INDEMNITY AND GUARANTEECONTRACTS OF INDEMNITYDefinitionSection 124 of the Contract Act defines a contract of indemnity as a contract by which one party promises to save theother party from loss caused to him by the conduct of the promisor himself, or by the conduct of any other person. P.contracts to indemnify Q against the consequences of any proceeding which R may. Take against Q in respect of acertain sum of Rs. 200. This is a Contract of Indemnity: P is called the indemnifier and Q the Indemnity-holder.CharacteristicsCharacteristics (or the requisites) of a Contract of indemnity are as follows:l. A contract of guarantee must satisfy all the essential elements of a contract. For example, the object must be lawful,there must be free consent etc.2. The Contract may be express or implied. An express contract is by word or by writing. An implied contract ofindemnity comes from the circumstances of the` case or the relationship between the parties.3. Section 69 implies a promise to indemnifyDefinition not exhaustiveSection 124 of the Indian Contract Act does not give an exhaustive definition of contracts of indemnity. This sectionIncludes(i) Only express promises to indemnify and(ii) Only those cases where the loss arises from the conduct of the promisor or of any other person.It does not include(i) Implied promises to indemnify and(ii) Cases where loss arises from accidents and events not depending on the conduct of any person.It has been held in a number of cases in India that a duty to indemnify may arise by operation of law even in theabsence of express agreements. A promise to indemnify may be either express or implied from the circumstances ofthe case. – The illustration given above is an example of an express promise to indemnify. The following is anexample of an implied promise to indemnify.A broker forged the signature of the holder of a Government promissory note and endorsed it to the Bank of India.The bank got the note renewed from the Government. The holder sued the Government and recovered damages. TheGovernment sued the bank for indemnity. The Privy Council decreed the suit, quoting with approval the followingobservations of Lord Halsbury:“It is a general principle of law that when an action is done by one person at the request of another which act is not initself manifestly tortious to the knowledge of the person doing it, and such act turns out to be injurious to the rights ofa third party, the person doing it is entitled to indemnity from him who requested that it should be done.” Secretary ofState etc. v. Bank of India. I
Under English law, contracts of indemnity cover a much wider field than that included in section 124 of the IndianContract Act. In England contracts of indemnity include promises, express and implied, to indemnify a person fromloss caused by events or accidents which may not depend upon the conduct of any person. In a Bombay case it washeld that, “Sections 124 and 125 of the Contract Act are not exhaustive of the law of indemnity and the courts herewould apply the same equitable principles that the courts in England do.” Gajanan v. Moreslrar.Rights of the Indemnity-holderSection 125 of the Contract Act lays down that the indemnity-holder is entitled to get from the indemnifier :1. All damages which he may be compelled to pay in any suit in respect of any matter to which the promise toindemnify applies ;2. All costs which he may be compelled to pay in such suits (provided he acted prudently or with the authority of theindemnifier) ;3. All sums which he may have paid upon compromise of such suit (provided the compromise was prudent or wasauthorized by the indemnifier).Comments:It has been held that the rights of the Indemnity holder, under Section 125, are not exhaustive. The indemnity holdermay be entitled to other equitable reliefs also.Bombay and Nagpur High Courts have held the indemnifier will be liable only after the actual loss was incurred. Butaccording to the High Courts of Calcutta, Madras and Allahabad, the indemnity-holder can compel payment from theindemnifier even before he (the indemnity-holder) has met his liability. Osman Jamal & Sons v. Gopal.CONTRACTS OF GUARANTEEDefinitionA contract of guarantee is a contract to perform the promise or discharge the liability, of a third person in case of hisdefault.-Sec. 126.P lends Rs. 5,000 to Q and R promises to P that if Q does not pay the money R will do so. This is contract ofguarantee. Q is called the Principal Debtor, P the Creditor, and R the Guarantor or the Surety.ClassificationContracts of guarantee may be of three types :(1) For payment to the Creditor to the Principal Debtor by the Guarantor ;(2) Payment of price for goods sold, and(3) Fidelity guaranteeI.e. to discharge the liability of a person for good conduct of a service-holder.A contract of guarantee may be for(1) A future debt or obligation or for
