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Instructional Approaches that
Set SLIFE Up to Succeed
(and are good for everybody else):
Structured Oral Interaction and
E...
Agenda
1. Affordances of orality and challenges
for SLIFE in U.S. classrooms
2. RISA Oral Interaction
3. Elders as Fonts o...
SLIFE: a unique learner profile
 Have come of age in an
oral paradigm rather than
a paradigm of literacy.
 Cognitive / s...
Orality vs. Literacy Continuum: A cognitive,
cultural, & axiological distinction
Literacy-based education Orality-based ed...
Challenges for SLIFE in Western
schooling
 Learning based on abstraction, classification, definitional thinking
 Learnin...
Watson’s law:
“Instruction that involves
only reading, writing, and
the teacher talking
dooms SLIFE to fail.”
The big question:
What instructional approaches CAN
teachers use that set SLIFE up to
succeed rather than fail?
How can we...
RISA Oral Interaction: Rationale
1. Students learn better if they process information
and learning orally/aurally, not onl...
RISA Oral Interaction: Rationale (cont.)
3. Students learning English and the
patterns of Western academic work benefit
en...
RISA OI: Rationale (cont.)
5. Classroom benefits from structured,
routine instructional strategies
 Lesson delivery
 Beh...
RISA Oral Interaction: Routine,
Integrated, Structured, Academic
Routine: It’s a part of your regular routine. 3+ times pe...
Specific Learning Purposes of
RISA-OI
1. Gives students correct models of academic English that
they practice and are asse...
What is RISA Oral Interaction?
R
I
S
A
Question: At what point in the unit
would you use RISA Oral Interaction?
Answer: RISA Oral Interaction formats are used as...
Grouping & Planning
Create 2-person and 3-person options
Plan ahead for absences: what will your system
be?
Vary the RI...
Three RISA-OI Formats
1. Dialog Skit
2. I have a question…
3. HOTS Dialog
Question to keep in mind: What WIDA level
and ac...
1. Dialog Skit
Suitable for lowest levels.
Teacher creates the dialog based on content &
language objectives, students l...
Example: Invasive species
reading
Modified for Level 1-2
This dialog skit is entirely for oral
practice—no cloze items.
Many people help control invasive species
Many groups of people are trying hard to stop bad plants, fish, and insects that...
Launching your RISA-OI Dialog
1. Hang a poster with the dialog on it. Leave it up.
2. Post key vocabulary related to unit ...
* Remember to
always post the
key vocabulary for
your lesson / unit
and leave up (not
just on a
powerpoint!)
* Vocabulary
...
Example: Level 1-2 Geography unit
on Africa
Content Objective: SWBAT locate and name select
countries in Africa, hemispher...
Questions
1. How can you implement it so students know
what type of information goes in which blank?
2. What needs to be t...
Story Elements
Dialogue example
• ESL class
• WIDA 1 – 2
SLIFE
Vocabulary:
1. characters
2. setting
3. conflict
4. resolut...
Story Elements Dialogue: WIDA 1 – 2 SLIFE
A: Hello! How are you?
B: I am good, thank you.
A: Great! Can you help me answer...
2. “I have a question” format
Similar to dialog skit, but more information is
provided by students
Especially good for s...
Example: zebra mussels, from
invasive species reading
Content objective: SWBAT describe the process of
movement of the in...
Questions
1. Where would the information come from
that students need to complete the dialog?
2. How can you differentiate...
Your turn: Chambers of the heart
lesson for high WIDA 2s and 3s.
Work with a partner or small group and create a dialog
u...
Chambers of the heart
3. HOTS Dialog (Higher Order Thinking Skills)
 Most advanced ELs (WIDA 3 and up), most flexible format
 Infuse this dial...
Example
Content: SWBAT compare and contrast the
performance of candidates in the Republican
presidential debate
Vocabula...
Questions
1. What would be the source(s) of
information for students to complete this
dialog?
