Vehicle Tracking and Ticketing System Using RFID Project (Complete Softcopy)
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The project Vehicle Tracking & Ticketing System (VTTS) mainly deals with identification
of vehicles and ticketing the passengers using these vehicles. The project is implemented with the
help of Radio Frequency Identificati on (RFID) Technology. The major area of implementation of
our project is for ticketing bus passengers in college bus electronically and obtain identification of
buses. The project on implementation will fetch added features like speed in transaction, cost
efficiency, low frequency of errors etc. Another added feature will be the accuracy in data recorded.
Human errors will be rectified to the maximum thereby enhancing the efficiency of the system.
The obsolete system of manual entry and calculation can be r emoved and this method could
be adopted to bring into action a more efficient system. This VTTS application identifies a
particular vehicle by the RFID tag fixed on them. In case of passenger boarding or getting down the
bus is identified and ticketed on t he basis of ID card they posses.
The system could be more elaborately established for all vehicles and passengers and a
complete digital network could be established with the least of its possible errors. The tags are cost
efficient and the whole equipmen t once installed can work without any particular attention. The
area of application of RFID is very wide and the technology has already proved its value. Thus the
implementation and practice of such a digital system would always be worth.
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VTTS is designed to work in an environment where vehicle identification is required. The
prototype made is having all the features of the whole project. The current prototype made is to
support the needs and requirements of our college and its other organizations. It could easily serve
as a model of the whole working project. Moreover a complete functional database with Server and
security polices for handling the Server is ready to deliver. The technical details regarding the
project are described. For the purpose of Ticketing, the operational feature of the cards is the same
but here the tags are attached to the Student or Employee ID cards and the reader collects the detail
Basic Principle of RFID
Radio Frequency Identification is a generic term for technologies that use radio waves to
automatically identify people or objects. RFID technology was first known as Identify Friend or
Foe (IFF), which was used for tracking aircraft. An RFID system consists of a tag, which is made
up of a microchip with an antenna and an interrogator or reader with an antenna. The reader sends
out electromagnetic waves. The tag antenna is tuned to receive these waves. A passive RFID tag
draws power from field created by the reader and uses it to power the microchip's circuits. The chip
then modulates the waves that the tag sends back to the reader and the reader converts the new
waves into digital data.
For the purpose of Vehicle Identification, the tags are embedded into the Vehicle. The
reader sends the electro magnetic waves to the tag. The tags draw the power from this wave and
return back the vehicle information, which are stored in its memory to reader. The readers again
demodulate this wave and convert it as a digital data.
At the core of an RFID tag or label is a transponder inlay that is inserted between layers,
usually in a pressure sensitive construction. The inlays, which are batteryless, are specifically
designed to be converted into tag and label applications by a label manufac turer.
Let us see the data flow of RFID in Diagram 1., which shows handling of data in RFID System .
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Diagram 1. The RFID Data Flow Model
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COMPONENETS OF RFID MODEL
An Agile Reader
An agile reader is one that can read tags operating at different frequencies or using different
methods of communication between the tags and readers.
Intelligent and Dumb Readers
These terms are not precise, but many people use quot;intelligent readerquot; to describe one that
has the ability not just to run differ ent protocols, but also to filter data and even run applications.
Essentially, it is a computer that communicates with the tags. A quot;dumbquot; reader, by contrast, is a
simple device that might read only one type of tag using one frequency and one protocol. Thi s type
typically has very little computing power, so it can't filter reads, store tag data and so on.
Figure 1. RFID Reader Diagram 2. Block Diagram of RFID Reader(Backend)
Many applications of RFID labels include thermal direct or thermal transfer human -
readable printing and bar codes on the face of the label. Therefore, the logical place for data to be
written to RFID labels is at the bar code printer. Printer vendors suc h as Zebra technologies,
Datamax, and Intermec have developed RFID writers that are built into their printers.
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There are 3 types of tags available.
Active RFID tags have a transmitter and their own power source (typically a battery). The
power source is used to run the microchip's circuitry and to broadcast a signal to a reader.
Figure 2. Active Tags
Passive tags have no battery. Instead, they draw power from the rea der, which sends out
electromagnetic waves that induce a current in the tag's antenna.
Figure 3. Passive Tags
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Semi-passive tags use a battery to run the chip's circuitry, but communicate by drawing
power from the reader.
Figure 4. Semi-Passive Tags
Active and semi-passive tags are useful for tracking high -value goods that need to be
scanned over long ranges, such as vehicles on a track, but they cost more than passive tags, which
means they can't be used on low -cost items. Now End-users are focusing on passive UHF tags,
which cost less than INR 18.00 today in volumes of 1 million tags or more. Their read range isn't as
far—typically less than 20 feet vs. 100 feet or more for active tags —but they are far less expensive
than active tags and can be disposed of with the product packaging.
It depends on the vendor and the application, but typically a tag carries no more than 2KB
of data—enough to store some basic information about the item it is on. Companies are now
looking at using a simple quot;license platequot; tag that contains only a 96 -bit serial number. The simple
tags are cheaper to manufacture and are more useful for applications where the tag will be disposed
of with the product packaging.
Difference between read-only and read-write RFID tags
Microchips in RFID tags can be read -write, read-only or “write once, read many” (WORM).
With read-write chips, you can add information to the tag or write over existing information when
the tag is within range of a reader. Read -write tags usually have a serial number that can't be
written over. Additional blocks of data can be used to store additional information about the items
the tag is attached. Read-only microchips have information stored on them during the
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manufacturing process. The information on such chips can never be changed. WORM tags can
have a serial number written to them once, and that information cannot be overwritten later.
