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Educational system

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Educational system

  1. 1. EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM OF: UNITED STATES, GERMANY, JAPAN AND ENGLAND CAMI LA LORCA L I S E T T E LEAL
  2. 2. EDUCATION IN GERMANY • Number of compulsory years of education: • 3-6 kindergarten. • Compulsory 9 or 10 Years old. 1°- 4 : Elementary school (Grundschule), where the subjects taught are the same for all. • Then, after the 4th grade, they are separated according to their academic ability and attend one of three different kinds of schools: Hauptschule, Realschule or Gymnasium.
  3. 3. EDUCATION IN UNITED STATES • Number of compulsory years of education: • In the United States, education is compulsory for all students until ages sixteen to eighteen depending on the individual state.
  4. 4. ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE OF SCHOOLS • The majority of German students attend public schools • The school year consists of two semesters, it starts around August. • Breaks are 2 weeks at Christmas and 6 weeks in summer. (Shorter breaks are around Easter and in autumn.)
  5. 5. ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE OF SCHOOLS • Elementary schools (kindergarten and grades 1-5), middle schools (6-8), and high schools (9-12) • High school students are required to take a wide variety of courses in English, mathematics, science, and social science. They may also be required to take foreign language or physical education, and they may elect to take music, art, or theatre courses. • College: before applying to a four-year university.
  6. 6. CURRICULUM FOCUS • There can be a lot of homework and heavy emphasis on the "three Rs" - reading, writing and aRithmatic. The curriculum expands as students move up from Grundschule and depends on which of the three secondary schools they attend. • The curriculum usually focuses on mostly academic subjects, even in vocational schools, with a limited offering of physical education, sports, art, and music.
  7. 7. CURRICULUM FOCUS • No country-level education system or curriculum exists in the United States. • The federal government does not operate public schools. • Each of the fifty states has its own Department of Education that sets guidelines for the schools of that state.
  8. 8. EDUCATIONAL FUNDING • Funding come from two levels: federal and state. • Kindergartens are not part of the German public school system. • These municipal kindergartens are financed by taxes and progressive income-based customer fees, but are not considered part of the public school system. • A German public school does not charge tuition fees. • In Germany, most institutions of higher education are subsidized by German states (public universities) • Admission to public universities is still cheap,
  9. 9. EDUCATIONAL FUNDING • Public schools also receive funding from the individual state, and also from local property taxes. Public colleges and universities receive funding from the state in which they are located. • College and university students pay tuition, but many earn scholarships or receive loans.
  10. 10. HIGHER EDUCATION • There are several varieties of university-level schools. The classical universities provide a broad general education and students usually attend them for up to six years. • However, in recent years there have been changes to the curriculum allowing a university student to acquire a Bachelor Degree after 4 years. • Technical Universities are more aimed at training students for specific careers and are usually attended for four years.
  11. 11. HIGHER EDUCATION • Optional final stage : collegues or universities • Once admitted, students engage in undergraduate study, which consists of satisfying university and class requirements to achieve a bachelor's degree in a field of concentration known as a major. • The community college awards the associate's degree, and the university awards the bachelor's and master's degrees • After additional years of study and sometimes in conjunction with the completion of a master's degree and/or Ed.S. degree, students may earn a doctoral degree
  12. 12. TEACHER EDUCATION • Teachers in Germany receive their training in two stages: a first phase at a university (3-4 years) and a second phase as a two year practical training at teacher seminars and selected training schools. • First stage: During their studies the students have to complete three months of practical work at schools. The first stage ends with the First State Examination that includes a final tesis as well as written and oral examinations of the studied subjects. • Second Stage: The second phase of teacher education is a two year practical training at teacher seminars and schools. It ends with the Second State Examination.
  13. 13. TEACHER EDUCATION • The aim of the curriculum of teachers Colleges is to impart all round comprehensive education for the prospective teachers. Their function is to integrate general and professional courses. • Duration: three to five years. • Every teacher training programme in America includes following three basic constituents; (i) General Education. (ii) Professional Education, and (iii) Specialization in a particular field.
  14. 14. EDUCATION IN ENGLAND AND JAPAN • Number of compulsory years of education • JAPAN: 6 years of primary or elementary school; 3 years of middle or junior high school; 3 years of high school; and 4 years of university. But only 9 first years are compulsory. • UK: 9 years of compulsory education, from Junior school 7 years to secondary school 12 to 16 years old
  15. 15. ORGANIZATION AND STRUCTURE OF SCHOOLS • JAPAN : 6 years of primary or elementary school; 3 years of middle or junior high school; 3 years of high school; and 4 years of university. A school year has three terms: summer, winter and spring, which are each followed by a vacation period. The school year begins in April and ends in March of the following year. • UK: Infant school: Children from 5-7. Junior school: 7 to 11. Primary school: 12-16 years old. SIXTH FORM COLLEGE: it is an institute which offers education through high school, especially for students from secondary schools without sixth form.
  16. 16. CURRICULUM FOCUS: • Japan: The elementary school curriculum covers Japanese, social studies, mathematics, science, music, arts and handicrafts, homemaking and physical education. At this stage, much time and emphasis is given to music, fine arts and physical education. • UK: English, maths, ciences, informatics, history, geography, art, music, civic education, physical education.
  17. 17. EDUCATIONAL FUNDING : • Japan and UK: have both public and private school foundings.
  18. 18. HIGHER EDUCATION: • The general degree may be followed by two-year Master's degrees (generally a combination of lectures and guided research) and then a three year Doctorate (largely based on research) where these are offered. Public universities are generally more prestigious than their private ones with only 25 percent of all university-bound students being admitted to public universities • UK higher education is split into two levels: - Undergraduate programmes include bachelors degrees, foundation degrees, higher national diplomas and more - Postgraduate programmes include masters degrees, MBAs, PhDs, doctorates and more. Usually you need an undergraduate qualification to enter a postgraduate programme.
  19. 19. TEACHER EDUCATION: • JAPAN A prospective teacher meets the formal academic requirements through successful completion of prescribed courses of study in a postsecondary institution. However, no matter how good one's academic record may have been, graduation from a university is not sufficient for appointment to a teaching position. • UK: The training of primary and secondary school teachers is the same: teachers must hold a first degree and a Postgraduate Certificate of Education awarded by a university or college of higher education. Alternatively, they must hold a Bachelor of Education (BEd) Degree and have a qualified teacher status (QTS) which can be obtained after successful completion of an approved course of initial teacher training •

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