(2) An existing debt.A guarantee can also be(1) A Simple Guarantee or(2) A Continuing GuaranteeEssentials of a Valid Guarantee1. A contract of guarantee must satisfy all the essential elements of a contract. (For example, the object must belawful; there must be free consent etc.) But the following points are to be noted.2. A contract of guarantee may be either oral or written. Sec 126.3. In a contract of guarantee there are three parties i.e., the creditor, the principal. debtor and the surety. All the partiesmust join the contract.4. In a contract of guarantee, the primary liability is that of principal debtor. The liability of surety arises only whenthere is a default of the principal debtor. Therefore, the liability of the surety is secondary.5. In a contract of guarantee the principal debtor may be a minor. In this case the surety is liable to pay even thoughthe minor may not be. The contract will be enforced as between the surety and the creditor.6. Consideration: In a contract of guarantee, the consideration received by the principal debtor is taken to besufficient consideration for the surety. “Anything done, or any promise made, for the benefit of the principal debtormay be sufficient consideration to the surety for giving guarantee.”-Sec.127. Examples :(i) B requests P to sell and deliver to him goods on credit. P agrees to do so, provided C will guarantee the payment ofthe price of goods. C promises to guarantee the payment in consideration of P’s promise to deliver the goods. This isa sufficient consideration for C’s promise.(ii) P sells and delivers goods to B. C afterwards requests P to forbear to sue B for the debt for a year and promisesthat if he does so, C will pay for them in default of payment by B, P agrees to forbear as requested. This is a sufficientconsideration for C‟s promise.(iii) P sells and delivers goods to B. C afterwards, without consideration agrees to pay for them in default of B. Theagreement is void.Contracts of Guarantee which are invalidA contract of guarantee is invalid in the following cases:1. Misrepresentation: Any guarantee which has been obtained by means of misrepresentation mode by the creditor,or with his knowledge and assent, concerning a material part of the transaction, is invalid.-Sec. 142.2. Concealment: Any guarantee which, the creditor has obtained by means of keeping silence as to material circums-tances is invalid. Sec. 143. Examples:(a) D engages B as clerk to collect money for him. B fails to account for some of his receipts, and D in consequencecalls upon him to furnish security for his duly accounting. C gives his guarantee for B‟s duly accounting. D does notacquaint C with B’s previous conduct. B afterwards makes default. The guarantee is invalid.
(b) G guarantees to C payment for iron to be supplied by him to B to the amount of 2000 tons. B and C have privatelyagreed that B should pay five rupees per ton beyond the market price, such excess to be applied in liquidation of anold debt. This agreement is concealed from G. G is not liable as a surety.3. W’hen Co-surely does not join: Where a person gives a guarantee upon a contract that the creditor shall not actupon it until another person has joined in it as co-surety, the guarantee is not valid if that other person does not join.-Sec. 144.4. Lack of essential elements: A contract of guarantee is invalid if it lacks one or more of the essential elements of acontract (e.g., if there is want of free consent or if the object is illegal).DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDEMNITY AND GUARANTEE1. In a contract of indemnity, there are ‘two parties: the indemnifier and the indemnity-holder. In a contract ofguarantee there are three parties: the creditor, the principal debtor, and t surety.2. In a contract of indemnity it is necessary to have only one contract, i.e., between the indemnity-holder and theindemnifier ; in a contract of guarantee it is necessary to have three contracts, between the parties, i.e., between thecreditors, the principal debtors and the surety.3. In a contract of indemnity, the liability of the indemnifier is primary; in a contract of guarantee, the liability of thesurety is secondary i.e., the surety is liable only if the principal debtor fails to perform his obligations.4. In a contract of guarantee there is an existing debt or duty, the performance of which is guaranteed by the surety. Ina contract f indemnity, the liability of the indemnifier arises only on the happening of a contingency.5. In a contract of indemnity the indemnifier can sue only the indemnity older for his loss, because there is nocontract between the indemnified and other parties unless there is an assignment on his favour ; in a contract ofguarantee the surety can proceed against principal debtor.6. In a contract of guarantee the surety, after he discharges the debt owing to the creditor, can proceed against theprincipal debtor; in a contract of indemnity the loss falls on the indemnifier except in certain special cases.CONTINUING GUARANTEEDefinitionA guarantee which extends to a series of transactions is called a Continuing Guarantee. (Sec.129). A guaranteecovering a single transaction may be called a Simple -Guarantee or Specific Guarantee.Examples:(i) D. in consideration that Q will employ C in collecting the rents/ of B‟s zamindari, promises B to be responsible, tothe amount of 5,000 rupees, for the due collection and payment by C of those rents. This is a continuing guarantee.(ii) P guarantees payment to B a tea dealer, to the amount of Rs. 100 for any tea he may from time to time supply toC. B supplies C with tea to the value of Rs. 1000 and C pays B for it. After-ward B supplies C with tea to the value ofRs. 2000. C fails to pa The guarantee given by P was a continuing guarantee, and is accordingly liable to B to theextent of Rs. 1000.(iii) P guarantees payment to B of the price of five sacks of flour o be delivered by B to C to be paid for in a month. Bdelivers re sacks to C. C pays for them. Afterwards B delivers four sack to C. which C does not pay for. Theguarantee given by P was, of a continuing guarantee, and accordingly he is not liable for the rice of the four sacks.