2. How could you adjust the ...
Your turn: Create a HOTS Dialog
1. With a partner or small group, create a RISA HOTS dialog for WIDA
high 3 and up
2. Deci...
Assessment
 Assess students every two weeks, or more often.
 After launch, give students practice time to prepare for qu...
Assessment Rubric
 Review.
 Practice assessing performance on dialog.
Elders as fonts of knowledge (EFK)
Recall: elders and tradition are the primary
sources of knowledge, values, and learnin...
EFK Rationale (cont.)
 Oral cultural elders bear important knowledge and wisdom
 For SLIFE students
 For Western cultur...
EFK Rationale (cont.)
Increasing family understanding of U.S.
schools is important
Little or no prior knowledge
Cultura...
EFK Rationale (cont.)
Elders are often available
Great opportunity to bridge from storytelling
and narration of oral mod...
Considerations
Important to structure how elders are used
Employ a careful design, including roles and
procedures
Commu...
Considerations
Where to find elders?
Families connected with the school
Student families, cultural liaisons
Ethnic com...
Considerations
Connect directly to learning
Not just a fun visit—integrate with theme,
content
Include specific student...
EFK Scenario #1
 Class: Human Geograph Grade: 7 - 8 Proficiency: adaptable to any level
 Unit: Trail of Tears (native Am...
EFK Scenario #2
 Class: ESL Grade: any Proficiency: adaptable to any level
 Unit: Folk literature / oralature with a mor...
Your turn: How could you create
an opportunity to use elders as
fonts of knowledge in the
classroom?
Discuss ideas with a...
Thank you for participating!
 Questions?
 Comments?
 Ideas?
Contact: Jill A. Watson, Ph.D.
watsoneducationalconsulting@...
Jill Watson Instructional Approaches that Set SLIFE up to succeed (and are good for everybody else):  Structured Oral Inte...
Jill Watson Instructional Approaches that Set SLIFE up to succeed (and are good for everybody else):  Structured Oral Inte...
Jill Watson Instructional Approaches that Set SLIFE up to succeed (and are good for everybody else):  Structured Oral Inte...
Jill Watson Instructional Approaches that Set SLIFE up to succeed (and are good for everybody else):  Structured Oral Inte...
Jill Watson Instructional Approaches that Set SLIFE up to succeed (and are good for everybody else):  Structured Oral Inte...
Jill Watson Instructional Approaches that Set SLIFE up to succeed (and are good for everybody else):  Structured Oral Inte...
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Jill Watson Instructional Approaches that Set SLIFE up to succeed (and are good for everybody else): Structured Oral Interaction and Elders as Fonts of Knowledge, MELEd 2015

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pptx from my breakout session at the Minnesota English Learner Education conference, Bloomington, MN, Nov. 6, 2015

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Jill Watson Instructional Approaches that Set SLIFE up to succeed (and are good for everybody else): Structured Oral Interaction and Elders as Fonts of Knowledge, MELEd 2015

  1. 1. Instructional Approaches that Set SLIFE Up to Succeed (and are good for everybody else): Structured Oral Interaction and Elders as Fonts of Knowledge Jill A. Watson, Ph.D. Minnesota English Learner Education Conference Bloomington, MN November 6, 2015
  2. 2. Agenda 1. Affordances of orality and challenges for SLIFE in U.S. classrooms 2. RISA Oral Interaction 3. Elders as Fonts of Knowledge 4. Workshop time with the 2 approaches
  3. 3. SLIFE: a unique learner profile  Have come of age in an oral paradigm rather than a paradigm of literacy.  Cognitive / social maturation in an oral paradigm brings with it characteristic orientations to learning and life. (Akinnaso, 2001; Battiste & Henderson, 2000; Bigelow, 2012; Bigelow & Watson, 2012; Bryce Heath, 1983; DeCapua & Marshall, 2013; Mosha, 2000; Olson & Torrance, 1991; Ong, 1982; Tarone, Bigelow, & Hansen, 2009; Watson, 2010, 2012)
