Faculty Members’ Lived Experiences with
Academic Quality in For-Profit On-Ground
Gainful Employment Programs
School of Bus...
Agenda
 Introduction












12/21/2013

Background
Problem
Purpose
Theoretical framework
Research question...
Background
 Government investigations led to
questions about the quality of education
provided by for-profit career colle...
Problem
 Academic quality in for-profit
vocational education is…
 Hard to define
 Multidimensional

 Gainful Employmen...
Purpose
 To expand understanding of
academic quality in for-profit
on-ground Gainful Employment
programs by gathering the...
Theoretical framework
Systems thinking

INPUTS

PROCESSES

OUTCOMES

INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT
12/21/2013

Carol M. Booton...
Research questions
 Q1. What are the lived experiences of faculty regarding
academic quality in for-profit on-ground Gain...
Methodology: Phenomenology
 Phenomenology is the study of
lived experience
 A qualitative approach using in-person
in-de...
Systems thinking tool: Rich pictures
 10 faculty members who taught in
Gainful Employment programs
drew ―rich pictures‖ o...
Systems thinking tool: Rich pictures
 Rich pictures ―CATWOERM‖
framework









Customers (C)
Actors (A)
Transf...
Sample
Label
F1
F2
F3
F4
F5
F6
F7
F8
F9
F10

Gender
Female
Female
Female
Male
Male
Male
Female
Female
Female
Male

Program...
Data collection: Interview protocol
 Definition of academic quality
 Systems framework
 Inputs
 Processes
 Outcomes
●...
Data processing and analysis
 Data processing
 Transcribe interviews
 Scan rich pictures

 Data analysis
 Read and co...
Findings: Inputs
 Faculty Input
themes (35)





Innate
Experience
Attitude
Behavior

 Student Input
themes (13)

...
Findings: Inputs
F9 said,
―It’s this really weird thing
about college teachers…
you throw a book at them
and say here, go ...
Findings: Processes
 Faculty Process
themes (71)






Teaching
Learning
Interacting
Motivating
Connecting

 Studen...
Findings: Processes
F5 said,
―I tell my students I love
them…And I do! I don’t
do that as a tactic of
manipulation. I do i...
Findings: Outcomes
 Faculty Outcome
themes (9)
 No themes emerged

 Student Outcome
themes (44)





Employment
Per...
Findings: Outcomes
Student employment is important, but is not the only important outcome

 ―The only output that I can
g...
Findings: Institutional environment
 23 attributes were assigned to
the institutional environment
category







A...
Limitations







12/21/2013

Small sample
Geographic area
Researcher biases
Phenomenological design
Changes in ins...
Conclusions
 The systems framework revealed
fertile areas for improvement
 The tool of rich pictures enhanced
understand...
Recommendation
 A proposed model of
academic quality
 Systems framework
 Dynamic, not static

 Areas for improvement
w...
Recommendation
 A composite rich picture
 The path to academic
quality is a journey
 The journey ends with a
profession...
Questions
 All the rich pictures can be seen in
their entirety in the Appendix of the
dissertation manuscript
 Contact m...
Sources


Percentages of for-profit students and loan defaults:
MacQueen, G. (2012, Spring). Closing doors: The gainful e...
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Faculty Members' Lived Experiences With Academic Quality in For-Profit On-Ground Gainful Employment Programs

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Ever wonder what faculty think about for-profit vocational education? This is the slide deck from Carol M. Booton's dissertation oral defense, December 9, 2013. The phenomenological study used a systems thinking framework and rich pictures to explore faculty members' perceptions of academic quality at two for-profit vocational colleges in Portland, Oregon.

