Ob 6

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Ob 6

  1. 1. Perception <ul><li>A process by which individuals organise and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Perception <ul><li>Perception is the process whereby people select, organise, and interpret sensory stimulation's into meaningful information about their work environment. There can be no behaviour without perception and perception lies at the base of every individual behaviour. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Perception <ul><li>Why Is it Important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because people’s behaviour is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviourally important. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Factors that Influence Perception Perception The Target • Novelty • Motion • Sounds • Size • Background • Proximity The Perceiver • Attitudes • Motives • Interests • Experience • Expectations The Situation • Time • Work setting • Social setting
  5. 5. Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>Perceiver: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>Target: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novelty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarity </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Factors Influencing Perception <ul><li>Situation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work Setting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Setting </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Attribution: Understanding the causes of others behaviour. <ul><li>When individuals observe behaviour, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. </li></ul><ul><li>The process through which we seek to identify the causes of others’ behaviour and so gain knowledge of their stable traits and dispositions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Attribution Theory <ul><li>When individuals observe behaviour, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internally caused behaviour are those that are believed to be under the personal control of the individual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Externally caused behaviour is seen as resulting from outside causes. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Attribution Theory <ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does individual act the same way in other situations? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does individual act the same as others in same situation? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Does the individual act the same way over time? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Attribution Theory Observation Interpretation Attribution of cause External High Low High High Low Internal External Internal Internal External Individual behaviour Distinctiveness Consensus Consistency Low
  12. 12. Attribution: Some Basic Sources of Error <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behaviour of others. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Attribution: Some Basic Sources of Error <ul><li>Self-Serving Bias: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors while putting the blame for failures on external factors. </li></ul></ul>

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