  4. 4. Orality vs. Literacy Continuum: A cognitive, cultural, & axiological distinction Literacy-based education Orality-based education Grounded in sight, phonetic alphabetic literacy. Much learning is done alone: reading, writing. Lettered = educated, intelligent. Grounded in sound, the oral-aural dimension. All learning is physically proximal, face-to-face, premised on mentoring. Values definition, precision, abstraction, categorical thinking, formal syllogistic reasoning. Discursively sparse, favors detachment, objectivity, subject / object split. Values contexual understanding, lived experience, practical relevance. Discourse is additive rather than concisely subordinative. Empathetic and participatory. Knowledge based on referentiability to written authority and demonstrability via objective methods. Knowledge based on authority of elders, family and kinship relations, lessons of experience, tradition. Individualistic: individual performance Collectivistic: the common good
  5. 5. Challenges for SLIFE in Western schooling  Learning based on abstraction, classification, definitional thinking  Learning grounded in literacy activities  Learning from teacher lectures, presentations  Learning without familiar or practical context or relevance  Refraining from oral communication most of the time  Knowing and following the implicit structure of lessons: turn-taking, hand-raising, note-taking  Individual performance vs. collective work and goals African proverb: If you want to go fast, go alone. If you want to go far, go together.
  6. 6. Watson’s law: “Instruction that involves only reading, writing, and the teacher talking dooms SLIFE to fail.”
  7. 7. The big question: What instructional approaches CAN teachers use that set SLIFE up to succeed rather than fail? How can we create fertile spaces for SLIFE learning? (Marshall, 2015)
  8. 8. RISA Oral Interaction: Rationale 1. Students learn better if they process information and learning orally/aurally, not only via reading, viewing, and writing (Zwiers, 2010; Zwiers & Crawford, 2011).  Stop Googling, Let’s Talk (New York Times, Sept. 26, 2015) 2. Especially true of SLIFE ELs who have come of age in orality and have rich oral cultural backgrounds. They MUST process learning through the oral mode, as a bridge to literacy and Western academic thinking (DeCapua & Marshall, 2011, 2013; Watson, 2015).
  9. 9. RISA Oral Interaction: Rationale (cont.) 3. Students learning English and the patterns of Western academic work benefit enormously from routine instructional procedures: frees cognitive attention for engaging with the content and language objectives (August & Shanahan, 2006). 4. Peer-mediated learning is a top best practice for ELs (Gersten, Baker, Shanahan, Linan-Thompson, Collins, & Scarcella, 2007).
  10. 10. RISA OI: Rationale (cont.) 5. Classroom benefits from structured, routine instructional strategies  Lesson delivery  Behavior management 6. ELs need more direct oral language instruction and practice!
  11. 11. RISA Oral Interaction: Routine, Integrated, Structured, Academic Routine: It’s a part of your regular routine. 3+ times per week. Integrated: Directly integrated with your content objectives. The information that students are interacting about comes from the content of your lesson or unit. Structured: Give the students a structured template for their interaction. Not just, “Talk to your partner about ______.” Academic: This refers to your language objectives, which are directly linked to your content objectives. The language you are having students use is academic. It contains both academic vocabulary and academic structures.
  12. 12. Specific Learning Purposes of RISA-OI 1. Gives students correct models of academic English that they practice and are assessed on in the oral/aural mode.  Dialogs in foreign language class  Conversation continuance: keep it going 2. Creates a structured, manageable opportunity for oral practice of specific language objectives: vocabulary and grammar 3. Increases depth of processing of content objectives 4. Lets teacher know if students have understood content
  13. 13. What is RISA Oral Interaction? R I S A
  14. 14. Question: At what point in the unit would you use RISA Oral Interaction? Answer: RISA Oral Interaction formats are used as a way for students to process and practice informatin students have ALREADY BEEN EXPOSED TO through:  Readings  Presentations  Demonstrations & lab work  Vocabulary work  Field trip or LEA experience  Film, video, pictures, realia Remember: RISA-OI is NOT used at the very start of a new unit. It works on depth of processing of information already available to the students.
