10-Response of the SkeletalSystem to Exercise; Osteoporosisand FitnessSport NutritionDr. Siham MohamedOsman Gritly
objectives• By the end of this lecture students should be ableto identify the following;• The main functions of skeletal m...
The Skeletal SystemDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
The skeletal system consists of;bones, ligaments and tendonDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritlybones, ligamentswhich connect bon...
A tendon connects muscle to bone. ligamentsare similar to tendons, but they connect bone tobone and help to stabilize join...
• Synovial fluid joints produce an oil-likesubstance called synovial fluid.• It is produced by the synovial membranewithin...
Main function of synovial fluid is to keepcartilage lubricated and nourishedDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
Four basic functions of skeletal system• The skeletal system comprises of 206 bonesand provides four basic functions:• Sup...
*1-Support for tissues and muscle• Bones and cartilage that make up the skeletonare the only rigid materials in the body.•...
*2-Protection for vital organs• Skeletal muscles protect some of the vitaltissues and functional organs of the body.exampl...
*3-Movement through bones andattached muscles• during movement bones provide solidstructures to which muscles are attached...
• Joints fall into one of three categories:• 1-Fixed fibrous (e.g. bones of the skull),• 2-Slightly moveable (e.g. symphys...
1-Fixed fibrous (e.g. bones of the skull),Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
2-Slightly moveable (e.g. symphysis pubis)Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
3-Freely movable. ShoulderDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
*4-Storage for minerals and immatureblood cells• In some bones, there is red marrow whichproduces red blood cells, some wh...
types of muscle fibres• Skeletal muscles are composed of various typesof muscle fibres and based on metabolic andcontracti...
Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritlythe myofibrillar proteinsMyosin and Actin, twoproteins found in musclesfor contraction andre...
types of skeletal muscles fibres andexercise• there are three major types of fibres forskeletal muscles: Type I, Type IIa ...
Type I Red fibers. Slow oxidative (also calledslow twitch or fatigue resistant fibers). Large amounts of myoglobin (store...
• for endurance exercise• rely on aerobic metabolism (oxidativemetabolism)Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
Type IIa Red fibers. Fast oxidative or (also calledfast twitch A or fatigue resistant fibers). Large amounts of myoglobin...
Type IIb White. Fast glycolytic (also calledfast twitch B or fatigable fibers). Low myoglobin content. Few mitochondria....
• used for short bursts of speed and power• more likely to accumulate lactic acid.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
Effect of exercise on the skeletal system• Exercise may improve to maintain healthy bones• bone responds to mechanical str...
• During physical exercise, requirements foroxygen and substrate in skeletal muscle areincreased, as are the removal of me...
Skeletal muscle & physical exercise• Physical exercises are generally grouped intothree types;• Flexibility exercises, suc...
endurance exercise improves a number of factorsknown to govern the FA flux and the oxidative capacityof skeletal muscle.• ...
• (5) the activity of enzymes in the oxidativepathway;• (6) hormonal adaptations, i.e. sensitivity toand insulin.Dr. Siham...
skeletal muscle is powered by one and only one compound...adenosine triphosphate (ATP. However, the body stores only asmal...
Energy used by skeletal musclesMuscle Metabolism• Oxidative metabolism and anaerobicmetabolism are both used for provision...
• Phosphocreatine (PCr) is another high-energycompound containing a high-energy phosphatebond that can be hydrolysed to pr...
immediate energy for exercising muscles• immediate energy - used in first 10-30seconds of vigorous exercise; ATP creatinep...
short-term energy for exercising muscles• short-term energy - used approx. 30 - 90seconds into vigorous exercise;• uses gl...
long-term energy for exercising muscles• long-term energy - used approx after 2 min ofvigorous exercise;• uses glycolysis,...
Ossification• -direct ossification• Ossification is the process by which bone is formed.• Some bones (e.g. the flat bones ...
OsteoporosisOsteoporosis is a disease of the bones that affects menand women, especially women beyond menopausebecause est...
