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Challenging Assumptions
Culturally Responsive Instruction
for Diverse Learners
Dr. Catherine Collier
www.crosscultured.com...
Percent of K-12 ELL
© 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier
All Rights Reserved
HS Completion Rates 2006-2012
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Completion four years after enrollment
White 06
...
Percent Scoring Proficient on State Math &
Language Arts Assessments
0.00%
10.00%
20.00%
30.00%
40.00%
50.00%
60.00%
70.00...
Behavior Suspensions in Preschool 2011-2012
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
Black NonBlack
Enrollment
Suspensions
© 2015 Dr. ...
2014 Teachers in US Schools
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
White NonWhite Female NonFemale
© 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier
...
© 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier
All Rights Reserved
5.80%
2.50%
.6%
12.90%
4.40%
.10%
LD EBD AS
NonELL ELL
Disproportionality...
Disproportionality ASD
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
Am Ind/AK
Nat
Asian Black Hispanic Nat HI/Pac Isl Two o...
Texas ELL
Texas IEP
Definitions
The concept of
things that
particular people
use as models of
perceiving,
relating, and
interpreting their
env...
© 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier
All Rights Reserved
What we know
 We need to know
more than what
works…..
 We need to know
...
The role of culture
Educators have become
increasingly aware in recent
years of the central role that
culture plays in lea...
Culture and teaching
Neither teachers nor
children leave their
cultures at the classroom
door. It is, therefore,
imperativ...
A definition of culture
Culture is what people know, what they do, and
what they make and use. Everything we do is
influen...
Culture is always both (1) explicit–that which
people can describe, such as foods, festivals,
dress and (2) implicit or ta...
Explicit culture
Explicit culture is easier to
see and talk about. People
can describe what kinds of
food they cook, their...
Tacit cultural knowledge
Our culture has a large body
of shared knowledge that
people learn and use.
Although tacit cultur...
Culture is the human form of
adaptation to the environment.
People all around the
world have
developed
customary tasks,
ac...
Culture is Diverse
Cultural diversity is the
result of differences in
environments, historical
symbolism in human
life. Pe...
Culture is Dynamic
Cultures are constantly
changing through
inventions, improvement
and borrowing from other
societies.
Fo...
Culture is Symbolic
People live in a world of symbols. A
symbol is any object or action to
which meaning is attached.
Memb...
Members of the dominant culture
(‘Anglos’ in the United States, for
example), often believe that they do
not have a “cultu...
Reading
 Reading is based on
symbols and symbolic
relationships between
sounds, symbols,
meaning, and
understanding.
 Re...
Know yourself, know your
students
 Know your culture, the
culture you bring to
teaching
 Understand how your
culture fit...
Know Your Students
 Know the individual’s
qualities, interests,
aspirations, and areas
for growth
 Know the sociocultura...
Know your students
Effective teaching
involves activating the
conceptual frameworks
that children already
have and buildin...
Reflective teaching
Good teaching
involves an ongoing
process of self-
reflection, including
critical examination of
your ...
Self-reflection helps you to:
 Be aware of the assumptions made about
the knowledge and experience by you, your
students,...
Reminder
All students do not share the
experiences and background
knowledge that teachers,
textbooks, and curriculum
stand...
Become aware of the contexts
shaping CLD student learning
Knowing your students involves becoming
familiar with the socioc...
Be aware of cultural productions
Sometimes it is easier
to understand students
in terms of group
attributes.
But individua...
Cultural productions
Individuals create their
own cultural norms
that often challenge
the status quo. At the
same time, th...
Cultural productions
School personnel need to change their
perceptions of culture, from something that is
shared by all st...
What can teachers do about cultural
productions?
1. Get to know each student as an
individual;
2. Understand why the stude...
Krashen’s Critical Elements for
Language Acquisition
1. Provide Comprehensible
Input in Target Language
2. Lower the Affec...
Growth in Native Born LEP
40%
40%
20%
First Generation Second Generation Third + Generation
© 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier
A...
The Deadly Plateau
 Texts are frequently at i +
10, not i + 1
 Growth in reading and
academic achievement
levels off
 M...
LD Behaviors SLA Behaviors
Difficulty following directions Difficulty following directions in
English
Difficulty with phon...
So what can teachers do about
language transition?
 Simplify language of instruction
 Utilize frequent comprehension che...
More Instructional Accommodations
 Allow student to edit or revise after re-teaching when
appropriate
 Provide a daily o...
Acculturation
Heightened Anxiety
Inattention
Confusion in Locus of Control
Withdrawal
Silence/unresponsiveness
Response Fa...
The Intensity of Culture Shock is Cyclical
Anticipation
Phase
Spectator
Phase
Increasing
Participation
Phase
Shock
Phase
A...
