Cultural Diversity and
Students with LD
Addressing difference and disability
in cultural & linguistic contexts
Dr. Catheri...
Disproportionality for ELL
• Slightly underrepresented
in special education
overall
• Overrepresented in
specific categori...
Disproportionality WA
NonELL

ELL

12.90%

5.80%
2.50%
LD

4.40%

EBD

.6%
.10%
AS

© 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier
All Right...
ELL Representation Patterns
• Students in English
immersion programs
are referred at higher
rates than those in
bilingual ...
Know Your Students
• Know the individual’s
qualities, interests, aspira
tions, and areas for
growth.
• Know the sociocultu...
What we know
• We need to know
more than what
works…..
• We need to know
what works with
WHOM

© 2014 Dr. Catherine Collie...
Cultural context: Child Rearing
•
•
•
•
•
•

Vertical vs horizontal
Instruct vs allow
Indulgent vs strict
Adult vs peers
I...
But avoid stereotyping!
• Sometimes it is easier to
understand culturally
diverse families in terms of
group attributes. B...
Cultural Context: Acculturation
Heightened Anxiety
Inattention
Confusion in Locus of Control
Withdrawal
Silence/unresponsi...
The Intensity of Culture
Shock is Cyclical
Anticipation
Phase

Highly
Engaged
Level

Spectator
Phase

Increasing
Participa...
Cultural context: Culture
Shock Cycle
Voluntary minorities such as
Chinese immigrants to America
generally consider educat...
© 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier
All Rights Reserved
Linguistic Context: English
Acquisition as an L2+
Pre-Production

Early Production Speech Emergent Intermediate
Fluency

0...
Linguistic Context: Bricks and Mortar
“Some scientists believe that because of
global warming, many glaciers in the
Himala...
Cultural/Linguistic Context: Discourse
English

Chinese

Spanish

Navajo

Slovak

Spiritual

Mental

Social

Physical

© 2...
Cultural/Linguistic Context: Revisiting the
Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
1.

With assistance, learners can
solve pro...
Linguistic Context: Krashen’s Critical
Elements for SLA
1. Provide Comprehensible
Input in Second Language
2. Lower the Af...
Linguistic Context:
Comprehensible Input
• Second languages are
acquired by receiving
comprehensible input
slightly ahead ...
Linguistic Context:
The Deadly Plateau
• Texts are frequently at i +
10, not i + 1
• Growth in reading and
academic achiev...
Legal Context: Language & Culture
If the native language or other mode of
communication of the parent is not a
written lan...
Urban Legends about SpedLEP
1) Fallacy: Students with exceptionalities cannot
learn two (or more) languages.
2) Fallacy: A...
PRISIM: Pyramid of
Resilience, Instruction, Strategies, Intervention &
Monitoring
Learning created with building blocks fo...
7 Steps for Separating Difference
& Disability
Step 1 Build & Sustain a Foundation for Learning
Step 2 Establish & Support...
Is RTI the answer to disproportionate
representation of CLD/EL?
Only if approaches are
culturally and
linguistically
respo...
RTI for CLD is more than reading!

© 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier
All Rights Reserved
Avg Classroom Academic
Performance Level
For
CLD/ELL
Students!!!

Discrepancy 1: Skill
Gap (Current
Performance Level)

Ta...
Eight Challenges to RTI for ELL (& CLD)
1. Difficulties with policy guidelines.
2. Different stakeholder views about
timin...
Eight Challenges to RTI for ELL (& CLD)
5. Difficulty obtaining students’ previous
school records.
6. Lack of collaborativ...
IEP Development for EL
Students
IEP must include:
•
•

•

•

Specific interventions which
address special education needs,...
IEP Development for EL
Students
Team members must
include:
1.
2.

3.
4.
5.

6.

Parents
Regular Educ teacher of
student
Sp...
Best Practice for Diverse LD
Educators
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Remain informed
Use differentiation
Facilitate resiliency
Initiate ...
Thank you! Come visit us at
www.crosscultured.com
• Over 45 years experience.
• Research on impact of
acculturation on ref...
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Learning Disabilities within Cultural & Linguistic Context

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This is the PowerPoint that I will be using for my Keynote on "Cultural Diversity and Students with LD: Addressing difference and disability in cultural & linguistic contexts" at the Learning Disabilities Association conference in Anaheim CA.