• Aging have an effects on bones;-- Bones begin to lose calcium which lead tocondition known as osteoporosis.- less protei...
type of osteoporosis• type I osteoporosis: osteoporosis• characterized by rapid bone losses, primarily oftrabecular bone. ...
Trabecular bone is network of calcium-containing crystals that fills the interior.Cortical bone is the dense, ivory like b...
Electron micrograph of healthy trabecular bone.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
Electron micrograph of trabecular bone affectedby osteoporosisDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
• To keep bones healthy, a person should engage inweight training or weight-bearing endurance activities(such as tennis an...
Osteoporosis and Exercise• Physical activity may be the single mostimportant factor supporting bone growth duringadolescen...
Best Types of Exercise• All exercise benefits your general fitness.• Weight-bearing exercise is best for strengtheningbone...
• Individual sports involving running -- racket sports• Walking (but less effective than running orjogging)• The least eff...
Key risk factors for osteoporosis• genetic factors,• lack of exercise,• lack of calcium and vitamin D,• personal history o...
• loss of the menstrual period (amenorrhea)• chronic inflammation• hyperthyroidism (excessive thyroid hormone)• hyperparat...
• EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY• Theory and Application to Fitness andPerformance, 6th edition• Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley• ...
• Sareen Gropper, Jack Smith and James Groff, Advanced Nutritionand Human Metabolism, fifth ed. WADSWORTH• Melvin H Willia...
• MACKENZIE, B. (2001) Physiology - SkeletalSystem [WWW] Available from:http://www.brianmac.co.uk/physiol.htm•Dr. Siham Mo...
Flexibility;-Stretching activity that uses the majormuscle groups 2 to 7 days per week. Enough to developand maintain a fu...
Strength;-Resistance activity that is performed ata controlled speed and through a full range ofmotion2 or more nonconsecu...
biceps muscle exercisesDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
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10 response of the skeletal system to exercise; osteoporosis and fitness new

  1. 1. 10-Response of the SkeletalSystem to Exercise; Osteoporosisand FitnessSport NutritionDr. Siham MohamedOsman Gritly
  2. 2. objectives• By the end of this lecture students should be ableto identify the following;• The main functions of skeletal muscle• types of skeletal muscles fibres and exercise• The role of skeletal muscle in physical exercise• Osteoporosis and exerciseDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  3. 3. The Skeletal SystemDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  4. 4. The skeletal system consists of;bones, ligaments and tendonDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritlybones, ligamentswhich connect bonesto other bones andcartilageTendons connectmuscle tissue tobone and althoughmore elastic thanligaments, have agreater strength thanmuscle
  5. 5. A tendon connects muscle to bone. ligamentsare similar to tendons, but they connect bone tobone and help to stabilize jointsDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  6. 6. • Synovial fluid joints produce an oil-likesubstance called synovial fluid.• It is produced by the synovial membranewithin our joints and is a short term or acuteresponse to exercise.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  7. 7. Main function of synovial fluid is to keepcartilage lubricated and nourishedDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  8. 8. Four basic functions of skeletal system• The skeletal system comprises of 206 bonesand provides four basic functions:• Support for tissues and muscle• Protection for vital organs• Movement through bones and attachedmuscles• Storage for minerals and immature bloodcellsDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  9. 9. *1-Support for tissues and muscle• Bones and cartilage that make up the skeletonare the only rigid materials in the body.• Bones and skeletal provide a framework andpoints of attachment for many of the softtissues of the body.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  10. 10. *2-Protection for vital organs• Skeletal muscles protect some of the vitaltissues and functional organs of the body.examples are:-Skull - protects the brain-Vertebrae - protects the spinal cord-Thoracic cage - protects the heart and lungsDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  11. 11. *3-Movement through bones andattached muscles• during movement bones provide solidstructures to which muscles are attached.• The joints allow movement between bones andthese movements are directly related to thetype of joint and range of motion.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  12. 