The North became
more industrialized and
the South reliant on
This increased tensions
between the regions.
Divisions among people
began to occur based
on loyalties to their
Slavery and economics were
growing problems between the
North and South.
The debate over how much
power a federal government
should have continued to be
an issue as well.
Southern states feared federal
laws could overrule their state
laws protecting slavery.
Tariff of Abomination -1828
The United States Congress passed a tariff (tax) on
foreign imports to protect American manufacturing.
(Cost of foreign goods go up, making American goods more
It helped the North where most industries were located
but hurt southern consumers who relied on foreign
goods to purchase.
The South feared that foreign countries (like Great
Britain) would retaliate and place a tariff on their
Nullification Crisis- 1832
South Carolina argued that the
tariff was unconstitutional.
Led by John C. Calhoun, they
threatened to nullify
(cancel/reject) the federal tax in
the state of South Carolina.
President Andrew Jackson
threatened to send troops South
to enforce the law.
South Carolina backed down.
What do you think?
Should a state have the right to nullify a
federal law if it is harmful to that state?
Yes or No, and be able to explain.
Discuss with the people at your table for a few
minutes and come to a consensus for your
After purchasing land from France in the
Louisiana Purchase and removing Native
Americans from the land, settler began
moving into the newly acquired land.
Southern states wanted to new land to
grow cotton, which required slavery.
Northern states wanted to land to remain
free, and used for industrialization.
Slave or Free?
As new states began to join the Union
(United States) there was debate and
competition between the northern states
and southern states as to whether or not
the new states should be free or slave.
Balancing States- Free and Slave
Missouri wanted to join the United
People in Missouri wanted slavery
to be legal.
Northern states wanted to let
Missouri join only if slavery was
Congress tried to find a way to
keep a balance between slave and
This would keep a balance of
representation from slave and free
states in Congress.
Missouri Compromise -1820
Missouri was allowed to join as a slave state.
Maine joined at the same time as a free state to keep
the balance ( 12 free and 12 slave). (Why is a balance important?)
A latitude line was established (36° 30’ N) to divide
future slave from free states. (Missouri Compromise Line)
The compromise lasted 30 years.
New Lands / New Compromise
War with Mexico added
more land to the United
States in 1848.
Texas joined the U.S. as
a slave state in 1845.
(13 slave to 12 free states)
Territories of New Mexico
and Utah were created.
California gold strike led
to their wish to join the
U.S. as a new state.
The Compromise of 1850
California joined as a free state.
(Balanced again 13 slave states and 13 free states)
From now on any new states could vote (free or slave)
as they joined the U.S. through popular sovereignty.
Slavery was abolished in Washington D.C.
The Fugitive Slave Act was passed to satisfy the
All escaping slaves had to legally be returned to their
The Georgia Platform- 1850
Georgia held a convention to debate the
Compromise of 1850.
Georgia would support the Compromise if the
Fugitive Slave Act was enforced.
Georgians also wanted the North to stop trying
to ban slavery in new states.
Alexander Stephens led the effort to keep
Georgia in the country and to support the Union
of the country.
The Georgia Platform is credited with preventing
war and secession at that time.
Kansas-Nebraska Act- 1854
The Kansas and Nebraska territories were
expected to soon join the U.S.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri
It gave people in each territory the right to vote
for slavery or not (popular sovereignty).
Pro-slavery people moved to Kansas to sway
the vote towards slavery.
Anti-slavery forces sent people to sway the vote
for a free state.
Violence between the setters
turned the territory into what
became known as “Bleeding
Kansas finally voted to
become a free state.
Southern states felt the vote
Dred Scott- 1857
He was a slave from Missouri.
He sued for his freedom in the
United States Supreme Court but
They said he could not sue for his
freedom because he was not a
citizen, but rather property of his
A network of safe houses and
hiding places for slaves
escaping to Canada.
Activity increased in the North
in response to the Fugitive
Harriet Tubman became
famous for helping hundreds
of slaves reach freedom.
Abolitionist John Brown led a
raid on a U.S. arsenal at
Harpers Ferry, Virginia.
He hoped to start a slave
uprising by giving them
It failed and he was captured
and hanged for treason.
Many in the South saw him as a
Many in the North saw him as a
Election of 1860
A new anti-slavery party was formed called the
Abraham Lincoln was the Republican candidate
Three other candidates also ran.
Lincoln won a majority of electoral votes, and
popular (people’s) votes.
No southern states supported him in the
Election Chart - 1860
The Election of 1860
Stephen A. Douglas
Secession Debate - 1861
Lincoln’s victory caused southern states to debate
secession (leave the Union).
They believed Lincoln would end slavery everywhere.
South Carolina voted to secede unanimously.
Alexander Stephens argued to keep Georgia from
Georgia chose in a close vote to secede in January of
11 states eventually seceded to form the Confederate
States of America.
Jefferson Davis became their first president.
Alexander Stephens became vice president.
Map of United States- late 1861
Match the Missouri Compromise , The Compromise of
1850 , or Kansas-Nebraska Act with each statement below.
1. A slave or free line was created at 36’30.
2. Popular Sovereignty would determine slave or free states.
3. It caused violence to break out in the territories.
4. Alexander Stephens helped pass the Georgia Platform.
5. Slavery was abolished in Washington D.C.
6. Maine was added as a free state.
7. California was added as a free state.
8. The Fugitive Slave Act was agreed to.
It kept the country together for 30 years.
10. The Missouri Compromise was repealed.
Disunion Terms and Dates Quiz
Number a lined piece of paper from 1-10. Match the term to the correct
definition by writing each term by the number to which it belongs .
1832 states rights sectionalism free state nullification
1828 tariff abolitionist popular sovereignty free soil
A person strongly against slavery.
To feel a loyalty to your own region.
To reject a law of the federal government.
A tax to help your goods be competitive with foreign goods.
The year of the Nullification Crisis.
A system where residents get to vote on an issue.
The year that the Tariff of Abomination became law.
The privilege a state has to govern itself by its own rules.
The right to keep slavery from spreading to new territories.
A state where slavery was declared illegal.