Schematic representation of RFID technology used in VTTS is given below in Figu re 4.
with a sequential indications to the various features used by the system. The antenna senses the tag
and the information are fed into the reader. The reader then decodes these data and sends it to the
host system through requires means.
Figure 5. Working Principle of RFID Technology in VTTS
Once the reader has activated the transponder, the transponder responds by emitting
a signal to the reader’s antenna, which is converted to an electrical signal in the radiofrequen cy
module. This signal, in turn, is sent for further processing to the host computer by the control
Basic Principles of Tag Operation
The principles involved in the tag operation are,
1. Inductive Coupling
2. Backscatter Method
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A method of transmitting data between tags and readers in which the antenna from the reader picks
up changes in the tag’s antenna.
Diagram 3. Inductive coupling
A method of communication between passive tags and readers. RFID tags using backscatter
technology reflect back to the reader radio waves from a reader, usually at the same carrier
frequency. The reflected signal is modulated to transm it data.
Diagram 4. Back Scatter
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Frequencies in RFID
RFID systems generate and radiate electromagnetic waves, they are justifiably classified as
radio systems. It is particularly important to ensure that RFID systems do not interfere with nearby
radio and television, mobile radio services (police, security services, industry), marine and
aeronautical radio services and mobile telephones.
Four types of frequency are used in RFID
Low Frequency (LF).
High Frequency (HF).
Ultra High Frequency (UHF).
Microwave Frequency (μF) .
Low-frequency tags are used for small -scale applications requiring shorter read ranges.
High-frequency systems are used for large-scale applications requiring longer read ranges, such as
vehicle tracking and ticketing in toll collection etc. Generally speaking, higher frequencies have
greater reading ranges and are less sensitive to noise than the lower frequency tags. While high
frequency tags transmit data faster and can be read from further away, they also consume more
power and are more expensive than low -frequency tags.
Currently, the trend is towards UHF because of the greater read distances and lower cost per
tag in the future. UHF tags are more sensitive to environmental factors like water, which absorb the
tag’s energy and thus block its ability to communicate with a reader. However, this is a crowded
frequency spectrum because mobile and cordless phones, Wi -Fi and Bluetooth devices also operate
in this range of frequencies.
Conversely, RFID tags with microwave frequency do have greater read ranges and higher
reading speeds than lower frequency tags, but they tend to be line of sight dependent, orientation
sensitive, and require more power.
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Read range for a typical RFID tag
There really is no such thing as a quot;typicalquot; RFID tag, and the read range of passive tags
depends on many factors: the frequency of operation, the power of the reader, interference from
other RF devices and so on. In general, low -frequency tags are read from a foot (0.33 meter) or
less. High-frequency tags are read from about three feet (1 meter) and UHF tags are read from 10 to
20 feet. Where longer ranges are needed, such as for tracking vehicles i n traveling long distances
etc. The Table 1. describes the frequency classification table for various real time applications .
* LF HF UHF μF
Freq. Range 125 - 134KHz 1 3 .5 6 M H z 866 - 915MH z 2.45 - 5.8 GHz
R ea d R a n g e 10 c m 1M 2 -7 M 1M
Market Share 74% 17% 6% 3%
M a g n e ti c M a g n e ti c E l e c tr o E l e c tr o
Coupling M a g n e ti c magnetic
Existing 11784/85, 15693, 14443 A, EPC C0, C1, 1 8 0 0 0 -4
Standards 14223 B and C C1G2, 18000-6
Application Smart Card, vehicle ID
T i c k e ti n g T r a n s p o r ta ti o n Access/Security (Road toll)
Table 1. Frequency Classification Table
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RFID systems are used for a variety of industrial and enduser applications. Electronic toll
collection and vehicle tracking are a typical use of active and semi -active tags. Automobiles are
equipped with an active tag that can be read as the vehicle moves through a toll booth or drives
along the road. Each tag has a unique serial number; a database correlates the serial number with an
account number that is automatically monitored each time the tag is read.
It is widely believed that RFID tags will migrate int o consumer items as the price of tags
drops to INR 2.28.
Scanner, the next generation RFID Technology will be based on electronic tags that are
“read” using a wireless transceiver. These systems, collectively known as Radio Frequency
Identification (RFID), have been increasingly used throughout the world in recent years.
The implementation of RFID for vehicle identification and ticketing was executed to
overcome the various shortcomings in the existing system. Some of the added features in this
system are listed below:
Generally, the BARCODE technology uses the ‘line of sight’ technology. That is, a
scanner has to “see” the bar code to read it, which means people usually have to orient the
bar code towards a scanner for it to be read. Radio freque ncy identification, by contrast,
doesn’t require line of sight. RFID tags can be read as long as they are within range of a
Actually, the RFID uses the low -end of the electromagnetic spectrum. Thus waves coming
from readers are not dangerous and ar e similar to those waves coming from our car radio.
Just as our radio tunes into different frequency to hear different channels, RFID tags and
readers are tuned to the same frequency to communicate.
Radio waves travel through most non -metallic materials, so they can be embedded in
packaging or encased in protective plastic for weatherproofing and greater durability.
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Over the next 5 years, end-user awareness of RFID technology and benefits may foster
wider adoption and increased demand. Respondents curren tly using RFID are concentrated in
Transportation ticketing and vehicle monitoring. End users indicate limitless possibilities for RFID
applications. End users believe in accelerated adoption as RFID technology develops, standards
emerge and tag prices get cheaper. The Chart 1. Portrays Current RFID End Users based on the
Real Time Application Strategy. It is crystal clear that end user voted 58.8% for transportation
Current RFID End users Segmented by Application
Applications of RFID in Vehicle Tracking & Ticketing
Applications are constantly being developed to streamline data capture applications.
