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“
“ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY
WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY
ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”
ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”
2
2
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Perception
Perception
“
“ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process
The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process
through which we interpret and organize sensory information to
through which we interpret and organize sensory information to
produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.”
produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.”
“
“ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making
Perception is the process of receiving information about and making
sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information
sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information
to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it
to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it
within the framework of existing knowledge.
within the framework of existing knowledge.
“
“ A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory
A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory
impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
3
3
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
The Perceptual Process
The Perceptual Process
1.
1.Sensation
Sensation

An individual’s ability to
An individual’s ability to
detect stimuli in the
detect stimuli in the
immediate
immediate
environment.
environment.
1.
1.Selection
Selection

The process a person
The process a person
uses to eliminate some
uses to eliminate some
of the stimuli that have
of the stimuli that have
been sensed and to
been sensed and to
retain others for further
retain others for further
processing.
processing.
3.
3.Organization
Organization

The process of placing
The process of placing
selected perceptual
selected perceptual
stimuli into a
stimuli into a
framework for
framework for
“storage.”
“storage.”
3.
3.Translation
Translation

The stage of the
The stage of the
perceptual process at
perceptual process at
which stimuli are
which stimuli are
interpreted and given
interpreted and given
meaning.
meaning.
4
4
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Receiving Stimuli
(External & Internal)
Selecting Stimuli
External factors : Nature,
Location,Size,contrast,
Movement,repetition,similarity
Internal factors : Learning,
needs,age,Interest,
Organizing
Figure Background ,
Perceptual Grouping
( similarity, proximity,
closure, continuity)
Response
Covert: Attitudes ,
Motivation,
Feeling
Overt: Behavior
Perceptual Process
Interpreting
Attribution ,Stereotyping,
Halo Effect, Projection
5
5
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Factors influencing perception
Factors influencing perception
A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes
A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes
distort perception. These factors can reside in the
distort perception. These factors can reside in the
perceiver
perceiver, in the object or
, in the object or target
target being perceived or in
being perceived or in
the context of the
the context of the situation
situation in which the perception is
in which the perception is
made.
made.
6
6
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Factors influencing Perception
Factors influencing Perception
Factors in the perceiver
• Attitudes
• Motives
• Interests
• Experience
• Expectations
Perception
Factors in the Target
• Novelty
• Motion
• Sounds
• Size
• Background
• Proximity
• Similarity
Factors in the situation
• Time
• Work Setting
• Social Setting
7
7
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Perceptual organization
Perceptual organization
It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable
It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable
and identifiable patterns and whole objects.
and identifiable patterns and whole objects.
Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on
Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on
assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human
assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human
brain. These are
brain. These are
- Figure ground
Figure ground
- Perceptual grouping
Perceptual grouping
8
8
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Figure-Ground Illustration
Figure-Ground Illustration
Field-ground differentiation
Field-ground differentiation

The tendency to distinguish
The tendency to distinguish
and focus on a stimulus that
and focus on a stimulus that
is classified as figure as
is classified as figure as
opposed to background.
opposed to background.
9
9
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
PERCEPTUAL GROUPING
PERCEPTUAL GROUPING
Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a
Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a
meaningful and recognizable pattern.
meaningful and recognizable pattern.
It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be
It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be
inborn.
inborn.
Some factors underlying grouping are
Some factors underlying grouping are
-continuity
-continuity
-closure
-closure
-proximity
-proximity
-similarity
-similarity
10
10
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Person Perception: Making Judgments
Person Perception: Making Judgments
About Others
About Others
11
11
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Attribution Theory
Attribution Theory
When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is
When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is
internally or externally caused.
internally or externally caused.
observation Interpretation Attribution of cause
Consistency
Consensus
Distictinctiveness
Individual behavior
Internal
External
Internal
External
Internal
External
H
L
H
L
H
L
H –high L- Low
12
12
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Distictiveness
Does this person
behave in
this manner
in other situation
Yes
High
Consistency
No
Low
Consistency
No
Low
Consensus
Yes
High
Consensus
YES
Low
Distinctiveness
NO
High
Distinctiveness
Consensus
Do other person
Behave in the
Same manner?
Consistency
Does this person
behave
in this same
manner at other
times ?
Internal
Attribution
External
External
Attributi
Attributi
on
on
13
13
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Shortcuts in judging others
Shortcuts in judging others
Selective Perception
Selective Perception :
:
People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their
People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their
interests, background, experience and attitudes.
interests, background, experience and attitudes.
Halo Effect
Halo Effect :
:
Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a
Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a
single charecteristics.
single charecteristics.
14
14
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Contrast Effect :
Contrast Effect :
Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are effected by
Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are effected by
comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or
comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or
lower on the same characteristics.
lower on the same characteristics.
Projection :
Projection :
Attributing one's own characteristics to other people.
Attributing one's own characteristics to other people.
Stereotyping :
Stereotyping :
Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which
Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which
that persons belongs.
that persons belongs.
15
15
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
16
16
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
17
17
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
18
18
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
19
19
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
20
20
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
21
21
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
22
22
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
23
23
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
24
24
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception
25
25
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Organizational Behavior / Perception