  15. 15. Grouping & Planning Create 2-person and 3-person options Plan ahead for absences: what will your system be? Vary the RISA-OI partners week to week: elbow partners, median split, homogenous, same- language partners, different-language partners, draw names, etc. In creating the dialogs, you can differentiate for different student proficiency levels
  16. 16. Three RISA-OI Formats 1. Dialog Skit 2. I have a question… 3. HOTS Dialog Question to keep in mind: What WIDA level and academic function is each suited for?
  17. 17. 1. Dialog Skit Suitable for lowest levels. Teacher creates the dialog based on content & language objectives, students learn and perform it as a skit. Integrate social and academic language. You can include some cloze items to be filled in from key vocabulary from the lesson or unit. Based on reading, class lecture, or other form of information that students have already learned (eg. presentation at the start of class, assigned reading, previous class notes, etc.).
  18. 18. Example: Invasive species reading Modified for Level 1-2 This dialog skit is entirely for oral practice—no cloze items.
  19. 19. Many people help control invasive species Many groups of people are trying hard to stop bad plants, fish, and insects that come from other places and hurt species that grow naturally in Minnesota. One of these groups is called Three Rivers Natural Resource Management (NRM). Some of the bad invaders are zebra mussels, Eurasian water milfoil, buckthorn, garlic mustard, emerald ash borer, Asian carp, and gyspy moth. One problem is, people who use the parks give a ride to the bad species on their cars, trucks and boats without even knowing it. That’s one way the invaders move to new places. It helps a lot to find the invaders early, before they become big. If the invading species get big and establish themselves, it is very hard to get them out, especially European buckthorn, black locust and oriental bittersweet. Sometimes NRM and helpers pull these bad plants up and get them out. Some bad plants live in water, and catch a ride on people’s boats to get to another lake or river. Lots of groups are working on teaching people who have boats how to clean the bad plants off their boats. If you want to help, contact Three Rivers (NRM). They teach you how to find bad species and have events where people pull out the bad plants. Call Three Rivers NRM at 763.694.7840.
  20. 20. Launching your RISA-OI Dialog 1. Hang a poster with the dialog on it. Leave it up. 2. Post key vocabulary related to unit and dialog. Work with cultural liaisons / classroom EAs to connect vocab to L1. 2. Explain the dialog briefly. 3. Model correct, natural pronunciation and prosody of words and key phrases. Have class choral repeat. 4. You do format with one student, and then another. 5. Have 2 students do for the class. Have 2 more do for the class. 6. Assign partners. 7. Have all members of the class do with their partner while you and classroom EAs / cultural liaisons circulate and support.
  21. 21. * Remember to always post the key vocabulary for your lesson / unit and leave up (not just on a powerpoint!) * Vocabulary words you post are typically part of the missing cloze words.
  22. 22. Example: Level 1-2 Geography unit on Africa Content Objective: SWBAT locate and name select countries in Africa, hemispheres, and cardinal directions Language Structure Objective: SWBAT use preposition “of” with directions, the expression “is located in” – as a statement and a question, using the structure “In which hemispheres is __________ located?” Language Vocabulary Objective: SWBAT name select African countries, all hemispheres, and cardinal directions
  23. 23. Questions 1. How can you implement it so students know what type of information goes in which blank? 2. What needs to be taught prior to this RISA-OI? 3. What else do you need to make this work?