How a Continuing Guarantee is RevokedA continuing guarantee is revoked under the f owing circumstances.I. By notice of revocation by the surety : The notice operates to revoke the surety‟s liabilities as regards transaction isentered into after the notice. He continues to be liable for transactions entered into prior to the notice.-Sec. 130.2. By the death of the surety : “The death of the surety operates, in the absence of a contract to the contrary, as arevocation of a continuing guarantee, so far a regards future transactions.”-Sec. 131The estate of the surety is liable for all transactions entered into prior to the death of the surety unless there was acontract to the contrary. It is not necessary that the creditor must have notice of the death.A continuing guarantee is terminated under the same circumstances under which a surety‟s liability is discharged.THE EXTENT OF THE LIABILITY OF THE SURETYSurety’s LiabilityThe liability of the surety is co-extensive with that of the principal debtor, unless it is otherwise provided by thecontract. Sec. 128.Example:G guarantees to B the payment of a bill of exchange by C, the acceptor. The bill is dishonored by C. G is liable notonly for the amount of the bill but also for any interest and charges which may have become due on it.A creditor is not bound first to proceed against the principal debtor. He can sue the surety without suing the principaldebtor 3r without making the principal debtor a co-defendant. When the ?principal debtor is a minor, the surety aloneis liable to the creditor.Liability of two persons, primarily liable, not affected by arrangement between them that one shall be suretyon other’s defaultWhere two persons contract with a third person to undertake e certain liability, and also contract with each other thatone of them shall be liable only on the default of the other, the third person not being a party to such contract, theliability of each of such two persons to the third person under the first contract is not affected by the existence of thesecond contract, although much third person may have been aware of its existence.-Sec. 132.ExampleA and B made a joint and several promissory note to C A makes it, in fact, as surety for B and C. knows this as thetime when the note is made. The fact that .4, to the knowledge of C made the note as surety for B, is no answer to asuit by C against .A upon the note.WHEN IS A SURETY DISCHARGED FROM LIABILITY ?The liability of a surety under a contract of guarantee comes to an end under any one of the following circumstances :1. Notice of revocationIn the case of a continuing guarantee, a notice by the surety to the creditor stating that he will not be responsible, willrevoke his liability as regards all future transactions. He will remain liable for all transactions entered into prior to thedate of the notice.-Sec. 130.
2. Death of suretyIn the case of a continuing, guarantee the death of a surety discharges him from all liabilities as regards transactionsafter his death unless there is a contract to the contrary .sec 1313.variation of contractAny variance, made without the surety‟s consent in the terms of the contract between the principal debtor and thecreditor, discharges the surety as to transactions subsequent to the variance.Sec. 133.examples :(a) .a becomes surety to C for B’s conduct as a manager in C‟s bank. Afterwards B and C contract, without A‟sconsent, the B‟s salary shall be raised and that he shall become liable for one-fourth of the losses on overdraft. Ballows a customer to overdraw, and the bank loses a sum of money. :I is discharged from his suretyship by thevariance made without his consent, and is not liable to make good this loss.(b) C agrees to appoint B as his clerk to sell goods at a yearly salary, upon ,4′s becoming surety to C for B’saccounting for moneys received by him as such clerk. Afterwards. without A‟s knowledge or consent, C and B agreethat B should be paid by a commission on the goods sold by him and not by a fixed salary a is not liable forsubsequent misconduct of B.(c) A gives to C a continuing guarantee to the extent of 3,000 rupees for any oil supplied by C to B on credit.Afterwards B becomes embarrassed, and without the knowledge of A. B and C contract that C.‟ shall continue tosupply B with oil for ready money and that the payments shall be applied to the then existing debts between B and C..4 is not liable on his guarantee for any goods supplied after this new arrangement.