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Educational system in japan


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Report in Comparative education

Published in: Education
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Educational system in japan

  1. 1. Important Facts Japan  日本国  Nippon-koku  Nihon-koku Anthem:  "Kimigayo"  "君が代" MENU 0:00 Capital Tokyo 35°41′N 139°46′ E Official languages None[1] Recognised Regional languages  Aynu itak  Ryukyuan languages  Eastern Japanese  Western Japanese  several other Japanese dialects National language Japanese Ethnic group s(2011[2])  98.5% Ja panese Religion  Shinto  Buddhism  Minor religion Christianity Islam Hinduism Sikhism Japan Population 2014 126,757,591 Land Area 378, 000 square km
  2. 2. Basic History of EducationThe history of education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century, when Chinese learning was introduced at theYamato court. Foreign civilizations have often provided new ideas for the development of Japan's own culture. Chinese teachings and ideas flowed into Japan from the sixth to the ninth century. Along with the introduction of Buddhism came the Chinese system of writing and itsliterary tradition, and Confucianism.
  3. 3. Basic History of EducationIn the Edo period, the Yushima Seidō in Edo was the chief educational institution of the state; and at its head was theDaigaku-no-kami, a title which identified the leader of the Tokugawa training school for shogunate bureaucrats. Under the Tokugawa shogunate, the daimyō vied for power in the largely pacified country. Since their influence could not be raised through war, they competed on the economic field.
  4. 4. Basic History of EducationTheir warrior-turned-bureaucrat Samurai elite had to be educated not only in military strategy and the martial arts, but also agriculture and accounting. Likewise, the wealthy merchant class needed education for their daily business, and their wealth allowed them to be patrons of arts and science.
  5. 5. Basic History of EducationBut temple schools (terakoya) educated peasants too, and it is estimated that at the end of the Edo period 50% of the male and 20% of the female population possessed some degree of literacy. Even though contact with foreign countries was restricted, books from China and Europe were eagerly imported and Rangaku ("Dutch studies") became a popular area of scholarly interest.
  6. 6. Basic History of EducationMeiji Restoration After the Meiji Restoration of 1868, the methods and structures of Western learning were adopted as a means to make Japan a strong, modern nation. Students and even high- ranking government officials were sent abroad to study, such as the Iwakura mission. Foreign scholars, the so-called o-yatoi gaikokujin, were invited to teach at newly founded universities and military academies. Compulsory education was introduced, mainly after the Prussian model. By 1890, only 20 years after the resumption of full international relations, Japan discontinued employment of the foreign consultants.
  7. 7. Basic History of EducationPost-WWII After the defeat in World War II, the allied occupation government set an education reform as one of its primary goals, to eradicate militarist teachings and "democratize" Japan. The education system was rebuilt after the American model. The end of the 1960s was a time of student protests around the world, and also in Japan. The main subject of protest was the Japan- U.S. security treaty. A number of reforms were carried out in the post-war period until today. They aimed at easing the burden of entrance examinations, promoting internationalisation and information technologies, diversifying education and supporting lifelong learning.
  8. 8. Basic History of EducationPost-WWII In successive international tests of mathematics, Japanese children consistently rank at or near the top (see TIMSS).[6] The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) is responsible for educational administration. Students' academic skills, however, may have declined since the mid-1990s
  9. 9. Educational Ladder The school year in Japan begins in April and classes are held from Monday to either Friday or Saturday, depending on the school. The school year consists of two or three terms, which are separated by short holidays in spring and winter, and a six week long summer break.
  10. 10. Educational Ladder • 6-3-3-4 system: •6 years of elementary school •3 years of junior high school •3 years of senior high school •4 years at the university •Japan has 0% literacy •It is based on age, grade and available educational facilities.