A cultural
incident occurs
Causing a
reaction
Which causes a
withdrawal
• Elicits some
type of
emotion
• Anxiety
• Anger
•...
Culture Shock Cycle
Voluntary minorities such
as Chinese immigrants to
America generally
consider education to be
an impor...
Cycle of Acculturation
Of even more serious
long-term impact
upon an individual is
Deculturation or
Marginalization.
Decul...
What students need
 Friends to be
patient and
persevering with
them
 Friends not to take
offense at what
they say or do
...
Person becomes
aware of their
reaction
• Thinks through
why they reacted
as they did
• Recognizes that
not everyone acts
l...
Is PS/RTI the answer to
disproportionate representation
of ELL?
Only if approaches
are culturally and
linguistically
respo...
5 Things that Work in PS/RTI for ELL
1. Adequate
Professional
Knowledge
2. Effective Instruction
3. Valid Assessments &
In...
Assessment Accommodations
 Provide a word bank for fill-in-the blank or labeling
items
 Allow student opportunity to hav...
Contact Information
Catherine Collier, Ph.D.
 @AskDrCollier
 catherine@crosscultured.com
 www.crosscultured.com
 www....
Thank you! Come visit us at
www.crosscultured.com
 Over 45 years experience.
 Research on impact of
acculturation on ref...
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Challenging Assumptions: Culturally & Linguistically Responsive Instruction

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This is the Keynote address that Dr. Collier is giving in Dallas, Texas, next week.

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Challenging Assumptions: Culturally & Linguistically Responsive Instruction

  1. 1. Challenging Assumptions Culturally Responsive Instruction for Diverse Learners Dr. Catherine Collier www.crosscultured.com catherine@crosscultured.com
  2. 2. Percent of K-12 ELL © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. HS Completion Rates 2006-2012 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Completion four years after enrollment White 06 White 12 Black 06 Black 12 Hispanic 06 Hispanic 12 AmerIndian 06 AmerIndian 12 © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. Percent Scoring Proficient on State Math & Language Arts Assessments 0.00% 10.00% 20.00% 30.00% 40.00% 50.00% 60.00% 70.00% 80.00% 90.00% 100.00% California Texas Florida Washington Oregon Migrant Students All Students Low-Income Students
  5. 5. Behavior Suspensions in Preschool 2011-2012 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Black NonBlack Enrollment Suspensions © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. 2014 Teachers in US Schools 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 White NonWhite Female NonFemale © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved 5.80% 2.50% .6% 12.90% 4.40% .10% LD EBD AS NonELL ELL Disproportionality WA
  8. 8. Disproportionality ASD 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Am Ind/AK Nat Asian Black Hispanic Nat HI/Pac Isl Two or more White District Enrollment LD Autism
  9. 9. Texas ELL
  10. 10. Texas IEP
  11. 11. Definitions The concept of things that particular people use as models of perceiving, relating, and interpreting their environment. Difficulty in perceiving and manipulating patterns in the environment, whether patterns of sounds, symbols, numbers, or behaviors. The process by which individuals perceive, relate to, and interpret their environment. Culture CognitionLearning Disability © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved What we know  We need to know more than what works…..  We need to know what works with WHOM
  13. 13. The role of culture Educators have become increasingly aware in recent years of the central role that culture plays in learning and teaching. Teachers and children bring to the classroom values about education, work habits, interaction norms, and ways of knowing that were learned in the home and community. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  14. 14. Culture and teaching Neither teachers nor children leave their cultures at the classroom door. It is, therefore, imperative that teachers gain greater awareness of how their culture affects their teaching behaviors, and how the intersection of diverse cultures can impact classroom dynamics and outcomes. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  15. 15. A definition of culture Culture is what people know, what they do, and what they make and use. Everything we do is influenced by our culture. Culture pervades our ways of thinking, behaving, and believing. How we spend our time, where we work, who we visit, and what we do for fun are all affected by culture. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  16. 16. Culture is always both (1) explicit–that which people can describe, such as foods, festivals, dress and (2) implicit or tacit - that which people know and do unconsciously and would have trouble describing. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  17. 17. Explicit culture Explicit culture is easier to see and talk about. People can describe what kinds of food they cook, their holidays, their dances, their religion, their kinship relations, and the cultural rules for appropriate behavior among kinsfolk. Tacit cultural knowledge, which remains hidden, is harder to uncover. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  18. 18. Tacit cultural knowledge Our culture has a large body of shared knowledge that people learn and use. Although tacit cultural knowledge is hidden from view, it is of fundamental importance because we all use it constantly to generate behavior and interpret our own and others’ experience. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  19. 19. Culture is the human form of adaptation to the environment. People all around the world have developed customary tasks, activities and tools that enable them to utilize the available resources. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  20. 20. Culture is Diverse Cultural diversity is the result of differences in environments, historical symbolism in human life. People in all societies pattern of facing change and the importance of face similar challenges but have many different cultural solutions to the types of problems. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  21. 