Ms. Patten 2012
agriculture the deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food and fiber
PRE AGRICULTURE
WHEN and WHERE <ul><li>Throughout history until about 10,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia, East Asia and Southwest Asi...
SIZE AND ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Small populations of 25-250 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some prosperous areas could sustain more p...
DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>rigid roles </li></ul><ul><li>gender specialization:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>men hunted and women...
ACTIVITIES <ul><li>nomadic lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>hunting animals </li></ul><ul><li>fishing </li></ul><ul><li>gatheri...
LIFESTYLE VALUES <ul><li>few possessions as life was extremely mobile </li></ul><ul><li>groups needed to be able to pack u...
FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>insects, nuts, roots, berries, meat, fish (fresh and dried) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish trapped in time...
TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Poisoned spears and axes from wood, bone, stone, clubs (used to hit and throw) , sticks, bows...
SOCIAL <ul><li>small populations and families </li></ul><ul><li>mobile </li></ul><ul><li>fire became symbol of community  ...
1st AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
WHEN <ul><li>10,000BCE or 12,000 ya </li></ul><ul><li>domestication of plants and animals occurred simultaneously in sever...
WHERE <ul><li>Nile River, Mesopotamia, Indus River, Yellow River </li></ul><ul><li>first conscious cultivation of plants m...
WHERE
Plant and Animal Domestication
Plant and Animal Domestication
Plant and Animal Domestication
Ancient Culture Hearths
SIZE AND ORGANIZATION <ul><li>first permanent settlements </li></ul><ul><li>small amounts of land </li></ul><ul><li>strati...
DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>status of women falls </li></ul><ul><li>specialization originates </li></ul><ul><li>land held in...
ACTIVITIES <ul><li>domestication of plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>cultivation of plants </li></ul><ul><li>controlle...
LIFESTYLE VALUES <ul><li>sedentary lifestyle emerges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This enabled animal domestication (8000-14,000 ...
FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>flora and fauna </li></ul><ul><li>meats, grains, dairy (?) </li></ul><ul><li>subsistence agriculture <...
TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>metal weapons </li></ul><ul><li>earliest use of plows </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary = civilizat...
SOCIAL <ul><li>more kids </li></ul><ul><li>outmigration of farmers and absorption of foraging peoples </li></ul><ul><li>sp...
2nd AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
WHEN and WHERE <ul><li>late middle ages-1900 </li></ul><ul><li>coincided with the industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>...
SIZE AND ORGANIZATION <ul><li>individual land ownership </li></ul><ul><li>intensive and commercial agriculture </li></ul>
DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>less people employed in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>greater production per worker due to techn...
ACTIVITIES <ul><li>crop rotation </li></ul><ul><li>selective breeding of livestock </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen </li></ul><u...
LIFESTYLE VALUES <ul><li>greater diversification </li></ul><ul><li>surplus </li></ul><ul><li>commercial farms </li></ul>
FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>yield increase </li></ul><ul><li>cereal grains </li></ul><ul><li>turnip as animal feed </li></ul><ul><...
TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>seed drill as alternative to broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>threshing machines </li></ul><ul>...
SOCIAL <ul><li>drastic population increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made possible the clustering of even larger populations <...
3rd  Agricultural  Revolution
WHEN <ul><li>1940’s-present </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the Green Revolution </li></ul>
WHERE <ul><li>Began in MDC's and spread to LDC's </li></ul>
SIZE AND ORGANIZATION <ul><li>large scale commercial farming </li></ul>
DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>intensive and extensive agriculture with the assistance of machines </li></ul>
ACTIVITIES <ul><li>expanded farm acerage </li></ul><ul><li>heightened role of technology in crop production </li></ul><ul>...
LIFESTYLE VALUES <ul><li>fewer farmers </li></ul><ul><li>< 2% in the US are in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>expansion of ...
FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>wheat, rice, millet, corn: miracle grains most affected </li></ul>
TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically engineered food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Se...
SOCIAL <ul><li>population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pollution </li></ul></ul><ul...
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2012: Birth of Agriculture