  24. 24. Story Elements Dialogue example • ESL class • WIDA 1 – 2 SLIFE Vocabulary: 1. characters 2. setting 3. conflict 4. resolution 5. resolved
  25. 25. Story Elements Dialogue: WIDA 1 – 2 SLIFE A: Hello! How are you? B: I am good, thank you. A: Great! Can you help me answer my reading questions? B: Sure. What is your question? A: What are characters in a story? B: Characters are _________ or ________in a story. A: Characters are _________ or ______ in a story. Great! What is setting? B: Setting is ________ and __________ a story happens. A: Setting is ________ and ________ a story happens. Good! What is the conflict? B: Conflict is the _______ of the story. A: Conflict is the _________of the story. Awesome! What is the resolution? B: The resolution is how the ________was _________. . A: The resolution is how the _______ was ______. Amazing! Thank you for your help! B: You’re welcome!
  26. 26. 2. “I have a question” format Similar to dialog skit, but more information is provided by students Especially good for sequential processes, or concepts / things with specific components. Eg.: how to perform a mathematical operation or order of operations, describe a biological process, chronological order of events, identify the components of something and their functions.
  27. 27. Example: zebra mussels, from invasive species reading Content objective: SWBAT describe the process of movement of the invasive species ‘zebra mussels’ Language objective (structure): SWBAT use First, Next, Then, Finally, and But to describe the process Language Objective (vocabulary): SWBAT use target vocabulary in describing process: establish, zebra mussels, invasive, species, boat
  28. 28. Questions 1. Where would the information come from that students need to complete the dialog? 2. How can you differentiate for varying student WIDA levels in the “I have a question” format?
  29. 29. Your turn: Chambers of the heart lesson for high WIDA 2s and 3s. Work with a partner or small group and create a dialog using the “I have a question” format What could your dialog be about? Look at the schematic and decide on language and content objectives for a dialog. Remember: for language, you should determine a structure objective and key vocabulary list (select just the most important words).
  30. 30. Chambers of the heart
  31. 31. 3. HOTS Dialog (Higher Order Thinking Skills)  Most advanced ELs (WIDA 3 and up), most flexible format  Infuse this dialog with lots of academic language stems (eg. from Socratic Seminar, Accountable Talk).  Create a poster of sentence stems for different purposes and post on the classroom wall (leave up). Choose different stems to include in the dialog so you cover many different ones over the year.  Include stems for different functions: asserting a point of view, agreeing and disagreeing, asking for elaboration, etc. (see handout)  Teacher can write this or share writing with more advanced students, especially after they have done a few HOTS Dialogs. The language structures chosen should be at the instructional level for the students—challenging, but not overwhelming (i + 1, ZPD).  Use plenty of theme-rheme structure.
  32. 32. Example Content: SWBAT compare and contrast the performance of candidates in the Republican presidential debate Vocabulary: SWBAT use Republican, presidential, debate, performance in oral exchange Language structure: SWBAT use comparative language structures and sequence words.
  33. 33. Questions 1. What would be the source(s) of information for students to complete this dialog? 2. How could you adjust the difficulty level of this dialog? 3. Which academic language phrases were modeled in this dialog? 4. Which academic stems and phrases could be added or given as options?
  34. 34. Your turn: Create a HOTS Dialog 1. With a partner or small group, create a RISA HOTS dialog for WIDA high 3 and up 2. Decide on classroom context: sheltered content, direct ELD, co-taught content 3. Decide on content connection and theme of dialog: What class is it part of? What theme does the dialog address? What language and content bjectives does it practice? 4. Decide on roles: equal difficulty? Or differentiate? 5. Determine degree of student completion: stems? Cloze? Remember: the part that students fill in should be directly related to content objectives!
  35. 35. Assessment  Assess students every two weeks, or more often.  After launch, give students practice time to prepare for quiz on a daily or nearly daily basis.  Have partners rehearse dialog for you and cultural liaisons / EAs– give them feedback to prepare for quiz.  On dialog quiz day, plan quiet work or test, call partners up for dialog quiz. Teacher, EAs hear and grade the dialog quizzes.  Typically: have both partners do both parts—do one way, then switch. If there are 3 people in the group, just have them do 2 parts each.  Alternative: Assign one part to stronger student, one to lower student (you design dialog for that)
  36. 36. Assessment Rubric  Review.  Practice assessing performance on dialog.