Point-of-Sale – on the Point of sale RFID Technology Operate as part of toll road
applications. Electronic toll collection systems and parking garage access are the examples
of point-of-sale applications.
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Closed Loop or Tightly Coupled – Systems under the control of a single owner or
authority as a standalone solution. Closed loop systems are used in medium scale
organizations and the retail industry sectors.
Open Systems – Systems with multiple, disparate stakeholders – ie) separate tracking,
transportation, utilizing a common system. Because a single universal set of standards and
protocols for RFID technology does not yet exist, open systems are not currently in use.
However, their potential is tremendous.
Features of the VTTS Project
Automatic and Manual Operational logs.
Vehicle Profile Analysis.
Traffic Density Analysis.
Customized Management Reports.
Faster Through put of vehicles.
Easy Administration and Planning.
Shorter vehicle delivery time due to locating vehicles faster.
Improved processing and speed even when re -work is needed - required repairs are tracked
electronically and automatically updated when work is completed.
Improved quality control due to real-time physical tracking of vehicles throughout the
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Manual Ticketing and vehicle identification was the obsolete method available but the
frequency of getting errors and mismatch in entri es was a serious problem.
An interesting area applicable in a similar situation was the BARCODES. But this had the
major problem of line of sight that is the coded card had to be taken to the reader to validate an
entry. Even though the method is bit less expensive the security that could be offered was very less.
Another technique for implementing such a request is by using Biometric devices. But the
comparative cost of implementation is very high and the system being dependent on physiological
characteristics will not function effectively as expected if there is an unexpected change in the
physiological characters of the client.
Another technique can adopted for this implementation is SMART LABEL.
Figure 6. A Smart Label
The Figure 5. shows Smart Label has an advantage of the thinner smart labels over
conventional smart tags is that they can be manufactured in bulk by special printers. Current costs
of these are in the INR 13.50 to INR 22.50 range. These can be produced in high volumes, are thin
and flexible, can be read/write, and can easily be integrated into the barcode infrastructure. But the
security is less compared to the RFID.
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Cost of RFID Tags cost today
Most companies that sell RFID tags do not quote prices b ecause pricing is based on volume,
the amount of memory on the tag and the packaging of the tag (whether it’s encased in plastic or
embedded in a label, for instance). Generally speaking, a 96 -bit EPC tag costs from INR 9.00 to
INR 18.00. If the tag is emb edded in a thermal transfer label on which companies can print a bar
code, the price rises to INR 18.00 and up. Low -frequency transponders in glass capsules are about
INR 159.50 each and a transponder in a plastic card or key fob can be INR 182.36 or more. High-
frequency transponders range from about INR 114.72 (in a card) to INR 273.54 or more .
Cost of RFID readers today
Most UHF readers cost from INR 45,590.00 to INR 1, 36,770.00 depending on the features
in the device. Organization or Enterprise may also have to buy each antenna separately, along with
cables. Antennae are about INR 11,397.50 and up. The price of readers is expected to fall as
companies purchase them in large volumes. Low - and high-frequency readers range in price
depending on different factors. A low-frequency reader model can be under INR 4,559.00 while a
fully functional standalone reader can be INR 34,192.50 . High-frequency reader modules are
typically to INR 9,118.00 to INR 13,677.00 . A standalone reader can be about INR 22,795.00.
A fully functional RFID system cost
The cost depends on the application, the size of the installation, the type of system and
many other factors, so it is not possible to give a ballpark figure. In addition to tag and reader costs,
companies need to purchase middleware to filter RFID data. They may need to hire a systems
integrator and upgrade enterprise applications, such as warehouse management systems. They may
also need to upgrade networks within facilities. And they will need to pay for the installat ion of the
readers. Not only do the readers need to be mounted, they need electrical power and to be
connected to a corporate network.
One of the largest obstacles to widespread adoption is the cost of an RFID system. The
threshold of what end users are a ctually willing to pay for RFID system components (tags, readers,
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software, services) remains a mystery. Cost per tag is dropping and less expensive readers with
greater functionality may be soon available. End users prefer that prices drop further.
Consumers usually welcome price reduction. For that to be enduring, the supplier and
retailer must reduce costs. RFID on buses, cars are achieving this in many ways but the tagging of
individual items is revealing yet richer rewards, even though it is at a much earlier stage.
Automation is the key, but it comes alongside crime reduction, reducing excess stocks and work in
progress and reducing the time taken from raw materials to finished item on the retailer’s shelf
(“time to market”) and other benefits that di rectly impact costs. The estimated cost for the
implementation of the project mentioned will figure out around INR 10,000.00 -15,000.00.
It will have a considerable contribution towards saving the manual scanning, administrative
errors, etc. It will increase the rate of efficiency by introduction of a common conduct of operation
that will enable the administrators to fabricate a less crime -sensed system. The number of
trespassers and other unidentified persons could easily be tracked using the system.
Benefits of VTTS
The various benefits expected could be summed up as
Speed of transaction.
More reliable equipment.
Less violent crime.
Faster processing of passengers.
Greater reliability of equipment.
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Benefits of RFID
Non-contact, Non-line of sight nature of technology .
Tag can be read from variety of substances such as snow, fog, ice, paint, crusted grime etc.
Faster read rates as high as 100 millisecond s.
Multiple tags can be read in single pass across the reader .
Paper less tracking of equipment and personnel .
High degree of scalability.