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  • Strategies focus but in context of the intervention model
  • Here is an example from Washington state in the U.S. of what this looks like. In the table are shown data comparing ELL and nonELL student identification in Special Education categories. As you can see, there is disproportionate representation in specific areas while there is over placement in the specific learning disabilities category for ELL students. Additionally, the data for specific learning disabilities is shown in summary = 5.8% SLD among nonELL but 12.9% among ELL. This is disproportionate without some very outré justification like all of the ELL students were exposed to strange radiation prior to birth or some such.
  • “Bricks and Mortar words” is another way to refine our understanding of words in the CALP category. Brick words are the content bearing words. In the above sentence, Scientists, global warming, glaciers, Himalayas and melting are “brick words”. Because of is a mortar word. It connects and established a relationship between the “brick words”. Mortar words include: • Connecting words: for example, however and whereas, although• Prepositions and prepositional phrases: on, in, under, behind, between, before, behind• Academic vocabulary typically found in content area objectives, testquestions and assignments: analyze, plan, compare, evaluate(Dutro, S., & Moran, C. (2003)
  • These are some of important facts to remember with the ZPD and its implications for teachers. It is very important to be familiar with the concept and especially with the instructional strategies mentioned on the previous slide. When used correctly learners can really benefit from the concepts that Vygotsky mentions, especially the ZPD. (Bockarie, 2002)
  • 1) The reality is that many CLD with disabilities must learn a second language. If a child with disabilities speaks a home language other than English, she must acquire a second language to participate in the school environment. Although research does suggest that some children may acquire a second language more slowly, especially if they exhibited language difficulties in their native language (Kessler, 1984), this should not dissuade educators from assisting their students’ second language acquisition as much as possible. Therefore, the real question becomes, should the language of instruction for CLD students with disabilities be the student’s first or second language. Studies suggest that, just as for students without disabilities, a second language is best acquired from a firm and well-developed first language foundation (Perozzi, 1985; Perozzi & Sanchez, 1992). This research suggests that grammatical forms are most quickly and accurately acquired in English when they have first been taught in the student’s native language. This supports a bilingual approach to special education with CLD students. 4) Educators may mistakenly identify students undergoing a “silent period” as demonstrating a lack of ability to communicate. Remember what a child has to know to be able to say even one word in his first language. Even those children who demonstrate little expressive language in the school environment bring with them a wealth of information about their native language.
  • Excerpt from the book “Seven Steps for Separating Difference and Disability” , 2010, Corwin Press
  • Cultural expectations and understanding underlie intervention focus and selection. Age and developmental appropriateness. The psychological adaptation of the learner in the school and the family and community context.
  • Learning Disabilities within Cultural & Linguistic Context