  11. 11. Educational LadderAge Grade Educational establishments 3–4 Pre - school/Kindergarten Special school 4–5 5–6 6–7 1 Elementary school Compulsory Education 7–8 2 8–9 3 9–10 4 10–11 5 11–12 6
  12. 12. Educational LadderAge Grade Educational establishments 12–13 7 Junior high school / Lower secondary school Compulsory Education 13–14 8 14–15 9 15–16 10 High school / Upper secondary school College of technol ogy 16–17 11 17–18 12
  13. 13. Age Grade Educational establishments 18–19 University: U ndergraduat e National Academy Medical School Veterinary school Dentistry School Pharmaceutic al School National Defense Medical College Community College Vocational School Educational Ladder 19–20 Associate 20–21 21–22 Bachelor
  14. 14. 22–23 Gradua te School: Master National Academ y: Master 23–24 Master 24–25 Gradu ate School : Ph.D National Defense Academy : Ph.D ) Medical School: Ph.D Veterinary School: Ph.D Dentistry School: Ph.D Pharmaceuti cal School: Ph.D 25–26 26–27 Ph.D 27–28 Ph.D Age Grade Educational establishments Educational Ladder
  15. 15. Administration of the School The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (often shortened to Ministry of Education, MEXT) represents the central educational authority in Japan. It is headed by the minister of education, who is appointed by the prime minister and serves on the prime minister's cabinet. The Ministry oversees many national institutions such as universities, museums, research institutes, and youth centers. It gives assistance to all levels of education throughout the country, especially at the municipal and prefecture level. Following are some of the specific responsibilities of the Ministry:
  16. 16. Administration of the School · Plans and coordinates educational projects at all levels · Provides advice upon request from educational units around the country · Gives financial assistance to enhance education · Operates many educational institutions including universities, junior colleges, and technical colleges · Gives final approval for establishing public and private higher education institutions · Promotes lifelong learning throughout the country, because Japan has been making the cultural shift to this sort of system.
  17. 17. Administration of the School · Requires heads of municipal and prefecture governments to submit reports about their organizations, as deemed necessary · Orders local authorities to make adjustments in policies, procedures, or situations that may be in violation of regulations or laws · Oversees the curricula · Coordinates the selection of textbooks · Controls the programs for the training of teachers · Establishes standards for various types of equipment used in the schools
  18. 18. Administration of the School Japan is composed of 47 prefectures. Every prefecture has a board of education that coordinates education in that geographic unit. Each board comprises five members who are appointed by that prefecture's governor, approved by the legislative assembly, and serve for a four-year term. Some of the main responsibilities of the board are as follows: Manage the wide variety of educational units in the prefecture, from secondary schools and schools for the handicapped to museums and public libraries
  19. 19. Administration of the School Promote events and activities related to physical education and the social education of youth Provide advice and financial assistance to the mayors and municipal boards within the prefecture Establish or close down kindergartens, upper secondary schools, special education schools, special training schools, and miscellaneous schools Issue certificates to teachers
  20. 20. Administration of the School Education administration at the municipal level is handled by a municipal board of education. Each board includes five members selected by the mayor of the municipality with the agreement of the elected assembly. Holding office for four years, these board members have the following responsibilities: selecting a municipal superintendent of education from among its own membership, managing a variety of educational institutions in the municipality, promoting cultural activities, and selecting textbooks for elementary and middle schools. Then the municipal mayor has the responsibility to oversee the municipal universities and junior colleges and the process of preparing educational budgets.
  21. 21. Administration of the School Finance Three main entities share financial responsibility for supporting public education: the national, prefectural, and municipal governments. Through the use of taxes and other means of acquiring income, each of these units funds a diverse array of educational programs at its level
  22. 22. Administration of the School At the national level, the Ministry for Education funds two main units: 1. national educational establishments, such as universities 2. various public and private educational institutions at the prefecture and municipal level. Significant level of financial support - provided to private institutions by the national government
  23. 23. Teacher PreparationTeachers for kindergarten schools are always trained in the teacher training Institutions while the secondary school teachers are also trained in the Universities. In the same vein, teachers for the Japanese higher institutions are equally trained in the Universities. It should be noted that before a person can be appointed to teach in any public tertiary institution, such a person is expected to have a minimum of Masters degree in the area where he wants to teach.
