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“ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY
ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”
Perception
“ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process
through which we interpret and organize sensory information to
produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.”
“ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making
sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information
to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it
within the framework of existing knowledge.
“ A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory
impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.
Organizational Behavior / Perception 2
The Perceptual Process
Organizational Behavior / Perception 3
1.Sensation
■
An individual’s ability to
detect stimuli in the
immediate
environment.
1.Selection
■ The process a person
uses to eliminate some
of the stimuli that have
been sensed and to
retain others for further
processing.
■
3.Organization
The process of placing
selected perceptual
stimuli into a
framework for
“storage.”
3.Translation
■ The stage of the
perceptual process at
which stimuli are
interpreted and given
meaning.
Receiving Stimuli
(External & Internal)
Selecting Stimuli
External factors : Nature,
Location,Size,contrast,
Movement,repetition,similarity
Internal factors : Learning,
needs,age,Interest,
Organizing
Figure Background ,
Perceptual Grouping
( similarity, proximity,
closure, continuity)
Response
Covert: Attitudes ,
Motivation,
Feeling
Overt: Behavior
Perceptual Process
Interpreting
Attribution ,Stereotyping,
Halo Effect, Projection
Organizational Behavior / Perception 4
Factors influencing perception
A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes
distort perception. These factors can reside in the
perceiver, in the object or target being perceived or in
the context of the situation in which the perception is
made.
Organizational Behavior / Perception 5
Factors influencing Perception
Factors in the perceiver
• Attitudes
• Motives
• Interests
• Experience
• Expectations
Perception
Factors in the Target
• Novelty
• Motion
• Sounds
• Size
• Background
• Proximity
• Similarity
Factors in the situation
• Time
• Work Setting
• Social Setting
Organizational Behavior / Perception 6
Perceptual organization
It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable
and identifiable patterns and whole objects.
Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on
assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human
brain. These are
-
-
Figure ground
Perceptual grouping
Organizational Behavior / Perception 7
Figure-Ground Illustration
Field-ground differentiation
■ The tendency to distinguish
and focus on a stimulus that
is classified as figure as
opposed to background.
Organizational Behavior / Perception 8
PERCEPTUAL GROUPING
Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a
meaningful and recognizable pattern.
It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be
inborn.
Some factors underlying grouping are
-continuity
-closure
-proximity
-similarity
Organizational Behavior / Perception 9
Person Perception: Making Judgments
About Others
Organizational Behavior / Perception 10
Organizational Behavior / Perception
Attribution Theory
When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is
internally or externally caused.
observation Interpretation Attribution of cause
Consistency
Consensus
Distictinctiveness
Individual behavior
Internal
External
11
Internal
External
External
Internal
H
L
H
L
H
L
H –high L- Low
Distictiveness
Does this person
behave in
this manner
in other situation
Yes
High
Consistency
No
Low
Consistency
No
Low
Consensus
Yes
High
Consensus
YES
Low
Distinctiveness
NO
High
Distinctiveness
Consensus
Do other person
Behave in the
Same manner?
Consistency
Does this person
behave
in this same
manner at other
times ?
Internal
Attribution
External
Attributi
on
Organizational Behavior / Perception 12
Shortcuts in judging others
Selective Perception :
People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their
interests, background, experience and attitudes.
Halo Effect :
Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a
single charecteristics.
Organizational Behavior / Perception 13
Contrast Effect :
Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are effected by
comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or
lower on the same characteristics.
Projection :
Attributing one's own characteristics to other people.
Stereotyping :
Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which
that persons belongs.
Organizational Behavior / Perception 14
Organizational Behavior / Perception 15
Organizational Behavior / Perception 16
Organizational Behavior / Perception 17
Organizational Behavior / Perception 18
Organizational Behavior / Perception 19
Organizational Behavior / Perception 20
Organizational Behavior / Perception 21
Organizational Behavior / Perception 22
Organizational Behavior / Perception 23
Organizational Behavior / Perception 24
Organizational Behavior / Perception 25

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perception-120903103557-phpapp01.pptx

  • 1. “ WE DON’T SEE THINGS AS THEY ARE, WE SEE THINGS AS WE ARE.”
