Totalitarianism

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Totalitarianism

  1. 1. Totalitarianism A Brief Overview/ Review
  2. 2. Totalitarianism <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form of government in which all societal resources are monopolized by the government. Total control over the population. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tools of Totalitarian government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propaganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police terror </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Censorship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indoctrination </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. The State Fascist Model State = eternal, lasting State casts aside all who do not serve its purpose Individual = temporary, expendable Individual exists to serve the State (a tool) I I I I I Power Here
  4. 4. Right Wing vs. Left Wing <ul><li>Right- Wing </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Class support </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain Status quo </li></ul><ul><li>Private ownership of industrial wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hitler’s Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mussolini’s Italy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Left-Wing </li></ul><ul><li>Poor/ peasant support </li></ul><ul><li>Seek Elimination of classes </li></ul><ul><li>Collective ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mao’s China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalin’s Russia </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Conditions that helped to bring about Totalitarian regimes in Europe
  6. 6. The Treaty of Versailles <ul><li>Which countries were represented at the Versailles negotiations? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Italy, France, United States, England </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Who was missing? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany and Russia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>What were the terms of the Treaty? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany takes on all responsibility for the War (War Guilt Clause) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany must give up land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany must reduce its army </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany must pay billions of dollars to the allies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The map of Europe is drastically altered as a result of the War and the Treaty… </li></ul>
  7. 7. Pre World War I Map
  8. 8. Post World War I Map
  9. 9. <ul><li>How did changes in the Map of Europe affect Russia, Italy and Germany? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia did not regain land lost to Germany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Italy did not gain land even though they were part of the winning side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Germany lost territory and felt vulnerable </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Our Big Three <ul><li>The terms of the Treaty help set conditions that led to the rise of… </li></ul>
  11. 11. Stalin and the Soviet Union <ul><li>Lenin founded the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution in 1917 </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin succeeded Lenin </li></ul><ul><li>Referred to as the Grey Blur </li></ul><ul><li>Postponed Lenin’s plans for a global communist revolution in order to secure the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Several Five Year Plans to help the Soviet Union compete with the West </li></ul><ul><li>Killed many of his top aides and advisors as well as any people who opposed his rule </li></ul>
  12. 12. Mussolini’s Italy <ul><li>Founded a fascist regime in the 1920s </li></ul><ul><li>Pursued the idea of Mare Nostrum to create a new Italian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Army was ill-equipped for war </li></ul><ul><li>Bound to Hitler </li></ul><ul><li>Used Balcony speeches to rally the masses to his cause </li></ul>
  13. 13. Hitler’s Germany <ul><li>Arrested after failed Munich (Beer Hall) Putsch. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote Mein Kampf in jail </li></ul><ul><li>Felt the Weimar officials had stabbed Germany in the Back </li></ul><ul><li>Blamed Weimar Republic, communists, Jews and the French for Germany’s Problems </li></ul><ul><li>Founded the Nazi party </li></ul>
  14. 14. Hitler’s Germany cont. <ul><li>Hyperinflation of the 1920s helped set conditions for Hitler’s Nazis to take control. </li></ul><ul><li>1932- Nazis finish strongly in elections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>President Hindenburg appoints Hitler Chancellor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hindenburg dies and Hitler takes over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth of the Third Reich </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Practice Multiple Choice Questions