12. • Joints fall into one of three categories:• 1-Fixed fibrous (e.g. bones of the skull),• 2-Slightly moveable (e.g. symphysis pubis)• 3- Freely movable. Shoulder, hip, hinge joint, Knee,elbow, fingers, toes, jaw, gliding- wrist, ankle,vertebrae, - neckDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  13. 13. 1-Fixed fibrous (e.g. bones of the skull),Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  14. 14. 2-Slightly moveable (e.g. symphysis pubis)Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  15. 15. 3-Freely movable. ShoulderDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  16. 16. *4-Storage for minerals and immatureblood cells• In some bones, there is red marrow whichproduces red blood cells, some white cells andplatelets.• Minerals, especially calcium and phosphorousare also stored in bones and can be distributedto other parts of the body.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  17. 17. types of muscle fibres• Skeletal muscles are composed of various typesof muscle fibres and based on metabolic andcontractile characteristics• Skeletal muscles are used to create movement,by applying force to bones and joints; viacontraction.• 1-voluntarily contraction• 2-involuntarily through reflexes.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  18. 18. Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritlythe myofibrillar proteinsMyosin and Actin, twoproteins found in musclesfor contraction andrelaxation effect due tonerve impulsesmyosin (importantproteins that isresponsible for the abilityof muscle to contract).actin (important proteinsthat is responsible for theability of muscle to relax)
  19. 19. types of skeletal muscles fibres andexercise• there are three major types of fibres forskeletal muscles: Type I, Type IIa andTypeIIb .• The types are differ in the mechanism they useto produce ATP;• the amount of each type of fibre varies frommuscle to muscle and from person to person.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  20. 20. Type I Red fibers. Slow oxidative (also calledslow twitch or fatigue resistant fibers). Large amounts of myoglobin (store oxygen) . Many mitochondria. Many blood capillaries. Generate ATP by the aerobic system, hence theterm oxidative fibers. Split ATP at a slow rate. Slow contraction velocity. Resistant to fatigue. Needed for aerobic activities like long distancerunning (Marathon runners) .Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  21. 21. • for endurance exercise• rely on aerobic metabolism (oxidativemetabolism)Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  22. 22. Type IIa Red fibers. Fast oxidative or (also calledfast twitch A or fatigue resistant fibers). Large amounts of myoglobin. Many mitochondria. Many blood capillaries. Large amount of glycogen. High capacity for generating ATP by oxidation. Split ATPat a very rapid rate and, hence, high contractionvelocity Resistant to fatigue but not as much as slow oxidativefibers. Needed for sports such as middle distance running andswimming.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  23. 23. Type IIb White. Fast glycolytic (also calledfast twitch B or fatigable fibers). Low myoglobin content. Few mitochondria. Few blood capillaries. depend on anaerobic pathways (not oxygendependent) but also use oxidative metabolism Large amount of Creatine phosphate. Split ATP very quickly. Fatigue easily. Needed for sports like sprinting and Weightlifters.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  24. 24. • used for short bursts of speed and power• more likely to accumulate lactic acid.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  25. 25. Effect of exercise on the skeletal system• Exercise may improve to maintain healthy bones• bone responds to mechanical stresses. Whenmechanical stresses are applied, more mineralsalts are deposited and more collagenous fibresare produced.• The physiological response to exercise isdependent on the intensity, duration andfrequency of the exercise as well as theenvironmental conditions.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  26. 26. • During physical exercise, requirements foroxygen and substrate in skeletal muscle areincreased, as are the removal of metabolitesand carbon dioxide.• Chemical, mechanical and thermal stimuliaffect alterations in metabolic, cardiovascularand ventilatory function in order to meet theseincreased demands.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  27. 27. Skeletal muscle & physical exercise• Physical exercises are generally grouped intothree types;• Flexibility exercises, such as stretching, improvethe range of motion of muscles and joints.• Aerobic exercises, such as cycling, swimming,walking, skipping rope, rowing, running, hikingor playing tennis, focus on increasingcardiovascular endurance.• Anaerobic exercises, such as weight training,functional training, eccentric (unusual) training orsprint (run), increase short-term muscle strength.