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Perception & personality


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Perception & personality

  3. 3. <ul><li>“ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.” </li></ul>
  4. 4. PERCEPTION <ul><li>“ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process through which we interpret and organize sensory information to produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge. </li></ul>
  5. 5. PERCEPTION <ul><li>“ A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment ”. </li></ul>
  6. 6. PERCEPTUAL PROCESS MODEL Environmental Stimuli Selective Attention Feeling Hearing Seeing Smelling Tasting
  7. 7. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS <ul><li>Sensation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interpretation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. SELECTIVE ATTENTION <ul><li>Characteristics of the object </li></ul><ul><ul><li>size, intensity, motion, repetition, novelty </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Perceptual context </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of the perceiver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>perceptual defense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expectations -- condition us to expect events </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Factors in the perceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Motives </li></ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul>Perception <ul><li>Factors in the Target </li></ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul><ul><li>Novelty </li></ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul><ul><li>Factors in the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Work Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Social Setting </li></ul>
  10. 10. FIGURE-GROUND ILLUSTRATION <ul><li>Field-ground differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>PERCEPTUAL GROUPING </li></ul><ul><li>Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be inborn. </li></ul><ul><li>Some factors underlying grouping are </li></ul><ul><li>-continuity -closure </li></ul><ul><li>-proximity -similarity </li></ul>
  12. 18. ATTRIBUTION THEORY <ul><li>IS THE CAUSE OF THE BEHAVIOR SEEN AS INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL? WE LOOK FOR THREE TYPES OF INFORMATION TO DECIDE: </li></ul><ul><li>DISTINCTIVENESS : Is this person’s performance different on other tasks and in other situations? </li></ul><ul><li>CONSISTENCY : Over time, is there a change in behavior or results on this task by this person? </li></ul><ul><li>CONSENSUS : Do others perform or behave similarly when in a similar position? </li></ul><ul><li>“ YES” answers lead to EXTERNAL attributions (Environmental causes) </li></ul><ul><li>“ NO” answers lead to INTERNAL attributions (Personal causes) </li></ul>
  13. 19. ATTRIBUTION THEORY <ul><li>When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. </li></ul>observation Attribution of cause Consistency Consensus Distictinctiveness Individual behavior Internal External Internal External Internal External H L H L H L H –high L- Low Interpretation
  14. 20. <ul><li>External </li></ul><ul><li>Attribution </li></ul>Distinctiveness Does this person behave in this manner in other situation Yes High Consistency No Low Consistency No Low Consensus Yes High Consensus YES Low Distinctiveness NO High Distinctiveness Consensus Do other person Behave in the Same manner? Consistency Does this person behave in this same manner at other times ? Internal Attribution
  15. 21. PERCEPTUAL ERRORS & ATTRIBUTIONS <ul><li>STEREOTYPES : Based on appearance </li></ul><ul><li>HALO (HORN) EFFECTS : One outstanding characteristic noted </li></ul><ul><li>CONTRAST EFFECT : Ordering </li></ul><ul><li>RECENCY EFFECT : Limited recall </li></ul><ul><li>PROJECTION : “Similar to me” Error </li></ul><ul><li>SKEWING ERRORS : Central tendency, leniency, strictness bias </li></ul><ul><li>SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECY : People respond the way you “expected” they would </li></ul><ul><li>SELECTIVE PERCEPTION (MIND SETS) : Filtering, selection, </li></ul>
  16. 22. ATTRIBUTION ERRORS <ul><li>THE FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the cause of poor performance ( by others ) is due to personal factors (lazy…didn’t try very hard) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>SELF-SERVING BIAS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the cause of poor performance ( by myself ) is due to situational factors (poor support), not because of a lack of effort </li></ul></ul>
  17. 23. IMPROVING PERCEPTUAL ACCURACY Improving Perceptual Accuracy Diversity Management Empathize With Others Postpone Impression Formation Know Yourself Compare Perceptions With Others
  18. 24. KNOW YOURSELF (JOHARI WINDOW) Known to Self Unknown to Self Known to Others Unknown to Others Open Area Blind Area Unknown Area Hidden Area Open Area Blind Area Hidden Area Unknown Area Disclosure Feedback
  19. 25. DEFINING PERSONALITY <ul><li>Relatively stable pattern of behaviours and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioural tendencies </li></ul><ul><li>Sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others and environment </li></ul>
  21. 27. BIG FIVE PERSONALITY DIMENSIONS Outgoing, talkative Courteous, empathic Caring, dependable Poised, secure Sensitive, flexible Extraversion Agreeableness
  22. 28. MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR <ul><li>Extroversion versus introversion </li></ul><ul><li>Sensing versus intuition </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking versus feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Judging versus perceiving </li></ul>Courtesy of Thompson Doyle Hennessey & Everest
  23. 31. LOCUS OF CONTROL AND SELF-MONITORING <ul><li>Locus of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internals believe in their effort and ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Externals believe events are mainly due to external causes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity to situational cues, and ability to adapt your behaviour to that situation </li></ul></ul>