuming that training has been occurring for a minimum of 6-8 weeks, training at least 3 sessions per week. Why is this important? What if the athlete was training less than this? Chronic adaptations can be seen either at rest, during submaximal work or during maximal work.
Chronic Adaptations varydepending on the following: Type and method of training – aerobic versus anaerobic. Frequency, duration and intensity of training. Individuals capacities – hereditary factors (your genetic make up)(i.e. are your mum and dad athletic?)
Muscular System Response toLong Term Exercise Hypertrophy Increase in tendon Increases in muscle Strength size and bulk. Tendons are tough It is caused by the bands of connective increases in volume tissue, and, like of contractile muscles they proteins within the increase in strength muscle. What would happen Why do males if they didn’t? achieve greater Ping! strength gains?
Muscular System Response toLong Term Exercise Increased number of Increased Muscle Mitochondria and Strength Myoglobin stores This is a response Myoglobin is a site for to muscles being oxygen storage in the used more than they muscle are used to – they Mitochondria produce energy as glucose are overloaded. combines with O2 to Overloading can be produce ATP done by increasing resistance (weight).
Muscular System Response toLong Term Exercise Increased As LA is cleared tolerance to Lactic away quicker and Acid the muscles are Regular Anaerobic more tolerant to it training e.g. ? the body is more 400m, weight training, interval training [High intensity exercise able to work harder up to 2 mins in duration] for longer. more efficient at clearing away LA partly due to capillarisation allowing greater volumes of blood to supply the muscles
How might you test for improvement inmuscular performance? Sit and reach test http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x89wVNO6x yo&feature=related Sit up test http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4dAfseVaqU w One rep max http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oqPTSMfC0 -Q
Skeletal System Regular exercise slows the rate of skeletal ageing. Active people have greater bone mass than sedentary people. Strength training and •Increased Production of weight-bearing synovial fluid exercises help increase Secretion of synovial fluid bone mass e.g. allows movement in the joints. Netball, tennis, basketb Regular exercise reduces the all, walking thickness of the fluid allowing a Increases in calcium greater range of movement in and collagen in the the joint bones add the strength. This reduces the risk of
Skeletal System Increased stretch of Increased thickness of Ligaments Hyaline Cartilage Athletes require stronger Protecting joints from wear tendons and more pliable and tear ligaments to handle a progressive strength training programme. As muscles get stronger so do the tendons while the ligaments need to increase their pliability. Fibroblasts secretions from the connective tissue increase production of collagen fibres
SummaryMuscular system Skeletal system Hypertrophy Increase in bone Increase in tendon calcium stores strength Increase in myoglobin Increased stretch in stores ligaments Increased no. of Increased thickness mitochondria Increased storage of of hyaline cartilage glycogen and fat Increased production Increased muscle strength of synovial fluid Increased tolerance to lactic acid