21. Culture is Dynamic Cultures are constantly changing through inventions, improvement and borrowing from other societies. For example, all of these processes have influenced the development of various means of economic exchange. Many different forms of money function in a wider range of cultural environments. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. Culture is Symbolic People live in a world of symbols. A symbol is any object or action to which meaning is attached. Members in a society share those symbols which may have a profound impact on behavior. The meaning and importance of one’s society symbols may not be obvious to members of other groups. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  23. 23. Members of the dominant culture (‘Anglos’ in the United States, for example), often believe that they do not have a “culture.” Culture is considered something that belongs to members of minority cultural groups and people of other countries. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  24. 24. Reading  Reading is based on symbols and symbolic relationships between sounds, symbols, meaning, and understanding.  Reading is an example of a cultural activity.  Reading depends on many cultural artifacts. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  25. 25. Know yourself, know your students  Know your culture, the culture you bring to teaching  Understand how your culture fits into the culture of the larger society  Be aware of the culture of the school and how this impacts your CLD students  Be aware of the context you create in your classroom © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  26. 26. Know Your Students  Know the individual’s qualities, interests, aspirations, and areas for growth  Know the sociocultural contexts the student brings to learning, and how s/he reacts to the instructional contexts of the school and your classroom © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  27. 27. Know your students Effective teaching involves activating the conceptual frameworks that children already have and building on them to expand the children’s knowledge and introduce new concepts. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  28. 28. Reflective teaching Good teaching involves an ongoing process of self- reflection, including critical examination of your culture (ethnic, class, regional, religious, national), your assumptions about your students, and your role as a teacher. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  29. 29. Self-reflection helps you to:  Be aware of the assumptions made about the knowledge and experience by you, your students, and the mandated curriculum you are implementing;  Be clear about the cultural values being transmitted through you via the curriculum and your pedagogical practices; and  Be cognizant of your impact as a human being on the development of the children or youths in your care. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  30. 30. Reminder All students do not share the experiences and background knowledge that teachers, textbooks, and curriculum standards may assume. Children from culturally and linguistically different backgrounds have different experiences and knowledge than mainstream teachers and children. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  31. 31. Become aware of the contexts shaping CLD student learning Knowing your students involves becoming familiar with the sociocultural contexts that help shape students’ ways of learning. It also involves understanding the dynamic relationship between group culture and individual difference. Individualizing curriculum and instruction for CLD students is a critical component of the adaptation process. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  32. 32. Be aware of cultural productions Sometimes it is easier to understand students in terms of group attributes. But individuals are constantly negotiating their identity and their culture within their peer groups and their community culture is not static. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  33. 33. Cultural productions Individuals create their own cultural norms that often challenge the status quo. At the same time, there are pressures on the individual to conform to the culture, both to the minority group culture and to the dominant mainstream culture. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  34. 34. Cultural productions School personnel need to change their perceptions of culture, from something that is shared by all students from the same ethnic or historical background to something that is actively constructed by the individual in a given social setting. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  35. 35. What can teachers do about cultural productions? 1. Get to know each student as an individual; 2. Understand why the student accepts and rejects the various aspects of the school’s culture that he or she does; 3. Work with her students to transform those aspects to the social and academic setting that she believes are hindering their successful growth and development; and 4. Help students learn to question and explore their own reasons for resisting and conforming in the ways that they do. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  36. 36. Krashen’s Critical Elements for Language Acquisition 1. Provide Comprehensible Input in Target Language 2. Lower the Affective Filter 3. Maintain Subject Matter Education 4. Maintain and Develop Student’s Base Language © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  37. 37. Growth in Native Born LEP 40% 40% 20% First Generation Second Generation Third + Generation © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  38. 38. The Deadly Plateau  Texts are frequently at i + 10, not i + 1  Growth in reading and academic achievement levels off  Motivation decreases © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  39. 39. LD Behaviors SLA Behaviors Difficulty following directions Difficulty following directions in English Difficulty with phonological awareness Difficulty distinguishing between unfamiliar sounds Slow to learn sound/symbol Confusion with sound/symbol correspondence in English Difficulty remembering sight words Difficulty remembering sight words when unfamiliar with meaning Difficulty retelling a story in sequence May understand more than can say in English