(d)C contracts to lend B 5,000 rupees on the 1st March. A guarantees repayment. C pays the 5,000 rupees to B on the1st January. A is discharged from his liability, as the contract has been varied inasmuch as C might sue B for themoney before the 1st March.4. Release or discharge of principal debtorThe surety is discharged by any contract between the creditor and the principal debtor, by which the principal debtoris released, or by any act or omission of the creditor, the legal consequence of which is the discharge of the principaldebtor.-Sec. 134.Effect of Debt Relief Acts :The Madras High Court held that if the liability of the principal debtor is reduced under the provisions of an Act fordebt relief, the surety is liable only for the reduced amount. Subramania Chettiar v. M. P. Naravarrswami Gounder.The Nagpur and the Kerala High Courts have held similar decisions.Examples :(a) G gives a guarantee to C for goods to be supplied by C to B. C supplies goods to 8 and afterwards B becomesembarrassed and contracts with his creditors (including C) to assign to them his property in consideration of theirreleasing him from their demands. Here B is released from his debt by the contract with C and G is discharged fromhis suretyship.(b) A contracts with B to grow a crop of sugarcane on .4′s land and to deliver it to B at fixed rate, and C guaranteesA‟s performance of this contract. B diverts a stream of water which is necessary for irrigation of A‟s land and therebyprevent him from raisin; the crops. C is no longer liable on his guarantee.
(c) D contracts with B for a fixed price to build a house for B within a stipulated time. B supplying the necessarytimber. C guarantees D’s performance of the contract. B omits to supply the timber. C is discharged from hitsuretyship.5. Arrangement with principal debtorA contract between the creditor and the principal debtor, by which the creditor makes a composition with, orpromises to give time to, or not to sue, the principal debtor, discharges the surety, unless the surety assents to suchcontract.-Sec. 135.With a third personBut where a contract to give time to the principal debtor is made by the creditor with a third person, and not with theprincipal debtor, the surety is not discharged.-Sec. 136.Example :C, the holder of an overdue bill of exchange drawn by D as surety for B, and accepted by B, contracts with M to givetime to B. D is not discharged.6. Creditor’s forbearance to sue does not discharge suretyMere forbearance on the part of the creditor to sue the principal debtor or to enforce any other remedy against himdoes not, in the absence of any provision in the guarantee to the contrary, discharge the surety.–Sec. 137.Examples :(i) B owes to C a debt guaranteed by G. The debt becomes payable. C does not sue B for a year after the debt hasbecome payable. G is not discharged from his suretyship.(ii) Failure to sue the principal debtor until recovery is barred by Statute of Limitation does not operate as a dischargeof the surety. mohant Singh v. Ba yi7. Release of one co-suretyWhere there are co-sureties, a release by the creditor of one of them does not discharge the others ; neither does it freethe surety so released from his responsibility to the other sureties. Sec. 138.8. Act or omission impairing surety’s eventual remedyIf the creditor does any act which is inconsistent with the rights of the surety, or omits to do any act which his duty tothe surety requires him to do and the eventual remedy of the surety himself against the principal debtor is therebyimpaired, the surety is discharged.-Sec. 139.Examples :(a) B contracts to build a ship for C for a given sum, to be paid by installments as the work reaches certain stages. Sbecomes surety to C for B‟s due performance of the contract. C, without the knowledge of S prepays to B the last twoinstallments. S is discharged by the prepayment.(b) C lends money to 8 on the security of a joint and several promissory note made in C‟s favour by B and by S assurety for B, together with a bill of sale of B’s furniture, which gives power to C to sell the furniture, and apply theproceeds in discharge of the note. Subsequently, C sells the furniture, but, owing to his misconduct and willfulnegligence, only a small price is realized. S is discharged from liability on the note.