  • 2. Perception “ The study of perception is concerned with identifying the process through which we interpret and organize sensory information to produce our conscious experience of objects and object relationship.” “ Perception is the process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us. It involves deciding which information to notice, how to categorize this information and how to interpret it within the framework of existing knowledge. “ A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. Organizational Behavior / Perception 2
  • 3. The Perceptual Process Organizational Behavior / Perception 3 1.Sensation ■ An individual’s ability to detect stimuli in the immediate environment. 1.Selection ■ The process a person uses to eliminate some of the stimuli that have been sensed and to retain others for further processing. ■ 3.Organization The process of placing selected perceptual stimuli into a framework for “storage.” 3.Translation ■ The stage of the perceptual process at which stimuli are interpreted and given meaning.
  • 4. Receiving Stimuli (External & Internal) Selecting Stimuli External factors : Nature, Location,Size,contrast, Movement,repetition,similarity Internal factors : Learning, needs,age,Interest, Organizing Figure Background , Perceptual Grouping ( similarity, proximity, closure, continuity) Response Covert: Attitudes , Motivation, Feeling Overt: Behavior Perceptual Process Interpreting Attribution ,Stereotyping, Halo Effect, Projection Organizational Behavior / Perception 4
  • 5. Factors influencing perception A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver, in the object or target being perceived or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made. Organizational Behavior / Perception 5
  • 6. Factors influencing Perception Factors in the perceiver • Attitudes • Motives • Interests • Experience • Expectations Perception Factors in the Target • Novelty • Motion • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity • Similarity Factors in the situation • Time • Work Setting • Social Setting Organizational Behavior / Perception 6
  • 7. Perceptual organization It is the process by which we group outside stimuli into recognizable and identifiable patterns and whole objects. Certain factors are considered to be important contributors on assembling, organizing and categorizing information in the human brain. These are - - Figure ground Perceptual grouping Organizational Behavior / Perception 7
  • 8. Figure-Ground Illustration Field-ground differentiation ■ The tendency to distinguish and focus on a stimulus that is classified as figure as opposed to background. Organizational Behavior / Perception 8
  • 9. PERCEPTUAL GROUPING Our tendency to group several individual stimuli into a meaningful and recognizable pattern. It is very basic in nature and largely it seems to be inborn. Some factors underlying grouping are -continuity -closure -proximity -similarity Organizational Behavior / Perception 9
  • 10. Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others Organizational Behavior / Perception 10
  • 11. Organizational Behavior / Perception Attribution Theory When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. observation Interpretation Attribution of cause Consistency Consensus Distictinctiveness Individual behavior Internal External 11 Internal External External Internal H L H L H L H –high L- Low
  • 12. Distictiveness Does this person behave in this manner in other situation Yes High Consistency No Low Consistency No Low Consensus Yes High Consensus YES Low Distinctiveness NO High Distinctiveness Consensus Do other person Behave in the Same manner? Consistency Does this person behave in this same manner at other times ? Internal Attribution External Attributi on Organizational Behavior / Perception 12
  • 13. Shortcuts in judging others Selective Perception : People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests, background, experience and attitudes. Halo Effect : Drawing a general impressions about an individual on the basis of a single charecteristics. Organizational Behavior / Perception 13
  • 14. Contrast Effect : Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are effected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. Projection : Attributing one's own characteristics to other people. Stereotyping : Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that persons belongs. Organizational Behavior / Perception 14
  • 15. Organizational Behavior / Perception 15
  • 16. Organizational Behavior / Perception 16
  • 17. Organizational Behavior / Perception 17
  • 18. Organizational Behavior / Perception 18
  • 19. Organizational Behavior / Perception 19
  • 20. Organizational Behavior / Perception 20
  • 21. Organizational Behavior / Perception 21
  • 22. Organizational Behavior / Perception 22
  • 23. Organizational Behavior / Perception 23
  • 24. Organizational Behavior / Perception 24
  • 25. Organizational Behavior / Perception 25