Benefits of RFID over Optically-Scanned Tags
RFID tags offer many advantages over traditional optically -scanned tags:
Optical barcodes need to be in plain view to be read; RFID tags can be read through fabric,
paper, cardboard, and other materials that are transparent to the frequency of operation.
Traditional optical barcodes are limited to 13 digits of information, an d two-dimensional
barcodes are limited to several hundred; RFID tags can store hundreds or thousands of bytes
Only a single optical barcode can be read at a time; dozens of RFID tags can be read at the
same time with a single reader.
Optical bar codes are read-only; advanced RFID tags can store information and perform
Optical bar codes are promiscuous, in that any reader can read any compatible optical bar
code that comes in range; RFID tags can be assigned a password, l imiting who has the
ability to read them.
The only way to deactivate an optical bar code is by obliterating or obscuring it; RFID tags
can be electronically deactivated.
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Benefits of RFID over Barcoding
The primary benefits of RFID technology over sta ndard barcoding are:
Information stored on the tag can be updated on demand.
Huge data storage capacity (up to 4k bits).
Instantaneous data identification.
Data collection from multiple items (hundreds of tags per second).
Small surface area requirement.
Longer read range; line-of-sight not required.
Greater resistance to scratches and physical abuse.
Greater accuracy in data retrieval and reduced error rate.
These very strengths of RFID are the Achilles’ heel of traditional barcoding technology.
The limitations of label size mean that barcoding holds much less data. In environments where item
data needs to be changed regularly, barcoding is unfeasible. Furthermore, printed bar codes are
vulnerable to scratching and harsh environmental conditions. An uneve n label surface can affect
print quality and consequently, compromise the integrity of the printed barcode.
In addition, the read range of the barcode is limited by the capability of the scanning device.
This is worsened by the ‘line -of-sight’ requirement: that is, the barcode must be directly in front of
a scanner’s beam. Consequently, bar -coded items will need to be scanned manually (incurring labor
costs), or extra costs must be incurred to automate the process to satisfy the line -of-sight
requirement. Where manual labor is employed for scanning, the possibility of human error adds to
the operational costs.
Finally, barcodes are designed to be read one at a time. Multiple items cannot be read at one
time. This limits the speed of data collection. With R FID technology, all the above barcoding
problems can be overcome. RFID offers extended storage capacity, a longer read range, and a “one
time scanning” feature. A typical of RFID chip can have storage capability, and does not require
line-of-sight for reading. And it is possible to automatically read hundreds of tags in a second.
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Primary Issues Facing the Industry
The primary issue barring widespread adoption of RFID is the actual cost of the disposable
tags. In 2003, the range of prices for tags was sti ll as high as INR 22.50 to INR 49.50. The RFID
industry has long claimed that the critical price for widespread adoption is the INR 2.25 tag. But a
recent study from RFID research firm Arc Advisory Group predicts the price of RFID tags will
only drop to a low of INR 7.50 by 2008, despite other industry estimates that the cost will reach the
INR 2.25 mark in the next four years.
– Tags – currently INR 22.50 – need to be INR 2.25 or less
– Readers – currently thousands of dollars – need to be hundreds of dollars
– Implementation – distribution centers relatively low tech – need networking, power,
Research on RFID
It is evident that RFID privacy and security are challenging areas of research. There are a
number of specific areas of research which will g reatly benefit RFID security and privacy and the
outcome of this research will be the wide spread adoption of this technology.
Cost effective and efficient hardware implementations on specialized nature of low cost
Development of new hardware efficient systems suitable for low cost RFID systems.
Development of protocols with the flexibility to incorporate different security measures and
safeguards to prevent rendering labels vulnerable during sudden communication
Improve and optimise coupling between readers and labels. This may involve developing
new concepts for formulating coupling between antennas, new antenna design, and analysis
so that the available source power to the IC is maximised.
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We have underwent a detailed study about the RFID application and implementation and
found it applicable to the upcoming industries and IT sectors. Vehicle tracking and ticketing is just
a low level application to imprint the wide level of application po ssible in this field. The
implementation in college or enterprise transport section would make it easy for the detailed study
of various aspects of the project. Some of the references that guided us and helped in designing the
project are listed below:
3. www.globalaviationrfidforum.com/2005 -agenda.html
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Books and Papers:
1. RFID Handbook - Radio-Frequency Identification fundamentals and applica tions
Published by John Wiley & Sons UK 1999
2. RFID Field Guide: Deploying Radio Frequency Identification Systems
by Manish Bhuptani, Shahram Moradpour (Paperback)
3. RFID - Radio-Frequency Identification concepts and case studies
by steven Shepard, McGraw-Hill, 2004
4. RFID : Applications, Security, and Privacy
by Simson Garfinkel, Beth Rosenberg , 2005
5. RFID Sourcebook
by Sandip Lahiri, 2005
6. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rfidtribe -software/
7. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rfidtribe -security/
9. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rfidtribe -chennai/
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10. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/rfidtribe -bangalore/
Power Point Presentations (PPT) and PDF’s
1. RFID Applications for Owners and Contractors , CII Research Team 151, ADCIC,
April 2003, PowerPoint Presentation (PPT).
2. Radio Frequency Identification Opportunities and Challenges in Implementation ,
Department of Commerce, Washington D.C., April 2005 (PDF).
3. Radio Frequency Identification Applications and Implications for Consume rs, A
Workshop Report from the Staff of the Federal Trade Commission March 2005 (PDF).
4. The history of RFID, An AIM Publication, Pittsburgh, October 2001 , W hite Paper
5. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Technology and its Applications in the
Commercial Construction Industry, University of Kentucky, April 2003 (PDF).