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  28. 28. endurance exercise improves a number of factorsknown to govern the FA flux and the oxidative capacityof skeletal muscle.• Such factors are:• (1) blood flow and capillarization;• (2) lipolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in adiposetissue and circulating TAG and transport of FAfrom blood plasma to the sarcoplasm;• (3) availability and rate of hydrolysis ofintramuscular TAG;• (4) activation of the FA and transport across themitochondrial membrane;Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  29. 29. • (5) the activity of enzymes in the oxidativepathway;• (6) hormonal adaptations, i.e. sensitivity toand insulin.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  30. 30. skeletal muscle is powered by one and only one compound...adenosine triphosphate (ATP. However, the body stores only asmall quantity of this energy currency within the cells and itsenough to power just a few seconds of all-out exercise. So thebody must replace or resynthesize ATP on an ongoing basisDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  31. 31. Energy used by skeletal musclesMuscle Metabolism• Oxidative metabolism and anaerobicmetabolism are both used for provision ofenergy during exercise• Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the principalhigh-energy phosphate molecule that enablesmuscle contraction.• Energy supplies to muscle are initiallyprovided from the immediate energy sourcesof ATP and phosphocreatineDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  32. 32. • Phosphocreatine (PCr) is another high-energycompound containing a high-energy phosphatebond that can be hydrolysed to provide energyand resynthesize ATP:• Skeletal muscle stores of PCr providequantitatively the greatest contribution to energyprovision in the first 10 s of high intensityactivities such as sprinting• Oxygen delivery during strenuous exercise islimited by cardiovascular function.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  33. 33. immediate energy for exercising muscles• immediate energy - used in first 10-30seconds of vigorous exercise; ATP creatinephosphate (ATP-CP) system used;• creatine phosphate contributes a phosphateto ADP to make ATP; 1 creatine phosphate(CP) = 1 ATP;• all 3 skeletal fiber types use this systemDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  34. 34. short-term energy for exercising muscles• short-term energy - used approx. 30 - 90seconds into vigorous exercise;• uses glycolysis to break down glucose topyruvate to lactate (lactic acid);• 2 ATP; used by fast glycolytic fibersDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  35. 35. long-term energy for exercising muscles• long-term energy - used approx after 2 min ofvigorous exercise;• uses glycolysis, citric acid cycle (kreb’scycle), and electron transport chain to fullyoxidize glucose;• 1 glucose = 36 ATP (max);• used by slow oxidative fibers and fastoxidative fibersDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  36. 36. Ossification• -direct ossification• Ossification is the process by which bone is formed.• Some bones (e.g. the flat bones of the skull) are formed inone stage from the connective tissue. This process is knownas intramembranous or direct ossification.• -indirect ossification• Other bones (e.g. short bones) are formed from thecartilaginous cells during the development of embryo• This process is known as endochondral or indirectossification - most bones are formed this way.•Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  37. 37. OsteoporosisOsteoporosis is a disease of the bones that affects menand women, especially women beyond menopausebecause estrogen helps to protect bone.• Normal bone is composed of protein, collagen,and calcium, all of which give bone its strength.• Bones that are affected by osteoporosis can break(fracture) with relatively minor injury thatnormally would not cause a bone to fracture.• The osteoporosis condition can be present withoutany symptoms for decadesDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  38. 38. • Aging have an effects on bones;-- Bones begin to lose calcium which lead tocondition known as osteoporosis.- less protein is produced which alters the make-upof bone and sometimes creates brittle or fragilebones.- Osteoarthritis (wear and tear inflammation) uponweight bearing joints related to years of frictionDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  39. 39. type of osteoporosis• type I osteoporosis: osteoporosis• characterized by rapid bone losses, primarily oftrabecular bone. Women are most often thevictims of this type of osteoporosis• and bone breaks may occur suddenly. Trabecularbone becomes so fragile• type II osteoporosis: osteoporosis• characterized by gradual losses of both trabecularand cortical bone.these bones become weaken,breaks most often occur in the hip,Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  40. 