  16. 16. <ul><li>1. A major goal of France and Great Britain at the Conference of Versailles following World War I was to </li></ul><ul><li>Create a politically unified Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Germany from rebuilding its military forces </li></ul><ul><li>Restore pre-war imperial governments to power </li></ul><ul><li>Help Germany rebuild its industrial economy </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>2. What aim did Italian leader Vittorio Orlando have during the Creation of the Treaty of Versailles? </li></ul><ul><li>To gain territory from Austria-Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>To assume control of Austria’s industries </li></ul><ul><li>To guarantee the partition of Germany </li></ul><ul><li>To gain possession of Austria’s overseas colonies </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>3. President Wilson said his Fourteen Points would provide a framework for </li></ul><ul><li>A lasting and just peace </li></ul><ul><li>Determining war reparations </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding colonial empires </li></ul><ul><li>Punishing aggressor nations </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>4. One way fascist leaders in the 1920s and 1930s gained popular support was </li></ul><ul><li>Promising to maintain peace with other countries </li></ul><ul><li>Attracting foreign investment </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting the strength of the military </li></ul><ul><li>Appealing to national pride </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>5. Stalin’s Great Purge from 1934-1939 </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated military dominance in state decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding Soviet agriculture at the expense of Soviet industry </li></ul><ul><li>Brought about the deaths of millions of people </li></ul><ul><li>Replaces soviet agricultural workers with technology </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>6. Which of the following does not describe Hitler’s Germany, Mussolini’s Italy and Stalin’s Russia </li></ul><ul><li>They were totalitarian regimes </li></ul><ul><li>All three nations wanted to expand their borders </li></ul><ul><li>political enemies were killed </li></ul><ul><li>All three operated under Marxist principles </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>7. Mao’s China and Stalin’s Russia were </li></ul><ul><li>A. Right-Wing Totalitarian regimes </li></ul><ul><li>B. Left- Wing Totalitarian regimes </li></ul><ul><li>C. Representative Democracies </li></ul><ul><li>D. Aristocracies </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>8. Hyperinflation is a condition where </li></ul><ul><li>A. Prices remain constant </li></ul><ul><li>B. Prices rise rapidly, making paper </li></ul><ul><li>money virtually worthless </li></ul><ul><li>C. Wages increase dramatically </li></ul><ul><li>D. Prices drop drastically, allowing all </li></ul><ul><li>members of society the chance t buy goods </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>9. As a result of the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>A. Russia regained all of the land it had </li></ul><ul><li>surrendered to Germany </li></ul><ul><li>B. Italy became a major power in </li></ul><ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>C. Germany accepted guilt for World </li></ul><ul><li>War I </li></ul><ul><li>D. All of the above </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>10. Who was Hitler referring to when he used the phrase “stab in the back” </li></ul><ul><li>Communists </li></ul><ul><li>Jews </li></ul><ul><li>Weimar Officials </li></ul><ul><li>The French </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>11. Mussolini’s concept of Mare Nostrum promoted </li></ul><ul><li>Italian expansion </li></ul><ul><li>Italian isolationism </li></ul><ul><li>Italian seafood </li></ul><ul><li>Italian reliance on Germany </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>12. Under Mussolini ’ s rule in Italy, </li></ul><ul><li>a. a democracy was put it place. </li></ul><ul><li>b. there was a one-party dictatorship. </li></ul><ul><li>c. the socialists came into power. </li></ul><ul><li>d. free speech was encouraged. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>13. What measure did the Nazis take that was a rejection of the Versailles treaty? </li></ul><ul><li>a. They launched large public works projects. </li></ul><ul><li>b. They rearmed Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>c. They passed the Nuremberg Laws. </li></ul><ul><li>d. They established the Gestapo. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>14. The founder of the Soviet Union was </li></ul><ul><li>Trotsky </li></ul><ul><li>Lenin </li></ul><ul><li>Stalin </li></ul><ul><li>Gorbachev </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>15. Hitler was arrested after </li></ul><ul><li>World War I </li></ul><ul><li>World War II </li></ul><ul><li>The Munich Putsch </li></ul><ul><li>Selling his art </li></ul>
  31. 31. Answers <ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>A </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul><ul><li>C </li></ul><ul><li>D </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>B </li></ul><ul><li>9. C </li></ul><ul><li>10. C </li></ul><ul><li>11. A </li></ul><ul><li>12. B </li></ul><ul><li>13. B </li></ul><ul><li>14. B </li></ul><ul><li>15. E </li></ul>

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