    1. 1. Cultural Diversity and Students with LD Addressing difference and disability in cultural & linguistic contexts Dr. Catherine Collier Facebook/AskDrCollier www.crosscultured.com catherine@crosscultured.com
    2. 2. Disproportionality for ELL • Slightly underrepresented in special education overall • Overrepresented in specific categories: – Speech/language Impairments – Learning Disabilities © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    3. 3. Disproportionality WA NonELL ELL 12.90% 5.80% 2.50% LD 4.40% EBD .6% .10% AS © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    4. 4. ELL Representation Patterns • Students in English immersion programs are referred at higher rates than those in bilingual programs. • ELLs who are “parent waivers” are the most likely to be referred and placed. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    5. 5. Know Your Students • Know the individual’s qualities, interests, aspira tions, and areas for growth. • Know the sociocultural contexts the student brings to learning, and how s/he reacts to the instructional contexts of the school and your classrooms. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    6. 6. What we know • We need to know more than what works….. • We need to know what works with WHOM © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    7. 7. Cultural context: Child Rearing • • • • • • Vertical vs horizontal Instruct vs allow Indulgent vs strict Adult vs peers Inward vs outward Nuclear vs communal © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    8. 8. But avoid stereotyping! • Sometimes it is easier to understand culturally diverse families in terms of group attributes. But individual families are constantly negotiating their identity and their culture within their peer groups and their community culture is not static. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    9. 9. Cultural Context: Acculturation Heightened Anxiety Inattention Confusion in Locus of Control Withdrawal Silence/unresponsiveness Response Fatigue Code-switching Distractibility Resistance to Change Disorientation Stress Related Behaviors © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    10. 10. The Intensity of Culture Shock is Cyclical Anticipation Phase Highly Engaged Level Spectator Phase Increasing Participation Phase Shock Phase Adaptation Phase Anticipation Phase Spectator Phase Increasing Participation Phase Shock Phase Adaptation Phase Families as well as students Moderately Engaged Level Normal Intensity of Emotions Moderately Depressed Level Greatly Depressed Level © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    11. 11. Cultural context: Culture Shock Cycle Voluntary minorities such as Chinese immigrants to America generally consider education to be an important route to succeeding in society and are less concerned with prejudice and discrimination, as opposed to involuntary minorities such as African Americans. (Ogbu & Simons, 1998). © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    12. 12. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    13. 13. Linguistic Context: English Acquisition as an L2+ Pre-Production Early Production Speech Emergent Intermediate Fluency 0-6 months 6 months-1 year 1-2 years 2-3 years Depends on context Has minimal receptive vocabulary Comprehends key words only Points, draws, or gesture responses May not produce speech Adjusting to US culture 0-500 receptive word vocabulary Able to observe, locate, label, match, show, classify, sort. Depends heavily on context Produces words in isolation Verbalizes key words Responds with one/two word answer or short phrases Points, draws, or gesture responses Mispronunciation Grammar errors 500-1000 receptive word vocabulary Able to name, recall, draw, record, point out, underline, categorize, list. Short phrases Many mistakes in grammar Responds orally Hears smaller elements of speech Functions on social level Uses limited vocabulary Between 1000-6000 receptive vocabulary Able to share, retell, follow, associate, organize, compare, restate, role-play. Level 2 Beginning WIDA ACCESS Level 1 Entering Advanced Intermediate Fluency 3-5 years Advanced Fluency Simple sentences Produces whole sentences Makes some pronunciation & basic grammatical errors but is understood Responds orally and in written form Uses limited vocabulary Initiates conversation and questions Shows good comprehension Up to 7000 receptive word vocabulary Able to tell, describe, restate, contrast, question, map, dramatize, demonstrate, give instructions. Can communicate thoughts Engage in and produce connected narrative Shows good comprehension Uses expanded vocabulary Makes complex grammatical errors Functions somewhat on an academic level Up to 12,000 receptive & active word vocabulary Able to imagine, create, appraise, contrast, predict, express, report, estimate, evaluate, explain, model. Functions on academic level with peers Maintains two-way conversation Demonstrates decontextualized comprehension Uses enriched vocabulary Beyond 12,000 word vocabulary Able to relate, infer, hypothesize, outline, revise, suppose, verify, rewrite, justify, critique, summarize, illustrate, judge. Level 3 Developing Level 4 Expanding Level 5 Bridging 5-7 years © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    14. 14. Linguistic Context: Bricks and Mortar “Some scientists believe that because of global warming, many glaciers in the Himalayas are melting.” • Bricks: The content specific words • Mortar: The words that link the content words together to form meaning. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    15. 15. Cultural/Linguistic Context: Discourse English Chinese Spanish Navajo Slovak Spiritual Mental Social Physical © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    16. 16. Cultural/Linguistic Context: Revisiting the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) 1. With assistance, learners can solve problems even outside ZPD their independent with problem Can solve solving level. assistance 2. Understand that all learners have levels of competence in Independent their fields within a certain Problem range. Solving 3. An educator's understanding of the concept of ZPD will play a pivotal role in determining whether cultural/linguistically diverse learners are engaged or disengaged in the process of learning and development. