Mayank Agrawal (MT14IND012)
Academic session - 2014-2015
Mechanical Engineering Department
Visvesvaraya National Institute of
• (RFID) is the wireless use of electromagnetic fields to
transfer data, for the purposes of automatically
identifying and tracking tags attached to objects. The
tags contain electronically stored information. Radio
frequency identification (RFID) is one method
for Automatic Identification and Data Capture (AIDC).
• RFID tags are used in many industries. An RFID tag
attached to an automobile during production can be
used to track its progress through the assembly line.
Livestock and pets may have tags injected, allowing
positive identification of the animal.
• In 1945 Leon Theremin invented an espionage
tool for the Soviet Union which retransmitted
incident radio waves with audio information. It is
considered to be a predecessor of RFID, because it
was likewise passive, being energized and
activated by waves from an outside source.
• Similar technology, such as the IFF transponder,
was routinely used by the allies and Germany
in World War II to identify aircraft as friend or foe.
• The first patent to be associated with the
abbreviation RFID was granted to Charles
Walton in 1983.
• No need for physical contact between data carrier and the
• Tags can be used repeatedly.
• Tags can last up to 20 years.
• Works in harsh environments (compared to bar code,
optical scan technologies) withstands extreme
temperatures, acid baths etc.
• Low maintenance costs.
• Tags available in a range of types, sizes and materials.
• Simultaneous & multiple tag reads, 10s to 1000s in short
• Non-line-of-sight communication makes it possible to read
and write Tags in dirty conditions.
• Extremely low error rate.
• Can be read through the human body, clothing and non-
• RFID system consist of tags, reading devices that
convey information from the tags to computer.
• An unpowered tag is powered intermittently
from a distance by a reader device that
broadcasts energy to it.
• Tags consist of plain antenna bonded to a silicon
chip and encapsulated inside a glass or plastic
• Typically tags need to be less than 1m away
• An RFID system consists of three components:
– An antenna and transceiver (often combined into
– And a transponder (the Tag).
– An Application.
• Reader – A transmitter/receiver that reads the contents of
RFID Tags in the vicinity, also called an "RFID interrogator."
The maximum distance between the Reader's antenna and
the Tag vary, depending on application.
• Tag – An electronic identification device that is made up of
a chip and antenna. For reusable applications, it is typically
embedded in a plastic housing, and for tracking shipments,
it is usually part of a "smart" packaging label. An RFID Tag
is an object that can be applied to or incorporated into a
product, animal, or person for the purpose of
identification and tracking using radio waves. The Tag
contains a unique serial number, but may have other
information, such as a customers' account number. There
are generally three types of RFID Tags: active RFID Tags,
passive and semi passive tags.
• Host Computer:-Stores the data into database and view
real time presentation of an asset with History.
• A radio-frequency identification system
uses tags, or labels attached to the objects to
be identified. Two-way radio transmitter-
receivers called interrogators or readers send
a signal to the tag and read its response.
• RFID tags can be either passive, active or
• Description about various tags are explained
in latter slide.
• Contain a battery that runs a microchips
• Tag is able to send a stronger signal to the
reader due to battery.
• Allows a read range of about one hundred
• Passive tags contain no batteries.
• Passive tags gets power from a reader.
• Readers send electromagnetic waves that
produce a current in the tags antenna which
then powers the microchips circuits.
• A passive tags read range is approximately 30
• Automates the entire process.
• Unique Identification - Each RFID tag has a unique
serial number that distinguishes among many
millions of identically manufactured objects.
• Wireless, non-contact, non-line-of-site.
• Ideally suited for providing low cost remote and
instant identification of objects.
• Real time tracking of assets and its content.
• Visibility of location of assets and their tampering
history, maintenance history.
• RFID tags can be read through human body,
clothing and non-metallic materials.
BENEFITS OF RFID
• RFID provides a way for organisations to identify
and manage tools and equipment without manual
data entry. This provide electronic articles
surveillance, and self checkout process for
• Automatic identification with RFID can be used for
• Wal-Mart and the United States Department of
Defence have published requirements that their
vendors place RFID tags on all shipments to
improve supply chain management.
• RFID tags for animals represent one of the oldest uses
of RFID. The transponders are more well known as
passive RFID on animals. The Canadian Cattle
Identification Agency begin using RFID as a
replacement for barcode tags.
• RFID tech. are also implemented in museums. An
exam. Was the temporary research
application,”eXspot”, a science museum in San
Francisco, California. A visitor receive a tag as a card
that help to receive information which they can
retrieved at home from a website keyed to RFID tags.
• School authorities in the Japanese city of Osaka
are now chipping children’s clothing, backpacks,
and student IDs in primary school.
• A college in west London started using RFID card
system to check in ad out of the main gate, to
both track attendance and prevent unauthorized
• In some colleges RFID tags is also used for
borrowing books, buying items at a school shop
and canteen, library and also to sign in and out for
student and teachers attendance.
SCHOOL AND UNIVERSITIES
– Being able to respond more quickly
– Taking quicker decisions
– Minimize human factor
– Streamlining orgs
– Long term savings
• General effects
– Training, faster decision making
• Middle Management
– More Technicians required
• Higher/Executive Management
– Better Planning
EFFECTS ON DIFFERENT
LEVELS OF MANAGEMENT
• Forging is difficult
• Scanner not required. No
need to bring the tag near
• RFID is comparatively fast
• Can read multiple tags
• Relatively expensive as
compared to Bar Codes
• (Reader 1000$, Tag 20
cents a piece)
• Can be reusable within
• Forging is easy
• Scanner needs to see
the bar code to read it
• Can read only one tag at
• Cannot be reused
RFID Vs Barcode
• Cost of RFID technology.
• Active RFID life - 2 to 4 years.
• Privacy concerns
• Extreme weather.
• Security concerns-illicit tracking of RFID tags.
• Global standardization.
• Environmental concern-recycling.
• RFID system are vulnerable to virus.
ISSUES / CONCERNS
1. Distinguish between RFID and Bar code??
2. Give the practical application of RFID?? And
also write the advantage and limitation of
3. Explain RFID component in brief??
4. Enlighten the history of RFID in brief??
5. Explain RFID and its various types in detail??