Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that
came to prominence in mid-20th century Europe. Fascists
seek to unify their nation through a totalitarian state that
promotes the mass mobilization of the national community,
relying on a vanguard party to initiate a revolution to
organize the nation on fascist principles.
Hostile to liberal democracy, socialism, and communism,
fascist movements share certain common features, including
the veneration of the state, a devotion to a strong leader, and
an emphasis on ultra nationalism, ethnocentrism,
and militarism. Fascism views political violence, war,
and imperialism as a means to achieve national rejuvenation
and asserts that nations and races deemed superior should
attain living space by displacing ones deemed weak or
A political regime, usually totalitarian, ideologically
based on centralized government, government control
of business, repression of criticism or opposition, a
leader cult and exalting the state and or religion above
individual rights. Originally only applied (usually
capitalized) to Benito Mussolini's Italy.
Treaty of Versailles – 1783 VI. Briand Kellog - 1928
Constitution it PNF - 1919 VII. Lateran Pact – 1929
III. March on Rome – 1922
VIII. Invasion of Ethiopia
(Abyssinia by) - 1935
IV. Locarno Conference - 1925
Letter of Labour – 1927
At dawn on July 10, 1943 the Allied Eighth Army under the command of Marshal
Harold Alexander began massively invade southern Sicily. Although the enemy
stealthily evacuated ashore following a pre-planned strategy, the establishment of
the beachhead became clear that the idea of Churchill to hit "the underbelly of
Europe" was a fait accompli.
In the summer of 1943 no one was more aware of that than "Il Duce" Benito
Mussolini, former Editor of "Avanti" Italian Socialist Party newspaper, founder of
the Fascist Party and dictator of Italy. The second chronologically totalitarian
leader in Europe in the last century (in 1917 Lenin and Mussolini in 1922) knew
that the invasion of Sicily announced the Peninsula and with it the ultimate
failure of the adventure in which the head honcho himself shaven jaw had
committed massive irresponsibly fate of Italy.
A deductive intelligence contradictory combination with arrogant ego, capable of
fully cloud that virtue, the Dictator understood at once that Italy could not
continue as a belligerent. There is no historical evidence, however, that the leader
of the March on Rome simultaneously fatal appreciate personal implications of
Nazism claimed that an Aryan master race was superior to all other races. To maintain
what it regarded as the purity and strength of the Aryan race, Nazis sought
to exterminate Jews and Romani, and the physically and mentally disabled. Other
groups deemed "degenerate" or "asocial" received exclusionary treatment,
including homosexuals, blacks, Jehovah's Witnesses and political opponents. The
Nazis supported territorial expansionism.
According to Nazi ideology, the gaining of Lebensraum ("living space") is a law of
nature for all healthy and vigorous peoples of superior races — who, as they grow in
population size and face overpopulation in their territory, expand their territory and
displace peoples of inferior races.
Nazism rejected the Marxist concept of class struggle and instead promoted the idea
of Volksgemeinschaft ("people's community"). Nazis wanted to overcome social
divisions which they considered artificial; instead, all parts of the racially
homogenous society should cooperate for national unity. Nazism denounced
both capitalism and communism for being associated with Jewish materialism Like
other fascist movements, Nazism supported the outlawing
of strikes by employees and lockouts by employers, because these were regarded as a
threat to national unity. Instead, the state controlled and approved
the main idea of the Nazis was to take control of
people and countries around the world.
FEBRUARY 27, 1933
The Reichstag building (GERMAN PARLIAMENT) IS
DESTROYED BY FIRE
After declaring that the Communists were responsible for
the arson that destroyed the Reichstag (German
parliament) in Berlin, Adolf Hitler used this fact to
assume extraordinary powers in Germany. Hitler
convinced the German President Paul von Hindenburg to
declare a state of emergency. Thus, personal freedoms
protected by the constitution is suspended.
MARCH 5, 1933
NAZIS NOT GET THE MOST VOTES IN ELECTIONS REICHSTAG
Despite the declaration of a state of emergency in February 1933 and of
the extraordinary powers assumed by Adolf Hitler, the Nazis did not
manage to win a governing majority in parliamentary elections. The
Nazis won only 45 percent of the vote. Later, in March 1933, Hitler
presented a bill that would give the government the power to enact
laws without a vote in the German parliament. The bill passed, in part
due to the arrest of several communist and socialist opponents before
voting for the project.
23 MARCH 1933
The Reichstag (parliament GERMAN) VOTE FOR THE
LEGISLATURE TO HITLER
After the failure of the Nazi party that wins a majority in parliament, Adolf
Hitler has a bill that will grant their government the legislative authority.
The Nazis, the conservatives and the Catholic Center Party support the socalled "Enabling Act" that would guarantee the Hitler government the
power to enact laws without a vote in parliament for a period of four years.
Before the vote, opponents communists and many socialists were arrested.
Finally, only the Socialists who were still opposed to the measure. The
project is accepted and soon Hitler outlaws all political parties in Germany,
except the Nazi Party.
JUNE 30, 1934
NIGHT OF THE LONG KNIVES
There is a vent at the top of the assault troops (SA) and other suspected
opponents of the regime of Adolf Hitler. In this purge is known as the
"Night of the Long Knives". Over 80 SA leaders were arrested and
executed without trial. Hitler argued that the purge is the answer to a
plot to overthrow the SA government. The SA under the command of
Ernst Roehm, have attempted to take the place of the German army.
Roehm Removing it will further support Hitler's army.
AUGUST 2, 1934
VON HINDENBURG PRESIDENT DIES AT 87 YEARS
German President Paul von Hindenburg dies at age 87.
After his death, Adolf Hitler assumes the powers of the
presidency. The military takes an oath of personal loyalty to
Hitler, whose dictatorship is based on his position as Reich
President (head of state), Reich Chancellor (head of
government) and Führer (leader of the Nazi party). Now,
Hitler's official title is "Führer and Reich Chancellor".
of the Fleet
General of the SS
deputy, fled to
captured in 1941.
the Luftwaffe and
president of the
Chief of Staff of
Chief of the High
Command of the
The Nazi Party
Franz von Papen
Albert Speer, architect
and Minister of
to Austria and
Berlin was eventually surrounded and cut communications between the capital
and the rest of Germany. Despite the evident total defeat, Hitler refused to
relinquish his power or surrender. No communications from Berlin, Hermann
Göring sent an ultimatum to the city asking to take the Nazi regime in April,
considering that Hitler had been incapacitated as leader. Upon receiving the
message, Hitler angrily ordered Göring's immediate arrest and made an airplane
hand over the message to Göring in Bavaria. Later, the Reichsführer-SS Heinrich
Himmler, began in northern Germany to communicate with the Western Allies in
search of a negotiated peace. Hitler once again reacted violently to these attempts
and ordered Himmler's arrest and execution. Given the null intent by Hitler to
surrender, intense street fighting continued in the torn ruins of Berlin, the
remnants of the German army, Hitler Youth and Waffen-SS were fighting with the
Red Army. This battle is known as the Battle of Berlin. The German forces suffered
heavy losses, reaching to recruit a large number of children and the elderly to
defend Berlin pockets of territory still controlled by the Red Army. The April 30,
1945, the city ravaged by the cruel battle, Hitler committed suicide in his
underground bunker. Two days later, on May 2, German General Helmuth
Weidling unconditionally surrendered to Soviet General Vasily Chuikov.