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The vehicle ticketing and tracking system is applicable under normal environmental
conditions. The users/clients are provided with a RFI D tag enabled card having their details printed
as usual. The RFID tag will be saved with information regarding the user previously. This forms
basically forms the input for the system.
The passengers while boarding or getting down the bus are made to pass by a RFID reader
fixed somewhere on the way. The readers read the cards with the passengers and the data is fed into
the local terminal. The details of the client are matched with the database in the server and later the
observations are recorded accordin gly. A user/client who pays an initial amount is given a
minimum permit to use the bus. This is accounted in terms of chances he uses the bus. He can use
the account until he finishes his quota that has been allotted to him. A diagrammatic representation
of the proposed system to be implemented is given in Diagram 5.
Diagram 5. Proposed System to be implemented
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RFID implementation on VTTS
The Project VTTS system based on RFID , implements with the following counter parts
Air Interface Protocol - The way tags and readers communicate.
Data Content - Organizing of data.
Conformance - Tests require to meet the standard.
Applications - How applications are focused.
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The confronted issues in VTTS system are
The server should always be in working condition and proper connectivity of server with
computer terminals should be assured.
Passengers should be checked to have proper cards that could be read by the tag while
boarding or else provision should be given to issue cards for everyone.
Selection of frequency of the tags and the reader is a major issue and it should be properly
taken care of.
The tags are having a proprietary technology and the tags may not be sensible inside some
The range of the reader and tag plays an important role and hence the tags and reader should
be confirmed of contact.
Tag collision or reader collision is another important factor that causes malfunctioning of
the whole system.
Trespassers should be taken care of or else the system may not be that effective.
One problem encountered with RFID is that the signal from one reader can interfere with
the signal from another where coverage overlap s. This is called reader collision. One way to avoid
the problem is to use a technique called time division multiple access, or TDMA. In simple terms,
the readers are instructed to read at different times, rather than both trying to read at the same time.
This ensures that they don't interfere with each other. But it also means any RFID tag in an area
where two readers overlap will be read twice. So the system has to be set up so that if one reader
reads a tag, another reader does not read it again.
Dense Reader mode
This is a mode of operation that prevents readers from interfering with one another when
many are used in close proximity to one another. Readers hop between channels within a certain
frequency spectrum and may be required to listen for a sig nal before using a channel. If they quot;hearquot;
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another reader using that channel, they go to another channel to avoid interfering with the reader on
Reader interference challenges
• Reader must deliver enough power from RF field to power the tag .
• Reader must discriminate backscatter modulation in presence of carrier at same frequency.
• 70db magnitude difference between transmitted and received signals.
• Interference between readers.
• Huge volume of tag data – readers need to filter data before relea sing to enterprise network.
Drawbacks of RFID
The main drawback of RFID technology is the higher costs. A typical barcode label costs
about 1.07 INR, whereas an RFID tag label can costs upwards of 53.55 INR. The initial
implementation of RFID is also hi gher, depending on requirements and equipment specifications.
Although initial RFID implementation may cost more at this time, researchers predict that within
five years, smart RFID tags will become pervasive in Industry.
Tracking over time.
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Security and privacy risks
It is important to define the term ‘security’ and ‘privacy’ in the context of RFID. In terms of
RFID, security refers to one or a combination of the following
'Confidentiality’ or message content security.
Integrity of message content.
Authentication of the Sender and Recipient.
Non-repudiation by the Sender and Recipient.
It is important to note that privacy is a multi dimensional issue involving many areas such
as policies, security and law enforcement agencies. Criteria for evaluating RFID systems Privacy
implies providing factors:
Challenges to RFID Security and Privac y
There are many challenges in providing security and privacy for low cost RFID systems.
These difficulties are a result of the nature of electromagnetic waves and the constraints placed
upon RFID systems. The primary challenge lies in the scarcity of res ources on an RFID IC. Low
cost labels are not self-powered and only consist of a fraction of the gates available on smart cards.
Cryptographic systems and protocols need to fit into a label footprint without dramatically
increasing the cost of a label.
The number of gates available for a security mechanism is in the range of 400 -4000 gates.
Security mechanisms and communication protocols need to be carefully designed to avoid leaving
the label in a vulnerable state during sudden loss of power or interrupti ons to communications.
Furthermore, a security mechanism employing a memory write will have to account for the
additional power required to operate a labels E2PROM. Furthermore, user performance
requirements establish a time limitation on a label operation since at least 100-300 labels must be
read per second.
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Deployment of RFID tags in vehicles could pose several challenges to end user privacy
Tags could be read by unauthorized readers. (Although 13.56 MHz tags cannot be read from
more than a meter away, unshielded passive 915 MHz tags can be read from many meters.).
Since human beings are not sensitive to radio signals, RFID tags could be read covertly.
A database could be used to build long -term tracking associations between tags and h olders.
Alternatively, such a database could simply be created at the checkout counter by
correlating RFID tags with payment information.
The communication between the reader and the tag could be covertly monitored.
There are challenges in integrating the components for RFID -based systems and making
them actually work. Tags and readers perform differently under varied configurations and different
environments. Which tag is used, where it is placed on vehicle in the case all have a major impact
on the performance of the system. There are real challenges around interference and wave collision
that need to be addressed, in addition to the yield rates in the production of the tiny chips used and
ultimately the converted tags and label s. There is also the pressing issue of cost for the technology,
which is largely brushed aside at this point by the industry as a problem that will go away when the
volumes go up. But unfortunately at this point the volumes are still low, and thus the pric es are still
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The Resource Requirement for the project could be charted under three sections. They are
SOFTWARES AND DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
Let us go ahead with these sections i n Detail.