  37. 37. Elders as fonts of knowledge (EFK) Recall: elders and tradition are the primary sources of knowledge, values, and learning in oral cultures. Oromo saying: You have libraries, we have elders
  38. 38. EFK Rationale (cont.)  Oral cultural elders bear important knowledge and wisdom  For SLIFE students  For Western cultures  SLIFE are predisposed to respect elders, listen to them, and look to them for guidance  Transfixed listening  Behavior & focus support  Culture shock: role of elders in U.S. totally different from home  Causes breakdown, confusion, identity loss  Essential to strengthen intergenerational bonds
  39. 39. EFK Rationale (cont.) Increasing family understanding of U.S. schools is important Little or no prior knowledge Cultural dissonance: family expectations of school and teachers Exposure to literacy and Western academic thinking benefits elders Often isolated, little connection to American mainstream culture
  40. 40. EFK Rationale (cont.) Elders are often available Great opportunity to bridge from storytelling and narration of oral mode to academic work
  41. 41. Considerations Important to structure how elders are used Employ a careful design, including roles and procedures Communicate just the essential info to elders: what they will do, what students will do, how long, etc. Background checks Important District may require Transportation Often necessary
  42. 42. Considerations Where to find elders? Families connected with the school Student families, cultural liaisons Ethnic community organizations Interpretors likely needed Arrange in advance and TRIPLE confirm Discuss details of task in advance with interpretors Students, family members, community members
  43. 43. Considerations Connect directly to learning Not just a fun visit—integrate with theme, content Include specific student activities and assessment
  44. 44. EFK Scenario #1  Class: Human Geograph Grade: 7 - 8 Proficiency: adaptable to any level  Unit: Trail of Tears (native Americans displaced to Oregon)  General Objective: compared experience of native Americans with experience of Hmong people leaving homelands and crossing the Mekong river to refugee camps in Thailand.  Teacher: preteach concepts and vocabulary  Students prepare questions in advance and ask during elder visit.  Elder role: With interpretor, tell story of his or her family, or in general. Show Paj Ntaub tapestry. Describe actions of soldiers, what happened to people as they tried to escape. Describe refugee camp, and journey to U.S.  Students take notes using a rubric with specific areas for comparison  Why they had to make the journey  Who forced them  When it happened  Where they went  What happened along the journey  Students work in groups, discuss. Elder sits with groups, rotating, sharing.  Cumulative project: compare the two journeys using drawings with captions, sentences, paragraphs. Include L1 terms, eg. Paj Ntaub.
  45. 45. EFK Scenario #2  Class: ESL Grade: any Proficiency: adaptable to any level  Unit: Folk literature / oralature with a moral, scary stories  General objective: compare Somali fairy tale of Dagdheer with German tale of Hansel and Gretel  Teacher: preteach concepts and vocabulary  Students prepare questions in advance and ask during elder visit.  Elder role: With interpretor, tell the tale of Dagdheer. Describe how s/he and Somali children in general feel about the story, and why s/he thinks parents tell this scary story about a witch who eats children.  Students take notes, draw pictures using a rubric with specific areas for comparison  What happened in the story: sequence of events  Why the with eats children  Why the children were unprotected  Which part was scariest  What is the moral or lesson of the story  Students work in groups, discuss. Elder sits with groups, rotating, sharing.  Cumulative project: students create a fairy tale with elements of both Dagdheer and Hansel & Gretel, act out for an audience, including elders from Somalia and America.
  46. 46. Your turn: How could you create an opportunity to use elders as fonts of knowledge in the classroom? Discuss ideas with a partner or small group. Share your ideas with the large group
  47. 47. Thank you for participating!  Questions?  Comments?  Ideas? Contact: Jill A. Watson, Ph.D. watsoneducationalconsulting@gmail.com www.watsoneducationalconsulting.com

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