Pastoralist food systems


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Pastoralist food systems

  1. 1. PASTORALIST FOOD SYSTEMS By Mgeni, Walbert and Amos, Nyangi
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION <ul><li>Pastoralism or pastoral farming </li></ul><ul><li>Branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock </li></ul><ul><li>Subsistence system based primarily on domesticated animal production (meat, milk, hides, blood). </li></ul><ul><li>An adaptive response the existence of an arid, marginal ecosystem. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Intro. Cont…………. <ul><li>Pastoralists </li></ul><ul><li>any population or segment of population subsisting primarily via pastoralism (if also practice significant amount of agriculture, termed &quot;agropastoralists&quot;) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;subsisting&quot; - exclude those who raise animals strictly for exchange value rather than direct consumption. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Pastoralists Categories <ul><li>Based on frequency of movement (nomadism): </li></ul><ul><li>Settled pastoralism-keeping animals in one place most or all of year </li></ul><ul><li>Transhumance -regular round-trip from home base to pasture </li></ul><ul><li>Nomadic pastoralism-moving herds to any avail. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Origin <ul><li>Two theories of their origin </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism followed mixed farming (rainfall-dependent agriculture with animal husbandry) </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism was derived directly from hunting and gathering. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Physical Environment <ul><li>Marginal areas, where cultivation is not possible. </li></ul><ul><li>The arid land prohibits high yield agriculture and offers a limited indigenous food supply </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility allows them to simultaneously exploit more than one environment, thus creating the possibility for arid regions to support their life. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Environment Cont…….. <ul><li>Their subsistence stratergy is adapted to dry barren environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Example the Jie of Uganda makes use of the two climatic zones-the relatevely miost west and semidesert east.The Jie transhumance between eat and west regions which they use for their herds in the rainy and dry seasons respectively. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Technology <ul><li>Fire was a method of rejuvenating pasture land and preventing forest regrowth. </li></ul><ul><li>With fire and sticks as the main tool, pastoralists have deliberately tended the land, keeping it in forms of pasture suited for their herds. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Technology cont…………. <ul><li>Pastoralists have a detailed understanding of ecological processes and environmental inputs. </li></ul><ul><li>Information sharing is essential for creating such deep knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>This is made possible by formal visiting rules and networks,festivals and initiation ceremonies, keeping dispersed societies linked. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Social Organization <ul><li>There is therefore no specific form of social organization associated with pastoralism. </li></ul><ul><li>However, pastoralist societies are often organised in tribes, with the ‘household’ (often including extended family) as a basic unit for organization of labour and expenses. </li></ul><ul><li>Lineages can be the basis for property rights. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Social Org. Cont……….. <ul><li>Eg </li></ul><ul><li>Maasai society is strongly patriarchal in nature with elder men deciding most major matters for each Maasai group </li></ul><ul><li>The central unit of Maasai society is the age-set. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Social Org. Cont……………. <ul><li>Young boys are sent out with the calves and lambs. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls and women are responsible for chores such as cooking and milking. </li></ul><ul><li>The laibons are warriors in charge of society's security. </li></ul><ul><li>Married women who become pregnant are excused from all heavy work such as milking and gathering firewood </li></ul>
  13. 13. Culture <ul><li>Traditional Maasai lifestyle centers around their cattle which constitute their primary source of food. </li></ul><ul><li>The measure of a man's wealth is in terms of cattle and children. </li></ul><ul><li>A Maasai myth relates that God gave them all the cattle on earth, leading to the belief that rustling cattle from other tribes is a matter of taking back what is rightfully theirs. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Social Environment <ul><li>Scarce resources, demographic growth lead to conflicts between pastoral and farmers communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastures has becomes more difficult, leading to loss of livestock and of livelihoods. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental policies put constrains against herds mobility and overgrazing. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Diet <ul><li>Traditionally, the Pastoralists diet derives largely from herd consisted of meat, milk, and blood from cattle as their staple foods. </li></ul><ul><li>Their diet lack grains and vegetables since their land could not support cultivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Although meat is eaten,slaughtering of livestock is expectedly uncommon since the herd is the primary source of wealth. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to changing circumstances,most pastoralists now include substantial amounts of grain in their diets. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Diet Cont……….. <ul><li>The animal based diet is supplemented with vegetable foods which have been grown, gathered or acquired through trade. </li></ul>
  17. 17. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Tradition pastoralists diet was not nutrients sufficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism coupled with cultivation ensure diet diversification. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental changes and social interaction has enabled them to participate in other income generating activities e.g trade and wage employments. </li></ul>