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Getting Started with OER (JIBC, November 2019)

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Slides for a talk at the Justice Institute of British Columbia in November 2019, designed to introduce open educational resources. PowerPoint slides available: https://is.gd/oerjibc2019

Slides for a talk at the Justice Institute of British Columbia in November 2019, designed to introduce open educational resources. PowerPoint slides available: https://is.gd/oerjibc2019

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Getting Started with OER (JIBC, November 2019)

  1. 1. Getting started with OER: What, Why, and Some Mythbusting Christina Hendricks, UBC Professor of Teaching Academic Director, Centre for Teaching, Learning & Technology JIBC Open Education Showcase, Nov. 2019 Except for elements licensed otherwise, these slides are licensed CC BY-SA 4.0
  2. 2. Slides available: is.gd/oerjibc2019
  3. 3. What does “open” mean?
  4. 4. Open as in Free of Cost Open as in cost Libros Libres, by Alan Levine, licensed CC BY 2.0, Flickr
  5. 5. Open like a museum Open like a museum A Day at the Museum 2, by Robert Couse-Baker, licensed CC BY 2.0, Flickr
  6. 6. 5 R’s of open content ◉ Reuse ◉ Revise ◉ Remix ◉ Redistribute ◉ Retain Open Content Definition by David Wiley; Creative Commons Logo from CC Downloads
  7. 7. Open Edu Resources “Open Educational Resources (OER) are teaching, learning and research materials in any medium – digital or otherwise – that reside in the public domain or have been released under an open license that permits no-cost access, use, adaptation and redistribution by others with no or limited restrictions.” (UNESCO) OER logo by Markus Büsges for Wikimedia Deutschland, licensed CC BY-SA 4.0, Wikimedia Commons
  8. 8. Other openness Adapted from Hodgkinson-Williams (2014) Technical Inclusive/Accessible Pedagogical/Open Edu Practices Open formats; technical skills needed Diverse ways of knowing Collaborative & experiential; connecting to wider community Availability, discovery Digital accessibility, Inclusive/Universal Design Contribution to knowledge, not just consumption
  9. 9. Why OER?
  10. 10. Rising cost of textbooks Source: US Bureau of Labor Statistics Textbook costs College tuition & fees Housing at school
  11. 11. BC students JIBC LESD (2019) 60% Didn’t buy a required textbook because of cost UBC (2018) 66% Have gone w/o required texts in a course b/c of cost (rarely, sometimes, often or frequently; 32%: often or frequently) BC (2015) 54% Didn’t purchase a required textbook at least once in the past 12 months because of cost JIBC: Daddey 2019; UBC: AMS Undergraduate Experience Survey 2018; BC: Jhangiani & Jhangiani (2017)
  12. 12. Equity ◉ Increased access financially ◉ Better learning, retention ◉ Accessibility of resources ○ E.g., OER accessibility toolkit ◉ Students contributing to public knowledge
  13. 13. Customizability Ability for faculty, staff and students to alter the materials ◉ Customize to context ◉ Update where needed
  14. 14. PHYS 100 at UBC 94% The readings were customized to this particular course: somewhat or very important 92% The textbook didn’t cost any money: somewhat or very important Hendricks, C., Reinsberg, S. A., & Rieger, G. W. (2017)
  15. 15. Myths
  16. 16. Low Quality? Learning outcomes 25 studies (2002-2018) 184,658 students All but one: same or better outcomes Perceptions of quality 29 studies (2002-2018) 13,302 students, 2643 faculty Strong majority rate OER as good or better Hilton (2019)
  17. 17. This Sewer is Copyrighted, by Alan Levine, licensed CC BY 2.0, Flickr Give up copyright?
  18. 18. Resources ≠ education Research suggests better course completion, retention (Fischer et al. 2015; Wiley et al. 2016; Hilton et al. 2016) Lose students? Chemistry Building at UBC Vancouver, public domain, Wikimedia Commons
  19. 19. Open as in … ?
  20. 20. Slides: is.gd/oerjibc2019 ◉ @clhendricksbc (Twitter) ◉ christina.hendricks@ubc.ca Thanks!
  21. 21. Useful resources ◉ Annotated bibliography of multiple studies showing the efficacy of open textbooks: the Open Ed Group Review Project ◉ College Libraries Ontario OER Toolkit ◉ BCcampus Faculty OER Toolkit ◉ BCcampus OER by Discipline Directory (frequently updated with new items) ◉ Rebus Community Guide to Making Open Textbooks with Students
  22. 22. References Fischer, L., Hilton III, J., Robinson, J., & Wiley, D. A. (2015). A multi-institutional study of the impact of open textbook adoption on the learning outcomes of post-secondary students— Springer. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 27(3), 159–172. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-015-9101-x Hendricks, C., Reinsberg, S. A., & Rieger, G. W. (2017). The Adoption of an open textbook in a large physics course: An analysis of cost, outcomes, use, and perceptions. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/3006 Hilton, J. (2019). Open educational resources, student efficacy, and user perceptions: A synthesis of research published between 2015 and 2018. Educational Technology Research and Development. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-019-09700-4
  23. 23. References cont’d Hilton III, J. L., Fischer, L., Wiley, D., & William, L. (2016). Maintaining Momentum Toward Graduation: OER and the Course Throughput Rate. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(6). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/2686 Hodgkinson-Williams, C. (2014, June 25). Degrees of ease: Adoption of OER, open textbooks and MOOCs in the Global South. Presented at the OER Asia Symposium 2014. Retrieved from https://open.uct.ac.za/handle/11427/1188 Jhangiani, R. S., & Jhangiani, S. (2017). Investigating the perceptions, use, and impact of open textbooks: A survey of post-secondary students in British Columbia. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/3012 Wiley, D., Williams, L., DeMarte, D., & Hilton, J. (2016). The Tidewater Z-Degree and the INTRO model for sustaining OER adoption. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 24(0), 41. https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.24.1828
  24. 24. Credits Special thanks to the people who made and released these resources: ◉ Presentation template (Viola) by SlidesCarnival, licensed CC BY 4.0 ◉ Icons purchased with a subscription to The Noun Project