  24. 24. Teacher PreparationA different teaching certificate earned through these university and college training courses is required for teaching at each level of schooling, such as kindergarten, primary school, lower secondary school, upper secondary school, and special needs education Laws and regulations have established the minimum number of credits that a person must acquire in the teacher training courses at universities, graduate schools, and junior colleges.
  25. 25. Teacher Preparation Three Types of Teaching Certificate Regular Teaching Certificate Special Teaching Certificate Temporary Teaching Certificate
  26. 26. Programs & Projects to Education Building International Research Networks ・Strategic Young Researcher Overseas Visits Program for Accelerating Brain Circulation This program works to foster excellent young Japanese researchers who will become the nucleus of scientific networks that transcend conventional brain gain and drain in circulating talent internationally. It does this by supporting activities carried out by Japanese universities to dispatched, as part of a strategy to internationalize their research organizations, young researchers engaged in world-level international joint research, expanding their opportunities to challenge diverse issues. (As a rule, research dispatches are for one year or longer.)
  27. 27. Programs & Projects to Education Teaching East Asia: Japan has been providing services to K-12 teachers and schools since 1985 through its summer institutes, study tours, one-day workshops, and special projects.
  28. 28. Programs & Projects to Education STUDENT EXCHANGE PROGRAM Connect with fellow students and future leaders from the United States and Japan Ten selected high school students live with a host family and attend a high school in the Tokyo metropolitan area for approximately three weeks. Junior Fellows are selected based on their future leadership potential and demonstrated qualities necessary to a successful exchange
  29. 29. Programs & Projects to Education Japan-U.S. Teacher Exchange Program for ESD Jointly funded by the governments of Japan and the United States, this program is designed to introduce innovative Japanese and U.S. K-12 educators to each others cultures and education systems and to enhance ESD-related curricula in both countries. The program aims to raise awareness of ESD-oriented school programs and deepen a sense of global interconnectedness between teachers in Japan and the U.S. in four vital areas of ESD focus: food and sustainable nutrition; environment; energy and resources; and international understanding and cooperation.
  30. 30. Programs & Projects to Education Educational Grants - supports teachers training curriculum development and community outreach program efforts addressing the needs of K – 12 students, teachers and the larger community.
  31. 31. Issues and Problems 1. The lack of competition among educational suppliers Students have different characters, and accordingly, educational theories must be diverse. Therefore, many educational curricula should be tried in a competitive manner. However, there is no such thing in Japan. The diversity of school books and other materials is limited, and there is little room for developing new educational materials and methods. Japanese education is far from vital.
  32. 32. Issues and Problems 2. The risk of the nationally unified education Since a government agency decides educational content, if the agency makes a mistake, all schools are forced to go along with it. Such a risk can be avoided if the power to decide educational content is transferred to local governments or private schools. A new education system can be tried locally and then spread, before the Ministry of Education makes a nationwide decision. This would be both more natural and desirable.
  33. 33. Issues and Problems 3. Japanese education rejects individual differences The students who achieved excellent results in a subject can frequently progress faster or proceed to the next grade in the United States. The absence of a national curriculum allows such flexibility. In situation such as in Japan where educational curricula are fixed by a national curriculum, a student permitted to proceed faster must be considered as favorable discrimination. No educational theory nor educational psychology argues that every child at each grade develops at the same speed.
  34. 34. Issues and Problems 4. The contradiction that any educational efforts not approved by the Ministry of Education are essentially useless The Ministry of Education decides educational content in Japan. In other words, any educational efforts not approved by the Ministry are essentially useless. In the current system, doing only what is approved by the Ministry and cutting out (as much as possible) what is not approved is the most effective way to enter a famous university. Community and volunteer activities, home education, and learning styles are all useless. This is the largest contradiction in Japanese education. The definition of education is wider in the United States because the federal government does not decide the content of education. Experience in the real world, such as part-time jobs and social activities, are included in education. American high schools permit part-time jobs, while many Japanese high schools do not. Such differences result from the different definitions of education. It is a considerable problem that the Ministry of Education has the power to develop or eliminate specific sets of values.
  35. 35. Thank You...