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perception-120903103557-phpapp01.pdf

  • 1. “ “ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.” ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”
  • 2. 2 2 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Perception Perception “ “ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process through which we interpret and organize sensory information to through which we interpret and organize sensory information to produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.” produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.” “ “ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge. within the framework of existing knowledge. “ “ A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
  • 3. 3 3 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception The Perceptual Process The Perceptual Process 1. 1.Sensation Sensation  An individual’s ability to An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the detect stimuli in the immediate immediate environment. environment. 1. 1.Selection Selection  The process a person The process a person uses to eliminate some uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have of the stimuli that have been sensed and to been sensed and to retain others for further retain others for further processing. processing. 3. 3.Organization Organization  The process of placing The process of placing selected perceptual selected perceptual stimuli into a stimuli into a framework for framework for “storage.” “storage.” 3. 3.Translation Translation  The stage of the The stage of the perceptual process at perceptual process at which stimuli are which stimuli are interpreted and given interpreted and given meaning. meaning.
  • 4. 4 4 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Receiving Stimuli (External & Internal) Selecting Stimuli External factors : Nature, Location,Size,contrast, Movement,repetition,similarity Internal factors : Learning, needs,age,Interest, Organizing Figure Background , Perceptual Grouping ( similarity, proximity, closure, continuity) Response Covert: Attitudes , Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior Perceptual Process Interpreting Attribution ,Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Projection
  • 5. 5 5 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Factors influencing perception Factors influencing perception A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver perceiver, in the object or , in the object or target target being perceived or in being perceived or in the context of the the context of the situation situation in which the perception is in which the perception is made. made.
  • 6. 6 6 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Factors influencing Perception Factors influencing Perception Factors in the perceiver • Attitudes • Motives • Interests • Experience • Expectations Perception Factors in the Target • Novelty • Motion • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity • Similarity Factors in the situation • Time • Work Setting • Social Setting
  • 7. 7 7 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Perceptual organization Perceptual organization It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable and identifiable patterns and whole objects. and identifiable patterns and whole objects. Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human brain. These are brain. These are - Figure ground Figure ground - Perceptual grouping Perceptual grouping
  • 8. 8 8 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Figure-Ground Illustration Figure-Ground Illustration Field-ground differentiation Field-ground differentiation  The tendency to distinguish The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as is classified as figure as opposed to background. opposed to background.
  • 9. 9 9 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception PERCEPTUAL GROUPING PERCEPTUAL GROUPING Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern. meaningful and recognizable pattern. It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be inborn. inborn. Some factors underlying grouping are Some factors underlying grouping are -continuity -continuity -closure -closure -proximity -proximity -similarity -similarity
  • 10. 10 10 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Person Perception: Making Judgments Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others About Others
  • 11. 11 11 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Attribution Theory Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. internally or externally caused. observation Interpretation Attribution of cause Consistency Consensus Distictinctiveness Individual behavior Internal External Internal External Internal External H L H L H L H –high L- Low
  • 12. 12 12 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Distictiveness Does this person behave in this manner in other situation Yes High Consistency No Low Consistency No Low Consensus Yes High Consensus YES Low Distinctiveness NO High Distinctiveness Consensus Do other person Behave in the Same manner? Consistency Does this person behave in this same manner at other times ? Internal Attribution External External Attributi Attributi on on
  • 13. 13 13 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Shortcuts in judging others Shortcuts in judging others Selective Perception Selective Perception : : People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes. interests, background, experience and attitudes. Halo Effect Halo Effect : : Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a single charecteristics. single charecteristics.
  • 14. 14 14 Organizational Behavior / Perception Organizational Behavior / Perception Contrast Effect : Contrast Effect : Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are effected by Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are effected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. lower on the same characteristics. Projection : Projection : Attributing one's own characteristics to other people. Attributing one's own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping : Stereotyping : Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that persons belongs. that persons belongs.
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