This section is mainly focusing on the tools required for tracking the various tags used
in the VTTS. They are mainly three categories.
RFID Tag enabled ID card
RFID Tag enabled ID card
The tag carries the information about the client and forms the basic input of
The device used to write the details about the client onto the tag.
The device used to read the details about the client from the tag.
This section mainly deals with the computer systems required for the implementation of
the VTTS. They could be classified as:
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A Computer terminal is an electronic or electromechan ical hardware device used for
entering data into, and displaying data from, a computer or a computing system. A device that
enables a computer to receive or deliver data. The computer terminals are the computer systems
used for operating the VTTS. Computer terminals vary greatly depending on the format of the data
What's a LAN?
A LAN, or Local Area Network is a group of two or more computers, physically close
together (usually in the same building), that are linked to each o ther. LANs can contain devices
other than computers. It establishes Proper connecting devices between the terminals and server.
The various types of Connection method to use for networks are
Direct Cable Connection (only for two computers)
SECURITY ISSUES FOR LAN CONNECTIVITY
Security concerns should be carefully integrated into every step of the network design and
Planning. Security is becoming more important as enterprises keep connecting their private
internetworks to the Internet as well as their organizations and remote workers.
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Effective actions to take for Securing LAN
There are many things can do to secure networks, the following two things can secure
network atmost 95%.
Separate your LAN onto its own Net work while connecting to Internet.
Unbind Microsoft Networks from TCP/IP on any Network adapter that is connected to the
LAN Security Threats
LAN security risks come in different forms. Here is some information on the most common
Viruses are generally not a quot;securityquot; threat to the computers on LAN . The main effect of
viruses can be erratic operation of your computers, possible data loss, and the ability to pass on the
virus to other network users.
Viruses are most commonly sprea d through two methods:
Floppy disks or other removable media that are used to transfer files from one computer to
Probes or port scanners check for improperly secured servers or services that may be
running on computers on your LAN. These checks are usually performed by programs that take a
range of IP addresses selected by the person running the program, and look for common services
like Web, mail, FTP, Telnet, proxy servers.
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In LAN quot;Trojan Horsesquot;, are programs that are somehow downloaded an d installed on
computers. Although physical access to the target computer is a common method of
installation, these programs can be installed via network access to an unprotected shared network
These troublemakers are self-replicating, self-propagating programs that are spread through
the Internet and generally don't require any action on the part of the computer owner to be
activated. All they need is an unprotected connection to the Internet.
There are many resources available to help secure your LAN. They fall into four main
Security scan programs that you run from a web page .
Port monitors and Trojan cleaners .
quot;Firewallsquot; that you run on your computer(s) .
Security related Web sites.
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A note on Terminology of Server
The term quot;Serverquot; is used in this module to mean the combination of the hardware,
operating system, network service, application software, and network conne ction. The server is a
computer system used for maintaining the database.
Servers are often dedicated, meaning that they perform no other tasks besides their server
tasks. On multiprocessing operating systems, however, a single computer can execute several
programs at once. A server in this case could refer to the program that is managing resources rather
than the entire computer.
A server computer shares its resources, such as peripherals (i.e printer: print server) and file
storage (i.e. disk: file server), with the users' computers, called clients, on a network. Thus, it is
possible for a computer to be a client and a server simultaneously, by connecting to itself in the
same way a separate computer would. Servers are normally specialist machines to provide the
reliability expected by the end users.
Server Operating Systems
The rise of the microprocessor -based server was facilitated by the development of several
versions of the Unix operating system to run on the Intel microprocessor arch itecture, including
Solaris, Linux and FreeBSD. The Microsoft Windows series of operating systems also now
includes server versions that support multitasking and other features beneficial for server software,
beginning with Windows NT. There are many serve rs running Linux versions such a RedHat,
Debian, etc which have generally proven to be more stable than Windows machines. There are an
increasing number of servers running Mac OSX as organisations realise the potential and stability
from having the hardware and software properly fitted and vetted. Most technical servers continue
to run some flavour of UNIX so they tend to go for SUN, SGI, or HP workstations as proven and
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Threats to Server Security
Server security is as important as network security because servers can hold most or all of
the organization's vital information. If a server is compromised, all of its contents may become
available for the cracker to steal or manipulate at will. There are many ways that a server can be
cracked. The following sections deals with the main issues security threats to server.
The primary purpose of these machines is to provide services, including both computational
and data services, to other computers on the network.
Security breaches on a server can result in the disclosure of critical information or the loss
of a capability that can affect the entire organization. Therefore, securing servers should be a
significant part of your network and information security strategy.
Many security problems can be avoided if servers and networks are a ccurately configured.
The practices recommended here are designed to help for configure and deploy servers that satisfy
the organization's security requirements. The practices may also be useful in examining the
configuration of previously deployed servers.
Practices to be followed in organization
These practices are applicable to the organization if
Plan to operate a networked system of workstations that depend on servers for information
or computation services.
Plan to operate a public network server connected to an external network such as the
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Security requirements for informat ion resources on Servers
These are the security requirements for information resources stored on servers :
Some or all of the information is sensitive or proprietary. Access must be limited to
authorized and properly authenticated users (inside or outside your organization).
The integrity of that information is critical. It must not be compromised; that is, not
modified by unauthorized users or processes operating on their behalf.
That information must be readily accessible by authorized users whenever they need it in
the course of their work.