  40. 40. So what can teachers do about language transition?  Simplify language of instruction  Utilize frequent comprehension checks  Allow for collaborative learning and discussion in primary language when appropriate  Break lessons/information into smaller chunks  Provide hands-on activities and concrete examples  Use visual aides/physical clues  Provide outlines and graphic organizers to stress important concepts and facilitate note- taking  Proximity seating w/limited distractions  Provide specific and immediate feedback  Provide page numbers for answer locations  Permit the use of bilingual dictionaries or electronic translating device  Provide simplified study guides w/answers in advance of unit or lesson  Utilize resources in the student’s first language © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  41. 41. More Instructional Accommodations  Allow student to edit or revise after re-teaching when appropriate  Provide a daily or weekly syllabus of class and homework assignments  Give alternate homework or class assignments suitable for the student’s linguistic ability  Extend time for assignment completion when necessary  Allow student an opportunity to give oral responses to be recorded by teacher or aide  Utilize alternate reading assignments/materials at the student’s reading level  Orient student to expectations through models and rubrics  Substitute a hands-on activity or use of different media for written activity  Shorten length, not content, of assignment  Permit the use of bilingual dictionaries or electronic translating device © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  42. 42. Acculturation Heightened Anxiety Inattention Confusion in Locus of Control Withdrawal Silence/unresponsiveness Response Fatigue Code-switching Distractibility Resistance to Change Disorientation Stress Related Behaviors © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  43. 43. The Intensity of Culture Shock is Cyclical Anticipation Phase Spectator Phase Increasing Participation Phase Shock Phase Adaptation Phase Anticipation Phase Spectator Phase Increasing Participation Phase Shock Phase Adaptation Phase Highly Engaged Level Moderately Engaged Level Normal Intensity of Emotions Moderately Depressed Level Greatly Depressed Level © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  44. 44. A cultural incident occurs Causing a reaction Which causes a withdrawal • Elicits some type of emotion • Anxiety • Anger • Fear • Irritation • From new culture & language • To familiar community • Is unexpected • Has a different meaning • Is offensive © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  45. 45. Culture Shock Cycle Voluntary minorities such as Chinese immigrants to America generally consider education to be an important route to succeeding in society and are less concerned with prejudice and discrimination, as opposed to involuntary minorities such as African Americans and Native Americans. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  46. 46. Cycle of Acculturation Of even more serious long-term impact upon an individual is Deculturation or Marginalization. Deculturation is the loss of connection to the traditional, home or heritage culture and language while not making the transition to the new culture or language. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  47. 47. What students need  Friends to be patient and persevering with them  Friends not to take offense at what they say or do  Friends to include them despite their odd behavior  Time from their teachers  Help to learn specific cultural knowledge  Patience from their teachers rather than referring them to special services for their culture shock behavior © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  48. 48. Person becomes aware of their reaction • Thinks through why they reacted as they did • Recognizes that not everyone acts like me A cultural incident occurs Causing a reaction And reflects on the cause so that the reaction subsides • Thinks through why the other acts the way he/she does Person observes the situation Person develops appropriate cultural expectations © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved • Learns to see in a different culture light • Learns to live with something that may not be morally okay with them
  49. 49. Is PS/RTI the answer to disproportionate representation of ELL? Only if approaches are culturally and linguistically responsive and address both system and student issues. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  50. 50. 5 Things that Work in PS/RTI for ELL 1. Adequate Professional Knowledge 2. Effective Instruction 3. Valid Assessments & Interventions 4. Collaboration Between District Departments 5. Clear Policies © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  51. 51. Assessment Accommodations  Provide a word bank for fill-in-the blank or labeling items  Allow student opportunity to have test read aloud by teacher or aide in either regular or ESL class  Allow fact or formula note cards for exams  Allow for small group administration of assessments  Re-write test items at a lower reading level  Reduce the number of choices on tests/quizzes  Accept correct answers in alternate form (drawing, misspelled, lists, graphic organizer, etc.)  Limit matching questions to 5 – 10 items per section  Allow extended time if needed  Allow student an opportunity to give oral responses to be recorded by teacher or aide  Require reduced sentence or paragraph length in open ended responses and compositions  Allow students to re-do or correct work when appropriate (may be for partial credit)  Permit the use of bilingual dictionaries or electronic translating device © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  52. 52. Contact Information Catherine Collier, Ph.D.  @AskDrCollier  catherine@crosscultured.com  www.crosscultured.com  www.facebook.com/AskDrCollier © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
  53. 53. Thank you! Come visit us at www.crosscultured.com  Over 45 years experience.  Research on impact of acculturation on referral & placement of CLD students.  Research on effectiveness of specific cognitive learning strategies for diverse learners.  Classroom teacher, diagnostician, faculty, administrator.  Social justice advocate, author & teacher educator. © 2015 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved

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