The rise of totalitarianism


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  • The term “totalitarian” was created by an Italian journalist protesting Mussolini’s total control of life in Italy…he was beaten to death by Mussolini’s souldiers Black shirts – Mussolini’s personal army made up of veterans and the unemployed….one of their favorite things to do to opponents was forcing castor oil down their throats (which caused diarrhea) Mussolini was an atheist but supported the Catholic Church because of its importance to Italians, because of this the Catholic Church did not oppose him. “ Fascism is not a church, it is more like a training ground.” Being critical of the government was made a crime.
  • 70% of the Nazi party was under 40…”Full of idealism, the young had faith that a better world was possible if Hitler took control.” “ [Nazis] do not believe that one soul is equal to another, one man equal to another. It does not believe in rights as such it aims to create the German man of strength, its task is to protect the German people, and all…must be subordinate to this goal.” “ The Nazi government set policies to control everyday life, including gender roles. In June 1933, a bill took effect that encouraged Aryans (those people defined as racially German) to marry and have children. The bill provided for loans to Aryan newlyweds, but only to couples in which the wife left the workforce. The loans were forgiven on the birth of the pair’s fourth child. The ideal woman gave up her job, gave birth to many children, and completely surrendered her will to that of men, allowing her husband to feel powerful despite military defeat and economic depression. A good wife ‘joyfully sacrifices and fulfills her fate,’ as one Nazi leader explained.” Hitler Youth – mandatory organization for children over the age of 10, taught to report any adult suspected of disloyalty Killed not only Jews, but the handicapped and elderly
  • “ Denounced as enemies of the state, whole families were robbed of their possessions, left to starve, or even murdered outright.” Of those sent to the “gulags” …”some one million died annually as a result of harsh conditions, which included insufficient food, inadequate housing, and 12-16 hour days of crushing physical labor. Regular beatings and murders of prisoners rounded out Gulag life, as it too became another aspect of totalitarian violence.”
  • By 1936-1937, Japan was spending 47% of its budget on weapons
  • Japan’s invasion of China and their brutality prompted the US to put an embargo on airplane parts going to Japan
  • The rise of totalitarianism

    1. 1. The Rise of Totalitarianism (1920s-1930s)
    2. 2. What is Totalitarianism? <ul><li>Totalitarianism: a system of government in which a leader (dictator) has complete control over his country and the lives of his people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Key Traits of Totalitarianism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dictator: strong leader with total power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>One party: ruling party is the only legal political party </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strict government control of all aspects of life </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>business, religion, the arts, education, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use of propaganda, censorship, terror, and secret </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>police to control people </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals have very few freedoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No freedom of speech, religion, press, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Totalitarian Leaders <ul><li>Why did they come to power? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People wanted strong leaders to get them out of the Great Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nationalism—they promised to make their countries big and powerful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What did they want? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total control over country and people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong military and economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More land—they were willing to go to war for it! </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Two Types of Totalitarianism: Fascism vs. Communism <ul><li>Fascism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme nationalism – the nation is more important than the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Charismatic leader – big personality, good public speaker, inspires people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different social classes – rich, middle class, poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-communism </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Communism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No social classes or private property </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global communism - calls for all nations to be united under communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-religion </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Both </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Totalitarian dictatorship – required absolute obedience to leader </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-democracy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme militarism – glorification of military </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Italy Leader Benito Mussolini (1922-1943) Government Fascist Political Party Fascist Party Policies/goals <ul><li>Extreme nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>-Make Italy a powerful nation </li></ul><ul><li>-Build Italian Empire </li></ul><ul><li>Fix economy </li></ul><ul><li>Restore order </li></ul><ul><li>Support Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-socialism </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-communism </li></ul>
    8. 8. Germany Leader Adolf Hitler (1933-1945) Government Fascist Political Party Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers’ Party) Policies/goals <ul><li>Extreme German nationalism </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-Semitism (hatred of Jewish people) </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-communism </li></ul><ul><li>Fix economy </li></ul><ul><li>-Create jobs with public projects </li></ul><ul><li>Rebuild German military </li></ul><ul><li>Create a powerful German Empire </li></ul>
    9. 9. The Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.) Leader Joseph Stalin (1929-1953) Government Communist Political Party Communist Party Policies/goals <ul><li>Create the perfect communist state </li></ul><ul><li>Spread communism throughout the world </li></ul><ul><li>Government ownership of all property </li></ul><ul><li>Strict government control of economy </li></ul><ul><li>-industrialize / modernize using Five Year Plans </li></ul><ul><li>-build factories, hospitals, schools, and railroads </li></ul><ul><li>-government control of factories and mines </li></ul><ul><li>-collectivized farmland (took people’s land and </li></ul><ul><li>combined it into large government farms) </li></ul><ul><li>- Imprisoned or executed anyone who opposed </li></ul>
    10. 10. Japan Leaders Emperor and Military Dictator - Emperor Hirohito was a “figurehead” (symbolic leader with no real power) -Hideki Tojo was the military dictator Government Military dictatorship Political Party None Policies/goals <ul><li>Rid Japan of European and American </li></ul><ul><li>influences </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen military </li></ul><ul><li>Build a powerful Japanese Empire </li></ul><ul><li>-gain raw materials for industry </li></ul>
    11. 12. Fascist Aggression <ul><li>Totalitarian nations began invading other nations in efforts to add to their empires </li></ul><ul><li> - Japan invaded Manchuria (Region of China) </li></ul><ul><li>- Germany invaded Austria and Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>- Italy invaded Ethiopia and Albania </li></ul><ul><li>The League of Nations failed to stop them </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic nations such as Great Britain, France, and the United States were alarmed by these actions but did little to stop them </li></ul>
    12. 13. Special Thanks To: <ul><li>Google Images </li></ul><ul><li>Ben Bindewald </li></ul>