Security requirements for capability on Servers
These are security requirements for the capabili ties provided by those servers :
Only authorized and properly authenticated users may use these capabilities.
Users must be able to access these capabilities quickly.
Security issues to Servers
There are three major security issues related to servers:
Confidentiality - Maintaining the confidentiality of information stored on the servers. This
Ensuring that only authorized users can access the services and information.
Ensuring that authorized users can access onl y the services for which they are
Integrity - Maintaining the integrity of information stored on the servers. This includes ,
Ensuring that we can recognize and recover from breaches of integrity.
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Availability - Maintaining the availability of the services. This includes ,
Ensuring that services are uninterrupted even when there are hardware or software
failures or during routine system maintenance.
Ensuring that you can recognize and recover from security incidents in a timely
Intruders Target on Servers
There are other aspects of servers that can make them tempting targets for intruders :
Public servers often have publicly known host names and IP (Internet Protocol) addresses.
Servers usually actively listen for requests for services on known ports, and they try to
process such requests.
Servers are often remotely administered, so they willingly accept connections from
Servers often are configured to reboot automatically after some kinds of failures, which can
offer opportunities for intruders.
SERVER SECURITY POLICY
Ownership and Responsibilities
Servers must be registered within the corporate enterprise management system. The
following information’s are required to positively identify the point of contact :
Server contact(s) and location, and a backup contact .
Hardware and Operating System/Version .
Main functions and applications, if applicable .
Configuration changes for production servers must follow the appropriate change
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Security improvement approach
The practices are designed to improve security in two major ways:
Host security is also a first-line of defense against internal threats, which generally have a
higher probability of occurrence than external threats.
They prepare us to better recognize and recover from security breaches.
All security-related events on critical or sensitive systems must be logged and audit trails
saved as follows:
All security related logs will be kept online for a minimum of 1 week.
Security-related events will be reported to admin, who will review logs and report incidents
to management. Corrective measures will be prescribed as needed.
Security-related events include, but are not limited to:
Evidence of unauthorized access to privileged accounts
Anomalous occurrences that are not related to specific applications on the host.
Practices to be followed while implementin g a server
AREA RECOMMENDED PRACTICE
Planning deployment 1. Develop a computer deployment plan that includes security
Configuring workstations 2. Keep operating systems and applications software up to date.
3. Offer only essential network services and operating system
services on the server host machine.
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4. Configure computers for user authentication.
5. Configure computer operating systems with appropriate object,
device, and file access controls.
6. Identify and enable system and network logging mechanisms.
7. Configure computers for file backups.
8. Protect computers from viruses and similar programmed threats.
9. Configure computers for secure remote administration.
Maintaining workstation 10. Allow only appropriate physical access to computers.
General Server Configuration Guidelines
Operating System configuration should be in accordance with approved guidelines.
Services and applications that will not be used must be disabled whe re practical.
Access to services should be logged and/or protected through access -control methods such
as TCP Wrappers, if possible.
The most recent security patches must be installed on the system as soon as practical, the
only exception being when im mediate application would interfere with business
Trust relationships between systems are a security risk, and their use should be avoided.
Standard security principles of least required access is used to perform a function.
The Server is restricted from a non-privileged account.
If a methodology for secure channel connection is available (i.e., technically feasible),
privileged access must be performed over secure channels, (e.g., encrypted network
connections using SSH or IPSec).
Servers should be physically located in an access -controlled environment.
Servers are specifically prohibited from operating from uncontrolled cubicle areas.
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SOFTWARES AND DEVELOPMENT TOOLS
This section deals with the various design tools used in sys tem for the purpose of design
Front End Tool
FRONT END TOOL
The client part of a client/server application that request services across a network from a
server, or back end. It typically provides an inte ractive interface to the user, For example, a data
entry front end, allowing data to be entered into a server through the use of SQL (Structured Query
Visual Basic (VB) is an event driven programming language and associated develop ment
environment created by Microsoft. It’s an Event driven programming language used for designing
the interface and connecting the various sections. Visual Basic (VB) is a programming environment
from Microsoft in which a programmer uses a graphical user interface to choose and modify
preselected sections of code written in the BASIC programming language.
Scope of Visual Basic
VB enables Rapid Application Development (RAD) of graphical user interface (GUI)
applications, access to databases using ADO( ActiveX Data Objects), and creation of ActiveX
controls. A programmer can put together an application using the components provided with Visual
Basic itself. The language is designed to make it easy to create simple GUI applications, but can be
used to develop fairly complex applications as well.
Programming in VB is a combination of visually arranging components on a form,
specifying attributes and actions of those components, and possibly writing additional lines of code
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for more functionality. Since defau lt attributes and actions are defined for the components, a simple
program can be created without the programmer having to write many lines of code.
Forms are created using drag and drop techniques. A tools palette is used to place contro ls
(e.g., text boxes, buttons, etc.) on the form (window). Controls have attributes and event handlers
associated with them. Default values are provided when the control is created, but may be changed
by the programmer. Many attribute values can be modifi ed during run time based on user actions or
changes in the environment, providing a dynamic application.
Components of Visual Basic
A Visual Basic application can consist of one or more windows, or a single window that
contains child windows, as provide d by the operating system. Dialog boxes with less functionality
(e.g., no maximize/minimize control) can be used to provide pop -up capabilities. Controls provide
the basic functionality of the application, while programmers can insert additional logic wit hin the
appropriate event handlers.
Alternatively, a Visual Basic component can have no user interface, but be available to
other programs, providing objects that implement functionality. This allows for server -side
processing or an add-in model.
