The Great Depression (economic depression) that came by the World War I was a big chance
for Hitler to come to power. He was giving hope to lower and middle classes’ economic demands
with charismatic oratory and propaganda. He gained support by promoting nationalism, anti-
Semitism and anti-communism.
*Nationalism: It involves the identification of an ethnic identity with a state.
*Anti Semitism: Prejudice against or hostility towards Jews.
*Anti- Communism: Communism is a social structure in which classes are abolished and
property is commonly controlled. Anti Communism is the opposite of communism.
The Nazi Party
Hitler joined the Bavaria army as a volunteer when the World War I erupted in 1914. He was
at the age of 25. It was the beginning of his military career. When Germany lost the war, he joined
the party called Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (German Workers’ Party) (DAP) which was founded by 6 of
his friends. In a little while, he became the leader of this party. Party’s name was changed into
National Socialist German Workers' Party [Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei (NSDAP)].
Supporters of the party were named as Nazi in short.
Party prepared a programme. The first step of this programme was to abolish the negation
that came by Treaty of Versailles. Also, one of the most important steps of this programme was
accepting only the people, who have German blood, as citizens.
Beer Hall Putsch (Munich Putsch=Coup)
Hitler attempted to take possession of the government in Munich in 1923 by taking a leaf out
of Mussolini’s book. As you can remember, Mussolini got a chance of taking the possession of the
government by the March on Rome. And Hitler tried to do the same thing by the name of Beer Hall
Putsch. But he failed because the army and the police didn’t support the Nazi Party. So, Bavarian
government put a stay on this treason felony. Hitler was arrested and was sentenced to prison for 5
years. But a year later he was free.
Hitler Über Deutschland (Hitler over Germany)
While he was a prisoner, he was writing his opinions. His opinions became a book named
“Mein Kampf” (My Struggle) later. This book which Hitler called “My Bible” shaped the party’s next
actions. Between the years 1924 and 1929, party was unlucky to taking votes. The political turning
point for Hitler came when the Great Depression hit Germany in 1930. His Nazi Party gained the 18
% of the votes in 1930’s election. With this NSDAP became the second biggest party.
In 1933’s January, people were worrying that the communists will cause a civil war by a
general strike. So, the president Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler Prime Minister. Because von
Hindenburg was thinking that Hitler will found a stable government.
On the 27st of February in the same year, a fire broke out in Reichstag by the Nazi Party’s
police organization called Gestapo. And after this event Communists founded guilty. The following
day, Hitler made President Hindenburg sign a decree which was abolishing the parts about human
rights in the constitution. He also deactivated the parties besides Nazi party and the nationalist ones.
He gave hope to lower and middle classes’ economic demands with charismatic oratory and
propaganda. People believed him and Hitler took over the control.
Röhm-Putsch (Night of the Long Knives / Röhm Putsch)
"Röhm-Putsch" was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany between June 30 and July 2, 1934,
when the Nazi regime carried out a series of political executions. Most of those killed were members
of the SA. SA was a kind of police organization which helped NSDAP to come to power. But the
following years, SA started to act independently. Lots of SA members’ were killed by SS’s to protect
Hitler’s authority and to get rid of SA obstacle on the way of founding a faithful strong Germany army
to conquer Europe. Historians claim that this event was a turning point for Nazi Germany.
Hitler was claiming that the minorities such as Jews and gypsies were the main reason of all the
negations in the country. He also made people believe that German race is more ascendant than the
Hitler has a signature under a big genocide. He founded concentration camps to isolate those
minorities. Lots of horrible things were made to those people. (Not only in Germany, all over the
Europe) With this approximately six million people were killed.
Hitler found himself in a kind of disappointment when Germany lost the World War II. He and his
wife Eva Braun committed suicide by taking cyanide pills.