40. Trabecular bone is network of calcium-containing crystals that fills the interior.Cortical bone is the dense, ivory like bone thatforms the exterior shellDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  41. 41. Electron micrograph of healthy trabecular bone.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  42. 42. Electron micrograph of trabecular bone affectedby osteoporosisDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  43. 43. • To keep bones healthy, a person should engage inweight training or weight-bearing endurance activities(such as tennis and jogging or vigorous walking)regularly.• Regular physical activity combined with an adequatecalcium intake helps to maximize bone density inadolescence.• Adults can also maximize and maintain bone densitywith a regular program of weight training.• Even past menopause, when most women are losingbone, weight training improves bone density.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  44. 44. Osteoporosis and Exercise• Physical activity may be the single mostimportant factor supporting bone growth duringadolescence• active bones are denser and stronger thansedentary bones• The benefit of exercise for osteoporosis hasmostly to do with decreasing the risk of falls,probably because balance is improved and/ormuscle strength is increased• most doctors recommend weight-bearing exercise,such as walking, preferably daily.Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  45. 45. Best Types of Exercise• All exercise benefits your general fitness.• Weight-bearing exercise is best for strengtheningbones. Here are some examples.• Running and jogging• Gymnastics• Aerobics class -- step, dance and pump aerobics• Weight lifting -- dumbbells, barbells, machines,body weight exercises• Team sports involving running and throwing --basketball, football, baseball, softball, volleyballDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  46. 46. • Individual sports involving running -- racket sports• Walking (but less effective than running orjogging)• The least effective exercises for bones are:• Swimming or water aerobics• Cycling• Other minimal weight-bearing exercise activitiesDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  47. 47. Key risk factors for osteoporosis• genetic factors,• lack of exercise,• lack of calcium and vitamin D,• personal history of fracture as an adult, rheumatoidarthritis,• cigarette smoking,• excessive alcohol consumption,• low body weight, and family history of osteoporosis• malabsorption (nutrients in the bowels are notproperly absorbed)• low estrogen levels• chemotherapyDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  48. 48. • loss of the menstrual period (amenorrhea)• chronic inflammation• hyperthyroidism (excessive thyroid hormone)• hyperparathyroidism (excessive parathyroidhormone production causes too much calciumto be removed from the bone)Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  49. 49. • EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY• Theory and Application to Fitness andPerformance, 6th edition• Scott K. Powers & Edward T. Howley• Åstrand P-O, Rodahl K. Textbook of WorkPhysiology—Physiological Bases of Exercise,3rd Edn. McGraw–Hill Book Company, 1986Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  50. 50. • Sareen Gropper, Jack Smith and James Groff, Advanced Nutritionand Human Metabolism, fifth ed. WADSWORTH• Melvin H Williams 2010; Nutrition for Health, Fitness and Sport. 9thed, McGraw Hill•• Heymsfield, SB.; Baumgartner N.; Richard and Sheau-Fang P. 1999.Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease; Shils E Maurice,Olson A. James, Shike Moshe and Ross A. Catharine eds. 9thedition• Guyton, C. Arthur. 1985. Textbook of Medical Physiology. 6thedition, W.B. CompanyDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  51. 51. • MACKENZIE, B. (2001) Physiology - SkeletalSystem [WWW] Available from:http://www.brianmac.co.uk/physiol.htm•Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  52. 52. Flexibility;-Stretching activity that uses the majormuscle groups 2 to 7 days per week. Enough to developand maintain a full range of motion2 to 4 repetitions of15 to 30 seconds per muscle groupDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  53. 53. Strength;-Resistance activity that is performed ata controlled speed and through a full range ofmotion2 or more nonconsecutive days per week.Enough to enhance muscle strength and improvebody composition. 8 to 12 repetitions of 8 to 10different exercises (minimum. Pull-ups, push-ups, weightlifting,Dr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly
  54. 54. biceps muscle exercisesDr. Siham Mohamed Osman Gritly

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