The language is garbage collected using reference counting, has a large library of utility
objects, and has basic object oriented support. Since the more common components are included in
the default project template, the programmer seldom needs to specify additi onal libraries. Unlike
many other programming languages, Visual Basic is generally not case sensitive. String
comparisons are case sensitive by default, but can be made case insensitive if so desired.
Criticisms Of Visual Basic
Not being very portable. It is only available for Microsoft Windows. However, much of the
code can run in Microsoft Office applications using VBA, including those applications running on
Mac OS. Having bugs in the IDE. This has been fixed to some extent by a series of service packs
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In VB6 and prior versions, the use of many core OS functions required directly calling the
Windows API. Due to the poor integration of VB with the native Windows API, this many times
led to need for conversion code and low level memory quot;tricksquot; that were more complex than lower
level programming languages like C.
Another point concerns the communication of the toolkit and the computer. At the moment
it is all wire-based whereas for many real -world applications it would be much more con venient if
it was wireless.
Alternate Approach to Visual Basic
Also the current programming interface, which is only available for Visual Basic at the
moment, restricts the usefulness. A Java or C -interface would allow more possibilities for RFID
BACK END TOOL(Ms-Access)
The server part of a client/server application. It provides across the network that have been
requested by the client. For example, a back may be a database server that responds to SQL
requests from a workstation runnin g a front end application.
Microsoft Access is one of the Back end software to keep record of the database. It’s a
Database management system (DBMS) that functions in the Windows environment and allows to
create and process data in a database .
Benefits of MS-Access over SQL Server
SQL is a highly used and reliably secure database server. The reasons for its popularity and
high regard are numerous, but the fact that it is a database server designed to be accessed securely
over the Intranet is the leading reason why it is the database of choice.
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However, this is not to say that Microsoft Access cannot be a great database application.
Because MS Access is not designed to be a database server, it does not do as proficient of a job as
SQL in providing clients with access to database information in a secure and reliable fashion.
MS-Access vs. SQL Server
Nevertheless, many organizations elect to use Microsoft Access instead of a program like
SQL Server as the back-end database for their Active Server Page Applications (ASP).Creating and
setting up a database in Access is much easier than in SQL Server. Most end users can afford
Microsoft Access but the requirements for SQL Server beyond just the software itself can be a
Security in Access works through the quot;data databasequot; and a quot;user databasequot;. The quot;data
databasequot; is the database with tables, queries, forms, reports, macros and modules. The quot;user
databasequot; stores user name, password, identifiers, groups and grou p membership information. All
the quot;user databasequot; does is validate a user and a password and provides the specific quot;permissionquot;
Database Components used in MS -Access
The Components used in the Database are
Database – A collection of data organized in a manner that allows access, retrieval, and use
of that data.
Database Management System – Software package that allows to use a computer to create
a database; add, change, and delete data in the database; sort the data in the database;
retrieve data in the database; and create forms and reports using the data in the database.
Record – Information about a single person, product, or event.
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Field – A specific piece of information within a record.
File – A collection of records.
Unique Identifier – Data will appear only in a single record in the table; no two fields will
be assigned the same data ( Primary Key).
Shortcut Menu – A menu of the most frequently used commands.
Process of Database
Create the database and its tables.
o Define the fields.
o Define the type of data each field will contain.
Add the appropriate records to the tables.
Print the contents of the tables.
Process the data (sort, retrieve, change, delete, etc.).
Create a report.
Print the report.
Field Name – An unique name for the data.
Data Type – The type of information the field will contain.
Description – A detailed description of the field.
Data’s view in a Database
Datasheet View – All the data is displayed as a table; may not see all the fields at the same
Form View – A single record of all its fields is displayed.
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It’s Report generating software for creating reports. Crystal Reports is an intuitive reporting
solution that helps users rapidly create flexible, feature -rich, high-fidelity reports and tightly
integrate them into web and windows, other platform applications.
The Crystal Reports reporting solution consists of:
Powerful Report Design: Enduser can design highly formatted, interactive, and
professional looking reports.
Flexible Application Development: Developers can leverage cross -platform support for
Java, .NET, and COM development technologies. Easily access, format, and integrate
dynamic data into web and windows applications while maintaining tight con trol over end
Report Management and Delivery: Reports can be exported and repurposed to the
electronic formats used by most end users (e.g. PDF and Excel).
Faster Data Presentation for Web and Windows App lications
Crystal Reports is an intuitive reporting toolkit that helps solve the challenges associated
with presenting formatted data in web and Windows applications. It provides a fast, flexible way to
access, format, and integrate dynamic data into J2EE and .NET applications for an i nteractive end
With Crystal Reports, You Can
Easily access and format data into dynamic content.
Tightly integrate reporting functionality into web and Windows applications.
Deploy interactive presentation layers that can scale as requir ements evolve.
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For Report Design
Crystal Reports is a powerful reporting toolkit that helps you design flexible, feature -rich
reports, use extensive formatting and interactivity options to empower end users. Its proven query
technology gives you access t o virtually any data source, including XML, OLAP and organization
For Custom Use within IDEs
Crystal Reports can be also customized and is available as a tightly integrated feature in
leading Java and .NET IDEs.
Crystal Reports for Java (BEA WebLogic Workshop, Borland JBuilder) .
Crystal Reports for .NET (Microsoft Visual Studio .NET, Borland C#Builder ).
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Sample cards for Demo
The ID cards with RFID tags could be demonstrated with fully functional features.
Reader/Writer for Demo
To obtain the data from the tag and write details to the tag for client information.
Fully connected working model For Demo
A fully operational prototype with all the features.
Fully functional Database Software
A complete database solution for the whole application.
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