(c) S puts M as apprentice to B, and gives a guarantee to B, for M‟s fidelity. B promises on his part that he will, atleast once a month. see M make up the cash. 8 omits to see this done as promised, and M embezzles. S is not liable toB on his guarantee.9. Loss of securityIf the creditor loses or parts with any security given to him by the principal debtor at the time the contract toguarantee was entered into, the surety is discharged to the extent of the value of the security, unless the suretyconsented to the release of such security.-Sec. 141.10. MiscellaneousA contract of guarantee is invalid if it is obtained by means of misrepresentation (Sec. 142), silence as to materialcircumstances (Sec. 143), or if a co-surety fail; to join according to the terms of the contract (Sec. 144). See-pp. 150-151.THE RIGHTS OF THE SURETYA surety has the following rights :Against the Principal Debtor1. Right of Subrogation : Upon payment of performance of all that he is liable for, he is invested with all the rightswhich the creditor had against the principal debtor.-Sec. 140.2. Right to Indemnity : in every contract of guarantee there is implied promise by the principal debtor to indemnifythe surety; and the surety is entitled to recover from the principaldebtor whatever sum he has rightfully paid under the guarantee, but no sums which he has paid wrongfully.-Sec. 145.Examples :(a) B is indebted to C and A is surety for the debt. C demands payment from A, and on his refusal sues him for theamount. A defends . the suit,, having reasonable grounds for doing so, but is compelled to pay the amount of thedebt with costs. He can recover from B the amount paid by him for costs, as well as the principal debt.(b) C lends 8 a sum of money and A. at the request of B accepts at bill of exchange drawn by B upon A to secure theamount. C, the holder of the bill, demands payment of it from .a. and on .4′s refusal him upon the bill. .a not havingreasonable grounds to pay, sues defends the suit, and has to pay the amount of the for so doing, costs. He can recoverfrom B the amount of the bill, but bill and sum paid for costs, as there was no real ground for defending the action.(c)A surety settled with the creditor by paying a sum smaller than the amount guaranteed. Held, he can recover onlywhat he paid. Reed v. Norris.against the CreditorA surety is entitled to the benefit If every Right of Security: which the creditor has against the principal debtor atsecuritywhen the contract of suretyship is entered into. Whether the time knows of the existence of security or not is imma-terial -Sec. 141.“The expression `security‟ in Section 141 is not used in any sense ; it includes all rights which the creditor hadtechnical s
of the principal debtor at the date of against the property contract.” State of M P. v. Kalurumexamples :(a) advances to B his tenant, 2000 rupees on the guarantee of A.C has also a further security for the 2000 rupees by amortgage of B‟s furniture. B cancels the mortgage. 8 becomes insolvent, and of B to the („ sues .4 on his guarantee.A is discharged from liability to the amount of the value of the furniture.(b)C a creditor whose advance to B is secured by a decree, receives also a guarantee for that advance from A .C afterwards takes B‟sgoods in execution under the decree, and then without the knowledge of A, withdraws the execution. A is discharged(c)A is Sure for B, makes a bond jointly with B to C. to secure a from C to B. Afterwards, C obtains from B a furthersecurity loan the same debt. Subsequently, C gives up the further security. A it is not dischargedAgainst the Co-surety-See Below.CONTRIBUTION BETWEEN CO-SURETIESDefinitionWhere several persons guarantee a debt or duty, they are called co-sureties.Co-sureties liable to contribute equallyWhere two or more persons are co-sureties for the same debt or duty, either jointly or severally, and whether underthe same or different contracts, and whether with or without the knowledge of each other, the co-sureties in theabsence of any contract to the contrary, are liable as between themselves, to pay each an equal share of the wholedebt, or of that part of it which remains unpaid by the principal debtor.-Sec. 146.examples :(a) A. B and C are sureties to D for the sum of 3,000 rupees lent to E. E makes default in payment. A. B and C areliable as between themselves, to pay 1000 rupees each.(b) .4, B and C are sureties to D for sum of 1000 rupees lent to F_ and there is a contract between .4. B and („ that .qis to be responsible to the extent of one-quarter, B to the extent of one-quarter, and C to the extent of one-half. Emakes default in payment. As between the sureties .4 is liable to pay 250 rupees, B 250 rupees and C 500 rupees. .Liability of Co-sureties bound in different sumsCo-sureties who are bound in different sums are liable to pay equally as far as the limits of their respectiveobligations permit.-Sec. 147.examples :(a) .A, B and C as sureties for D, enter into three several bonds, each in a different penalty, namely .9 in the penaltyof 10,000 rupees, B in that of 20,000 rupees, C in that of 40,000 rupees, conditioned for D’s duly accounting to E. Dmakes default to the extent of 30,000 rupees. .4. B and C are each liable to pay 10,000 rupees.(b)A, B and C as sureties for D, enter into three several bonds each in a different penalty, namely A in the penalty of10,000 rupees, B in the that of 20,000 rupees, C in that of 40,000 rupees, conditioned for D‟s duly accounting to E. Dmakes default to the extent of 40,000 rupees. A is liable to pay 10,000 rupees, and B and C 15,000 rupees.