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    17. 17. Linguistic Context: Krashen’s Critical Elements for SLA 1. Provide Comprehensible Input in Second Language 2. Lower the Affective Filter 3. Maintain Subject Matter Education 4. Maintain and Develop Student’s Home Language © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    18. 18. Linguistic Context: Comprehensible Input • Second languages are acquired by receiving comprehensible input slightly ahead of the learner’s current state of knowledge ( i + 1 ). • Only input of i + 1 will activate LAD. • If input is understood, and there is enough of it, the necessary grammar is automatically provided. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    19. 19. Linguistic Context: The Deadly Plateau • Texts are frequently at i + 10, not i + 1 • Growth in reading and academic achievement levels off • Motivation decreases © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    20. 20. Legal Context: Language & Culture If the native language or other mode of communication of the parent is not a written language, the public agency must take steps to ensure... • that the notice is translated orally or by other means to the parent in his or her native language or other mode of communication; • that the parent understands the content of the notice; and • that there is written evidence that these two requirements have been met. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    21. 21. Urban Legends about SpedLEP 1) Fallacy: Students with exceptionalities cannot learn two (or more) languages. 2) Fallacy: Acquiring more than one language is “difficult” and can lead to academic problems. For this reason, all energy should be spent on having CLD students focus on English, and further natal language development should be halted. 3) Fallacy: Parents of CLD students, with and without exceptionalities, should speak with their children at home in English in order to increase the child’s exposure to the second language. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    22. 22. PRISIM: Pyramid of Resilience, Instruction, Strategies, Intervention & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success Step 7 Step 6 Step 5 Step 4 Step 3 Step 2 Step 1 © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    23. 23. 7 Steps for Separating Difference & Disability Step 1 Build & Sustain a Foundation for Learning Step 2 Establish & Support Resiliency Step 3 Differentiate Instruction & Intervention Step 4 Monitor Instruction & Intervention Step 5 Resolve or Refer Step 6 Integrate Services & Cross-cultural IEPs Step 7 Maintain Staff & Programs Serving CLDE © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    24. 24. Is RTI the answer to disproportionate representation of CLD/EL? Only if approaches are culturally and linguistically responsive and address both system and student issues. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    25. 25. RTI for CLD is more than reading! © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    26. 26. Avg Classroom Academic Performance Level For CLD/ELL Students!!! Discrepancy 1: Skill Gap (Current Performance Level) Target ELL Student For CLD/ELL Students!!! Discrepancy 2: Gap in Rate of Learning (‘Slope of Improvement’) Ala ‘Dual-Discrepancy’: RTI Model of Learning Disability (Fuchs 2003) © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    27. 27. Eight Challenges to RTI for ELL (& CLD) 1. Difficulties with policy guidelines. 2. Different stakeholder views about timing for referral of students who are English language learners. 3. Insufficient knowledge among personnel involved in identification. 4. Difficulties providing consistent, adequate services to students who are English language learners. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    28. 28. Eight Challenges to RTI for ELL (& CLD) 5. Difficulty obtaining students’ previous school records. 6. Lack of collaborative structures prior to referral. 7. Lack of access to assessments that differentiate between second language development and learning disabilities. 8. Lack of consistent monitoring for struggling students who are English language learners. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    29. 29. IEP Development for EL Students IEP must include: • • • • Specific interventions which address special education needs, Specific language acquisition interventions which address the EL student’s L2 goals within context of his/her special education needs, Identification of service providers responsible for implementing and monitoring the integration of these services, and The time limits and scheduled specific re-evaluation formats, dates, and meetings. 300.324(a)(2)(ii) © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    30. 30. IEP Development for EL Students Team members must include: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Parents Regular Educ teacher of student Special Educ teacher of student Agency representative w/ specific qualifications A person who can interpret the instructional implications of evaluation results At discretion of parent/agency, individual s who have knowledge or special expertise regarding the student From the Director of OSEP/OSERS “Certainly, it would be a best practice to include the participation of an ELL teacher in the ELL teacher development of the IEP of a child who is LEP…” © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    31. 31. Best Practice for Diverse LD Educators 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Remain informed Use differentiation Facilitate resiliency Initiate communication Monitor cultural & linguistic adaptation & response 6. Facilitate interaction! © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    32. 32. Thank you! Come visit us at www.crosscultured.com • Over 45 years experience. • Research on impact of acculturation on referral & placement of CLD students. • Research on effectiveness of specific cognitive learning strategies for diverse learners. • Classroom teacher, diagnostician, faculty, administrator. • Social justice advocate, author & teacher educator. © 2014 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved

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