56. Industrial Revolution• Production of goods and products in factories by machines.• Led to more goods being produced at lower prices.
57. Urbanization• Major movement of people from rural (Countryside) to cities (urban).
58. Interchangeable Parts• Eli Whitney.• Parts are made exactly the same to make it easier to replace defective parts.
59. Agricultural Inventions• Cotton Gin- Eli Whitney- Created a demand for slaves.• Steel Plow- John Deere- Increased agricultural production.• Mechanical Reaper- Cyrus McCormick- Increased grain production.
60. Transportation• Steamboat- Robert Fulton. Decreased travel time on water.• Canals- Man made waterways found mainly in the Northeast. Connected cities by water.• Railroads- Fastest form of transportation on land. Led to growth of cities and westward expansion.
61. Commerce Maryland,• McCulloch v. Maryland- you can’t Supreme Court case tax the Bank of which stated Congress the U.S. had the power to carry out its power stated in the Constitution.• Gibbons v. Ogden- Supreme Court case which stated Congress could regulate interstate commerce.
62. Improvement in Communication• Telegraph- Samuel Morse. Allowed people to communicate over long distances.
65. Andrew Jackson• His election was one for the Common Man.• Believed in a strong national government.• Hero of the Battle of New Orleans.
66. Democratic Party• Revolved around the beliefs of Jackson.• Strong Federal Government.• Supported by Southerners and slave owners.
67. Daniel Webster• Represented the viewpoint of the North.• Believed in preserving the Union was most important. Remember what George Washington said about what geographical differences will do to our country.
68. Henry Clay• “Great Compromiser”.• Worried how the spread of slavery would affect Western Territories. Lets make a deal.
69. John C. Calhoun• Represented the South.• From South Carolina.• Believed in slavery and states’ rights. Long live slavery and states’ rights!
70. Protective Tariff• Tax on imports meant to protect U.S. industries.• Made imports more expensive and encouraged people to buy products made in the U.S.
71. States’ Rights• Belief that states don’t have to follow Federal law if that state feels that law violates the Constitution.
72. Nullification Crisis• Occurred when South Carolina refused to enforce the Protective Tariff of 1828.• President Jackson threatened to enforce the tariff• South Carolina threatened to secede from the Union.
73. Indian Removal Act of 1830• All Indians East of the Mississippi would be moved to Indian Territory (Oklahoma)• The Indian’s land was wanted for farming.
74. Trail of Tears• The Cherokee Indians were forced to march to Indian Territory.• One fourth of them died on the trip.
75. Reform Movements• Women’s Rights- Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton. The “Declaration of Sentiments” from the Seneca Falls Convention called for equal rights for women.
75 Reform Movements• Public (Common) School- Led by Horace Mann. Called for education for all students regardless of background.
75. Reform Movements• Temperance- Against the abuse of alcohol. Believed it caused problems like family violence and poverty.
75. Reform Movements• Abolitionist- Wanted to do away with slavery. Found in the North.
75. Reform Movements• Mental Illness and Prison Reform- Dorothea Dix. Wanted to improved conditions for the mentally ill and better treatment of prisoners.
76. Frederick Douglass• Former slave who spoke against slavery and for human rights.
77. Compromise of 1850• California admitted as a free state.• Strengthened Fugitive Slave Law.
78. Uncle Tom’s Cabin• Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe.• Antislavery novel which caused many Northerners to oppose slavery.
79. Kansas-Nebraska Act• Allowed Popular Sovereignty to determine legality of slavery in these territories.• Led to violence.
80. Dred Scott v Sanford• Supreme Court case which stated slaves were not citizens.
81. Election of 1860• Abraham Lincoln elected president.• Caused Southern states to secede from the Union.
82. Lincoln’s Inaugural Addresses• First Inaugural Address- North would leave slavery alone but would act to preserve the Union.• Second Inaugural Address- Wanted to treat the Southern states without malice after the Civil War.
94. Reconstruction Amendments• 13th- Ended slavery and made it illegal.• 14th- Defined citizenship and gave equal protect under the law.• 15th- Granted Black men the right to vote.
95. Andrew Johnson• Became President after Lincoln’s assassination. Wanted to treat the South leniently.
96. Black Codes• Passed by Southern states to limit the civil To all Freedmen: rights and Any Freedman freedom of the found without a freedmen. job will be fined and possibly jailed!
97. Freedman’s Bureau• Created to help freedmen adjust and to set up schools to educate them. They were given food, clothing and medical care.
98. Homestead Act• Allowed any citizen to own 160 acres of land if they lived on it for 5 years and improved it. Contributed to people moving westward.
99. Morrill Act• Gave each state Colleges Established Under 30,000 acres of the Morrill Act •Iowa State federal land •Kansas State times the •Michigan State •Rutgers University number of its •Penn State University members of •University of Vermont •University of Minnesota Congress. •University of Missouri States could •University of Wisconsin sell land to fund public colleges.
100. Dawes Act• Broke up Indian tribes and promoted the assimilation of Native Americans into American society. Caused Indians to lose most of their lands.