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Faculty Members' Lived Experiences With Academic Quality in For-Profit On-Ground Gainful Employment Programs

  1. 1. Faculty Members’ Lived Experiences with Academic Quality in For-Profit On-Ground Gainful Employment Programs School of Business and Technology Northcentral University Chair: Dr. Meena Clowes Carol M. Booton
  2. 2. Agenda  Introduction           12/21/2013 Background Problem Purpose Theoretical framework Research questions Methodology Findings Limitations Conclusions Recommendations Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 2
  3. 3. Background  Government investigations led to questions about the quality of education provided by for-profit career colleges  Low student retention, job placement, and loan payback rates compared to public community colleges  Gainful Employment–Debt Measures Rule  Sets standards for student retention, job placement, and loan payback rates  Emphasizes performance outcomes  Implies if students graduate, get jobs, and pay back their students loans, they received a quality education 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 3
  4. 4. Problem  Academic quality in for-profit vocational education is…  Hard to define  Multidimensional  Gainful Employment standards alone are not adequate to describe academic quality  Students, parents, faculty, employers, and taxpayers care about academic quality 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 4
  5. 5. Purpose  To expand understanding of academic quality in for-profit on-ground Gainful Employment programs by gathering the lived experiences of faculty who taught in on-ground Gainful Employment programs offered at two for-profit institutions in Portland, Oregon 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 5
  6. 6. Theoretical framework Systems thinking INPUTS PROCESSES OUTCOMES INSTITUTIONAL ENVIRONMENT 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 6
  7. 7. Research questions  Q1. What are the lived experiences of faculty regarding academic quality in for-profit on-ground Gainful Employment programs?  Q2. What are faculty experiences of academic quality regarding inputs into the education system?  Q3. What are faculty experiences of academic quality regarding processes into the education system?  Q4. What are faculty experiences of academic quality regarding outcomes from the education system?  Q5. What are faculty experiences of academic quality regarding the institutional environment of the education system? 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 7
  8. 8. Methodology: Phenomenology  Phenomenology is the study of lived experience  A qualitative approach using in-person in-depth interviews  Based on the interaction between interviewer and participant  Interpretive quest to understand the life-world of the participant  Problems of bias and preconceptions 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 8
  9. 9. Systems thinking tool: Rich pictures  10 faculty members who taught in Gainful Employment programs drew ―rich pictures‖ of their experiences  Rich pictures  A combination of symbols, icons, and text  Often used in systems thinking to reveal hidden beliefs and experiences  Served as a form of data triangulation Rich picture (F6) 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 9
  10. 10. Systems thinking tool: Rich pictures  Rich pictures ―CATWOERM‖ framework         Customers (C) Actors (A) Transformation (T) Worldview (W) Owners (O) Environment (E) Relationships (R) Emotions (M) Rich picture (F2) 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 10
  11. 11. Sample Label F1 F2 F3 F4 F5 F6 F7 F8 F9 F10 Gender Female Female Female Male Male Male Female Female Female Male Program Status Medical Assisting Adj. Healthcare Administration/General Education Adj. Medical Assisting Adj. Business/General Education Adj. Business/General Education FT Criminal Justice FT Criminal Justice/Paralegal FT Business/General Education FT Healthcare Administration FT Paralegal/General Education Adj. Note: Status refers to employment status. Adj. = Adjunct; FT = Full-time 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 11
  12. 12. Data collection: Interview protocol  Definition of academic quality  Systems framework  Inputs  Processes  Outcomes ● Gainful Employment Rule  Institutional environment Rich picture (F7) 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 12
  13. 13. Data processing and analysis  Data processing  Transcribe interviews  Scan rich pictures  Data analysis  Read and code  Organize by  Systems elements ● Stakeholder groups – Themes Rich picture (F8) 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 13
  14. 14. Findings: Inputs  Faculty Input themes (35)     Innate Experience Attitude Behavior  Student Input themes (13)     Innate Experience Attitude Support  Administrator/owner Input themes (6)  No themes emerged  Institution Input themes (25)      Facilities Resources Climate Policy Awareness Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of attributes assigned to that category. 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 14