Editor's Notes

  • Jan 2006-July 2016 Consumer Price Index

    https://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/consumerpriceindex.asp

    “The Consumer Price Index (CPI) is a measure that examines the weighted average of prices of a basket of consumer goods and services, such as transportation, food, and medical care. It is calculated by taking price changes for each item in the predetermined basket of goods and averaging them. Changes in the CPI are used to assess price changes associated with the cost of living; the CPI is one of the most frequently used statistics for identifying periods of inflation or deflation.”

    “The CPI measures the average change in prices over time that consumers pay for a basket of goods and services, commonly known as inflation.”
  • UBC: AMS Academic Experience Survey 2018 results
    Over 2200 undergrads in sample reporting the following:
    43% report experiencing financial hardship related to tuition & other expenses
    44% report spending $500 or more per year on textbooks; mean spend per year is $760
    38% report worrying about how to pay for books & other course materials (down from 43% last year, and 44% 2016)
    16% report might need to abandon studies at UBC for financial reasons
    66% they have gone without a textbook in course due to cost (54% at least sometimes; 32% often or frequently.

    Jhangiani, R. S., & Jhangiani, S. (2017). Investigating the Perceptions, Use, and Impact of Open Textbooks: A survey of Post-Secondary Students in British Columbia. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4).
    Spring 2015, Summer 2015, and Fall 2015 semesters. “The final sample consisted of 320 undergraduate students enrolled in 19 courses at 12 B.C. post- secondary institutions that had adopted an open textbook.”
    54% Didn’t purchase a required textbook at least once in past 12 months
    27% Took fewer courses b/c of cost of materials: rarely, sometimes, often or very often
    26% Didn’t take a particular course b/c of cost of materials: rarely, sometimes, often or very often
    “When asked about how the cost of textbooks had influenced their course enrolment and persistence, 27% of respondents indicated that they had taken fewer courses, 26% had not registered for a course, and 17% reported dropping or withdrawing from a course, all at least once. … those who reported working more hours per week were more likely to drop or withdraw from a course due to the cost of textbooks”
    Thirty percent of respondents reported earning a poorer grade in a course because of textbook costs. These individuals were more likely to self-identify as a member of a visible minority group … , and be working more hours per week ....”

    JIBC Law Enforcement Studies Diploma cohort from 2017 (Presentation at CNIE 2019; slides shared with me)
    Qualitative Research - 2017/2018 & 2018/2019
    Survey Link: 68 of 250 (30%) Students Responded
    60% of respondents said it was difficult or somewhat difficult to afford textbooks each semester.
    Approximately 60% worked between 11–30 hours per week and complete a full course load.
    85% strongly agreed or agreed that they liked the choices offered by open textbooks to access materials in different formats.
    When asked about how they redirected their cost-savings, students provided responses that fell into a few common themes:
    Paying for tuition towards next semesters courses
    Buying learning equipment like laptops
    Paying for living expenses - rent
    Transportation – gas and transit
    Eliminate Financial and Emotional Stress
    Replacing Car Accessories including Battery
    Taking Driving Lessons
    Gym Membership
    Paying Debts (to eliminates financial stress)
    Volunteering: Contributing to local communities



  • If the resource isn’t accessible already, you can fix that
  • 143 respondents who took PHYS 100 in Fall 2015 or Spring 2016