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2012: Birth of Agriculture

  1. 1. Ms. Patten 2012
  2. 2. agriculture the deliberate tending of crops and livestock to produce food and fiber
  3. 3. PRE AGRICULTURE
  4. 4. WHEN and WHERE <ul><li>Throughout history until about 10,000 BCE </li></ul><ul><li>South Asia, East Asia and Southwest Asia </li></ul>Two men return from a hunt. The Hadza are one of the few contemporary African societies that live primarily by foraging.
  5. 5. SIZE AND ORGANIZATION <ul><li>Small populations of 25-250 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some prosperous areas could sustain more people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>large amounts of land </li></ul><ul><li>clan/family structure </li></ul><ul><li>property held in common </li></ul>
  6. 6. DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>rigid roles </li></ul><ul><li>gender specialization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>men hunted and women gathered </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>nomadic lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>hunting animals </li></ul><ul><li>fishing </li></ul><ul><li>gathering nuts and berries, bugs, seeds, roots </li></ul>
  8. 8. LIFESTYLE VALUES <ul><li>few possessions as life was extremely mobile </li></ul><ul><li>groups needed to be able to pack up and move on at any time </li></ul>
  9. 9. FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>insects, nuts, roots, berries, meat, fish (fresh and dried) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fish trapped in times of low tide, stone traps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harpoons and baskets, spears </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hooks made from wood, bone, seashells and horn </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most modern day hunters and gatherers have been pushed onto marginalized land: dry, cold and inhospitable </li></ul>
  10. 10. TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Poisoned spears and axes from wood, bone, stone, clubs (used to hit and throw) , sticks, bows/arrows, poisoned waterholes </li></ul><ul><li>Fire (used to make food digestible and to drive animals off cliffs or into traps) </li></ul><ul><li>dugout canoe, sticks to carry carcasses, sleds, baskets </li></ul><ul><li>Rudimentary metal working, stone pots, grinders </li></ul>
  11. 11. SOCIAL <ul><li>small populations and families </li></ul><ul><li>mobile </li></ul><ul><li>fire became symbol of community </li></ul><ul><li>no carbohydrates meant no cavities = healthy teeth </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1st AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
  13. 13. WHEN <ul><li>10,000BCE or 12,000 ya </li></ul><ul><li>domestication of plants and animals occurred simultaneously in several parts of the world, leading to the 1 st Agricultural Revolution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent invention </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. WHERE <ul><li>Nile River, Mesopotamia, Indus River, Yellow River </li></ul><ul><li>first conscious cultivation of plants may have involved root crops and occurred in S and SE Asia </li></ul>
  15. 15. WHERE
  16. 16. Plant and Animal Domestication
  17. 17. Plant and Animal Domestication
  18. 18. Plant and Animal Domestication
  19. 19. Ancient Culture Hearths
  20. 20. SIZE AND ORGANIZATION <ul><li>first permanent settlements </li></ul><ul><li>small amounts of land </li></ul><ul><li>stratified classes based on job </li></ul><ul><li>agriculture enabled people to settle permanently in one area with the assurance that food would be available in seasons to come </li></ul>
  21. 21. DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>status of women falls </li></ul><ul><li>specialization originates </li></ul><ul><li>land held in common </li></ul>
  22. 22. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>domestication of plants and animals </li></ul><ul><li>cultivation of plants </li></ul><ul><li>controlled reproduction of animals </li></ul><ul><li>storage of goods </li></ul>
  23. 23. LIFESTYLE VALUES <ul><li>sedentary lifestyle emerges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This enabled animal domestication (8000-14,000 ya) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals first as pets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals may have attached themselves to human settlements as scavengers or for protection against predators </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>possessions begin to hold value </li></ul>
  24. 24. FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>flora and fauna </li></ul><ul><li>meats, grains, dairy (?) </li></ul><ul><li>subsistence agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>timliness of planting and harvesting… </li></ul><ul><li>storage of products </li></ul><ul><li>food surplus/shortages </li></ul>
  25. 25. TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>metal weapons </li></ul><ul><li>earliest use of plows </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary = civilization??? </li></ul>
  26. 26. SOCIAL <ul><li>more kids </li></ul><ul><li>outmigration of farmers and absorption of foraging peoples </li></ul><ul><li>spread of disease </li></ul><ul><li>shorter lifespan due to disease, war, childbirth and poor sanitation </li></ul><ul><li>modest population growth </li></ul>
  27. 27. 2nd AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
  28. 28. WHEN and WHERE <ul><li>late middle ages-1900 </li></ul><ul><li>coincided with the industrial revolution </li></ul><ul><li>began in several discrete widely scattered places </li></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul>
  29. 29. SIZE AND ORGANIZATION <ul><li>individual land ownership </li></ul><ul><li>intensive and commercial agriculture </li></ul>
  30. 30. DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>less people employed in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>greater production per worker due to technological advances </li></ul>
  31. 31. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>crop rotation </li></ul><ul><li>selective breeding of livestock </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>legumes for nitrogen value </li></ul><ul><li>fallow fields </li></ul>Townshend’s Four Field System
  32. 32. LIFESTYLE VALUES <ul><li>greater diversification </li></ul><ul><li>surplus </li></ul><ul><li>commercial farms </li></ul>
  33. 33. FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>yield increase </li></ul><ul><li>cereal grains </li></ul><ul><li>turnip as animal feed </li></ul><ul><li>nitrogen rich crops </li></ul>
  34. 34. TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>seed drill as alternative to broadcasting </li></ul><ul><li>threshing machines </li></ul><ul><li>tractors replacing animal power </li></ul><ul><li>cotton gin </li></ul><ul><li>fertilizer </li></ul><ul><li>field drainage brought new land under production for the first time </li></ul>Jethro Tull’s Seed Drill
  35. 35. SOCIAL <ul><li>drastic population increase </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made possible the clustering of even larger populations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>larger families </li></ul>
  36. 36. 3rd Agricultural Revolution
  37. 37. WHEN <ul><li>1940’s-present </li></ul><ul><li>Also called the Green Revolution </li></ul>
  38. 38. WHERE <ul><li>Began in MDC's and spread to LDC's </li></ul>
  39. 39. SIZE AND ORGANIZATION <ul><li>large scale commercial farming </li></ul>
  40. 40. DIVISION OF LABOR <ul><li>intensive and extensive agriculture with the assistance of machines </li></ul>
  41. 41. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>expanded farm acerage </li></ul><ul><li>heightened role of technology in crop production </li></ul><ul><li>double cropping-S. Asia </li></ul><ul><li>besides cultivation (p) farmers also involve themselves in the manufacturing and sales of their product </li></ul>
  42. 42. LIFESTYLE VALUES <ul><li>fewer farmers </li></ul><ul><li>< 2% in the US are in agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>expansion of secondary and tertiary sector employment </li></ul>
  43. 43. FOOD SUPPLY <ul><li>wheat, rice, millet, corn: miracle grains most affected </li></ul>
  44. 44. TOOLS AND TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically engineered food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective breeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cloning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irrigation systems </li></ul><ul><li>fertilizers </li></ul><ul><li>pesticides </li></ul>
  45. 45. SOCIAL <ul><li>population growth </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental damage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>erosion </li></ul></ul>

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