  15. 15. Findings: Inputs F9 said, ―It’s this really weird thing about college teachers… you throw a book at them and say here, go teach. There’s no preparation… I guess with college, they figure if you’ve got experience and a degree, anybody can teach. But that’s not true. There’s some people who are smart, smart, smart, and you put them in a classroom and it’s a disaster.‖ Rich picture (F9) 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense Rich picture (F3) 15
  16. 16. Findings: Processes  Faculty Process themes (71)      Teaching Learning Interacting Motivating Connecting  Student Process themes (19)  Administrator/owner Process themes (42)     Teacher focus Student focus Administrative focus Stewardship focus  Institution Process themes (6)  No themes emerged  Acquiring knowledge  Applying knowledge  Interacting with others Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of attributes assigned to that category. 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 16
  17. 17. Findings: Processes F5 said, ―I tell my students I love them…And I do! I don’t do that as a tactic of manipulation. I do it because it’s true. But what I understand is that when that’s there, it also opens the possibility for the learning process. Because when there’s hostility and resistance, there’s blockage.‖ Rich picture (F5) 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 17
  18. 18. Findings: Outcomes  Faculty Outcome themes (9)  No themes emerged  Student Outcome themes (44)     Employment Performance Attitude Knowledge  Administrator/owner Outcome themes (0)  No outcomes identified  Institution Outcome themes (8)  No themes emerged Rich picture (F4) Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of attributes assigned to that category. 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 18
  19. 19. Findings: Outcomes Student employment is important, but is not the only important outcome  ―The only output that I can gauge the quality on is by the end of a class, a term or by the end of their program, do I have some sense that these people are going to be okay, and be better for having this education?‖ (F9) 12/21/2013  ―One of the main reasons I like my job…is I like my students. I like to see that ah-ha moment. That ah-ha moment, even if it’s few and far between, it’s worth coming to school and waiting for.‖ (F8) Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 19
  20. 20. Findings: Institutional environment  23 attributes were assigned to the institutional environment category       Accrediting agencies Government agencies Economy/Competition Employers Community Media Rich picture (F2) 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 20
  21. 21. Limitations       12/21/2013 Small sample Geographic area Researcher biases Phenomenological design Changes in institutions Changes in the institutional environment Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 21
  22. 22. Conclusions  The systems framework revealed fertile areas for improvement  The tool of rich pictures enhanced understanding  Academic quality is multidimensional  The main obstacle to improving academic quality is the conflict between the profit motive and the educational product 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 22
  23. 23. Recommendation  A proposed model of academic quality  Systems framework  Dynamic, not static  Areas for improvement were revealed at the stakeholder level  Further testing of the model is recommended 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 23
  24. 24. Recommendation  A composite rich picture  The path to academic quality is a journey  The journey ends with a professional, trained, worker (satisfied customer) and a happy employer  The main obstacle is the conflict between profit and product 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 24
  25. 25. Questions  All the rich pictures can be seen in their entirety in the Appendix of the dissertation manuscript  Contact me: carolbooton@yahoo.com  Thank you Rich picture (F4) 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 25
  26. 26. Sources  Percentages of for-profit students and loan defaults: MacQueen, G. (2012, Spring). Closing doors: The gainful employment rule as over-regulation of for-profit higher education that will restrict access to higher education for America’s poor. Georgetown Journal on Poverty Law & Policy, 19(2), 1-21.  U.S. Government Gainful Employment Rule: United States Government Department of Education. (2011, June 13). Program integrity: Gainful employment—debt measures. Federal Register, 76(113), 34386-34539. Retrieved from http://ifap.ed.gov/fregisters/ FR061311GEDebtMeasures.html  Systems thinking tools, rich pictures, and the CATWOE framework: Checkland, P. (1981/1984). Systems thinking, systems practice. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  Photo credits: Carol Booton  Dedicated to the memory of Karen, Meme, and Pop 12/21/2013 Carol M. Booton Oral Defense 26

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