    2016-2017 survey results (226 respondents)

    very or somewhat important:
    ●No cost: 91%
    ●Access anywhere w/internet connection: 89%
    ●Customized: 88%
    ●Didn’t have to carry heavy textbook: 81%
  • Caveat on perceptions:

    “... at the end of 2018, twenty-nine studies of student and faculty perceptions of OER have been published. These studies involve 13,302 students and 2643 faculty members. Every study that has asked those who have used both OER and CT as primary learning resources to directly compare the two has shown that a strong majority of participants report that OER are as good or better. In the five studies in which the ratings of students using CT were compared with the ratings of students who used OER, two studies found higher ratings for CT, two reported higher ratings for OER and one showed similar ratings.” (Hilton, 2014)

    Still, “consistent survey data show that both faculty and students who use OER largely rate it as being equal to or superior to CT…”

    Hilton, J. (2019). Open educational resources, student efficacy, and user perceptions: A synthesis of research published between 2015 and 2018. Educational Technology Research and Development. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-019-09700-4
  • Screen shot from an unnamed publisher website

    Open licenses mean retaining copyright in your own work, ability to re-use the work, send it to others, etc. (not true for all commercial publishing agreements)
    Can repost on any website
    Can send to students, make as many copies as you or they like
    Can send to colleagues
  • Fischer, L., Hilton III, J., Robinson, J., & Wiley, D. A. (2015). A multi-institutional study of the impact of open textbook adoption on the learning outcomes of post-secondary students—Springer. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 27(3), 159–172. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12528-015-9101-x

    “The initial data set consisted of 4128 students enrolled in undergraduate courses from the following 4-year colleges: Chadron State College, Mercy College, Peru, and Pittsburg State University. There were also 12,599 students enrolled in the following community colleges: Middlesex Community College, Middle Valley Community College, Onondaga Community College, Santa Ana Community College, Salt Lake Community College, and Tompkins Cortland Community College. Courses included a wide range of content including mathematics, English, psychology, biology, chemistry, business, history, education and developmental courses. Only 15 courses included sections in which either OER (treatment) or commercial textbooks (control) were used. … The initial sample included 4909 students in the treatment condition with 11,818 in the control condition.”

    “When comparing the groups within each course in terms of completion, the pattern across the 15 courses showed almost no significant differences. In two courses, Business 110 and Biology 111, students in the treatment condition showed a significantly higher rate of completion than students in the control condition. In the case of Business 110, the differences in withdrawal rates were quite clear; 21 % of students in the commercial textbook condition withdrew from the course while only 6 % of students in the OER condition withdrew from the course”

    “he differences in enrollment intensity between the control and treatment groups are likely a function of affordability. Students whose faculty assign OER save a significant amount of money compared to students whose faculty assign commercial textbooks. Some treatment students will chose to reinvest these savings by taking an additional course in order to accelerate their graduation. Consequently, we would expect members of the treatment group to take more credits than the control group, on average.”

    “Even when controlling for differences in previous enrollment, students in courses using OER enrolled in a significantly higher number of credits in the next semester. This may be due to the cost savings associated with OER. In community college settings where tuition costs are based directly on the number of credits taken with no cap on costs for “full-time” enrollment, funds saved on textbooks can be applied directly to enrollment in additional courses.”

    Wiley, D., Williams, L., DeMarte, D., & Hilton, J. (2016). The Tidewater Z-Degree and the INTRO Model for Sustaining OER Adoption. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 24(0), 41. https://doi.org/10.14507/epaa.24.1828

    “If some percentage of students are registering for fewer courses (in which case the institution collects no tuition) or dropping courses (in which case the institution refunds tuition) because of textbook costs, then eliminating textbook costs by adopting OER might encourage students to enroll in more courses and/or drop fewer courses.”

    Tidewater Community College Z-degree: associate of science degree in business administration
    Drop rate for courses in Z-degree in 2013, 2014: 2.8%
    Drop rate for sections of same courses not in Z degree & using commercial resources: 3.6%

    Hilton III, J. L., Fischer, L., Wiley, D., & William, L. (2016). Maintaining Momentum Toward Graduation: OER and the Course Throughput Rate. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(6). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/2686

    “we compared students using traditional textbooks with those using OER at Tidewater Community College to compare their performance on what we call course throughput rates, which is an aggregate of three variables - drop rates, withdrawal rates, and C or better rates. Two self-selecting cohorts were compared over four semesters, with statistically significant results. The study found that, subject to the limitations discussed, students who use OER perform significantly better on the course throughput rate than their peers who use traditional textbooks, in both face-to-face and online courses that use OER.”

    “Data for this case study were drawn from the Tidewater Community College institutional research database in Fall 2013, Spring 2014, Fall 2014, and Spring 2015. Data included the drop rates, withdrawal rates, and final grades in courses with non-Z and Z sections in the same semester.”






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