SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Monday, January 30, 2012Learning Team ELD 506: Understanding Language Acquisition andA Cognition
With an influx of immigrantstudents into public schoolclassrooms,…teachers arechallenged by educatingEnglish LanguageLearners (ELLs). SinceEnglish LanguageDevelopment (ELD)policies arecompulsory andsteadfast, studentsmust acquire English asa second languagewhile simultaneouslylearning academic
It is widely understood by mosteducators……working with ELLs that languageacquisition progresses in stages. Asstudents work towards second languageacquisition (SLA), these steps ofdevelopment evolve within a predicablecontinuum of language behaviors;however, as each student is unique, heor she will progress through the stagesat different rates.
With the emphasis onaccountability,……teachers need to make informed pedagogicaldecisions regarding communication, languageacquisition, & validation of social &academic language. The following informationwill provide valid & important facts & strategiesregarding SLA of minority language learners.
English Language Learners… acquire second Reminder: language (L2) at a Find a word for our Word different rate than Wall! native speaking peers. have linguistic & cultural experiences that affect their language learning abilities. benefit from pictures, pair & share, pantomime, experiential activities, & journaling to enhance
English Language Learners… perpetually learn new words from their teachers & peers. draw pictures & ask for vocabulary clarification. increase knowledge of reading, writing, & print. Piper (2007): “It is necessary, but not sufficient, to surround ELL children with all kinds of oral & printed language” (p. 375).
Second Language Acquisition(SLA) The SLA process is more rapid for some students than others. The pace at which ELLs progress with SLA depends on home support, the student’s primary language (L1) use, & L2 recognition. Four stages of ELD SLA: Pre- production, Early Production, Speech Emergence, & Fluency.
ELD SLA Stage 1: Pre-Production minimal receptive vocabularies. comprehending key words in a conversation. relying heavily on context cueing & imitation. focusing on internalizing L2 while adjusting to new culture (Niles, 2011). less than 6 months in English-speaking school. possess less than a 500- word English vocabulary. (Portland Public Schools, 2000).
ELD SLA Stage 2: EarlyProduction very limited receptive L2 comprehension & vocabularies. depends heavily on context to derive meaning. 1 – 2 word sentences. demonstrates L2 reading abilities if illustrations support the content (Niles, 2011). attends to hands-on demonstrations with increased understanding. has attended English-speaking school 6 – 12 months; continues to adjust to the culture. has 1,000-word English receptive vocabulary (Portland Public Schools, 2000).
ELD SLA Stage 3: SpeechEmergence can understand ideas about events within the range of personal experience. more adept at hearing smaller elements of speech in L2 (Niles, 2011; Portland Public Schools; 2000; Hurley & Tinajero, 2001). producing whole sentences in writing & speech. Demonstrating comprehension of charts, graphs, diagrams, & lists orally and in writing (Niles, 2011; Hurley & Tinajero, 2001). 1 – 3 years of schooling in L2. 7,000 words of receptive & expressive English vocabulary.
ELD SLA Stage 4: Fluency participates in everyday conversations without highly contextualized support (Niles, 2011), communicating thoughts more completely. expresses thoughts & feelings using complex statements with increased level of accuracy. engages in & produces connected narrative, demonstrating good comprehension (Hurley & Tinajero, 2001). utilizes an expanded vocabulary while making complex grammatical errors (Niles, 2011). has attended English-speaking schools for 5 - 7 years. possesses receptive & active L2
Extensive research hasindicated… …that language proficiency & cognitive development are intertwined. In 5 – 7 years, second language learners (SLLs) ascend 4 stages of ELD SLA towards advanced fluency. Within 2 years, SLLs acquire social conversational skills & are capable of chatting with peers, performing basic classroom chores, &
BICS and CALP Cummins (1979) termed a student in this stage of development possessing BICS, or basic interpersonal communication skills. The ultimate goal, Cummins postulated, was for a language learning student to become a cognitive academic language proficient (CALP). CALP is the language skills required to perform more advanced school tasks successfully, such as categorizing, comparing, analyzing, & accommodating new knowledge. To reach the CALP level, a SLL requires 5 or more years of exposure to an L2.
The Five CsIn tandem with CALP, ELLsmust seize command ofwhat Diaz-Rico & Weed(2006) termed the 5 Cs: Communication Conceptualization Critical thinking Context CultureAs ELLs master the 5 Cs,they become what Hymes Beyond simply knowing(1972) called grammatical rules of L2 to“communicatively knowing when, where, & howcompetent.” to use a L2 appropriately.
Educating the ELL population… …and providing them with the resources to successfully complete each stage of SLA is a challenge that teachers are facing across the country. In an attempt to educate the ELLs in our classrooms, school districts are developing & implementing local educational agency plans, or LEAPs, that outline the procedures to assist students & teachers in the SLA process.
During SLA, ELLs must… learn grade level specific content simultaneously. learn & become proficient with social academic language.To meet the needs of all learners in theclassroom, teachers must: have the education & resources necessary to modify teaching strategies differentiate instruction based on ELLs stages of SLA.
Educating the ELL population… …and providing them with the resources to successfully complete each stage of SLA is a challenge. In an attempt to educate ELLs in our classrooms, school districts are developing & implementing plans that outline the procedures to assist students & teachers in the language acquisition process. During SLA, ELLs must learn grade level specific content simultaneously & learn & become proficient with social & academic language.
To meet the needs of alllearners… …in the classroom, teachers must have the education & resources necessary to modify teaching strategies & differentiate instruction based upon each student’s stage of SLA while keeping in mind that there is no timetable for this process.
Resources Cummins, J. (1979). Working Papers on Bilingualism,19, p. 121-129. Diaz-Rico, L.T., & Weed, K.Z. (2006). The Crosscultural, Language, and Academic Development Handbook. A complete K – 12 reference guide (3rd ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence. In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (eds.), Sociolinguistics. Harmondsworth, England: Penguin.
References (cont.) Hurley, S.R. & Tinajero, J.V. (2001). Assessing Progress in Second-Language Acquisition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice- Hall, Inc. Niles, K. (2011). Content strategies and scaffolding: Techniques to promote academic success for English language learners: Stages in English acquisition [PDF document]. Retrieved from Lecture Notes Online Website: http://www.academicesl.com/ PA2011/index.html.
References (cont.) Piper, T. (2007). Language and learning: The home and school years (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill-Prentice Hall. Portland Public Schools (2000). ESL/Bilingual resource guide for mainstream teachers. Retrieved fromwww.pps.k12.or.us/curriculum/PDFs/ ESL_Modifications.pdf. Robertson, K. & Ford, K. (2008). Language Acquisition: An Overview. Colorin Colorado Retrieved from colorincolorado.org/article/26751.
References (cont.) Vance, Noelle (2008). Language development: Second language acquisition. Language Development – Research Starters Education, 1. Retrieved from http://search. ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=e0 h&AN=27577653&site=ehost-live.
Image ReferencesAll clip art was obtained through the Microsoft Office 2010 Clip Art Gallery except forthe following:Dance Steps: www.leroc-in-bristol.co.uk/Resources/Clip_Sources/dancstep.gifReading Circle: www.indianruminations.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/ClipArt_Reading_Circle-315x254.jpg