Corruption in the Philippines

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Slide deck with thoughts on Corruption in the Philippines. Slides are from an undergraduate course on Philippine Politics and Governance I taught between 2003-2005.

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  • Note: The key bases for graft and corruption under the law are Article XI of the Constitution (on public accountability), the Penal Code, and Republic Act 3019 (the Anti-Graft and Corrupt Practices Act of 1960)
  • From Alatas, Corruption and the Destiny of Asia
  • Finland: 9.7 Bangladesh: 1.2 United States: 16 th , 7.7
  • Metastatic: Having spread to vital centers of government administration with powerful public influence.
  • Nuances: “Being one of the boys” Rationalizing the system of corruption Encouraging further corrupt behavior lest government services are not discharged  the shift in perception from government service as a duty to something that one does subject to certain conditions Accepting bribes, etc. by subordinates and giving their superiors a portion of the cut
  • Corruption in the Philippines

    1. 1. CORRUPTION IN THE PHILIPPINES
    2. 2. OVERVIEW <ul><li>What are graft and corruption? </li></ul><ul><li>How are graft and corruption manifested in the Philippines? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the causes of graft and corruption? </li></ul><ul><li>What are their costs? </li></ul><ul><li>How can we fight it? </li></ul>
    3. 3. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>Corruption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pertains to the use of public office for private gain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Graft </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Refers to the questionable acquisition of wealth by a person in office </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>Corruption always involves more than one person. </li></ul><ul><li>On the whole, it involves secrecy. </li></ul><ul><li>Entails mutual obligation and benefit. </li></ul><ul><li>Corrupt practices are usually given some legal justification </li></ul>
    5. 5. CHARACTERISTICS <ul><li>It involves deception. </li></ul><ul><li>In any form, it is a betrayal of the public trust. </li></ul><ul><li>It rests on a contradictory dual function. </li></ul><ul><li>It violates the duty and responsibility within the civic order. </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>Transparency International’s Corruption 2002 Perception Index (CPI): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale: 1 = Most Corrupt; 10 = Least </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worst: </li></ul></ul>CONTEXT <ul><li>Transparency International’s Corruption Perception Index (CPI): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scale: 1 = Most Corrupt; 10 = Least </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Philippines: 78 out of 102 (2.6) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best: Finland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worst: Bangladesh </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. THE PHIL . SETTING <ul><li>Corruption in the Philippines is endemic and metastatic </li></ul><ul><li>Income side: Use of government power to extort money </li></ul><ul><li>Expenditure side: malversation of public funds </li></ul>
    8. 8. SOME DYNAMICS <ul><li>It encourages corrupt high ranking officials to remain corrupt </li></ul><ul><li>At the lower level, it frustrates younger officials </li></ul><ul><li>The problem is so entrenched that it creates a vicious cycle with various nuances </li></ul>
    9. 9. GENERAL CAUSES <ul><li>Absence/weakness of leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness of religious influence </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of education </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of punitive measures </li></ul><ul><li>Structure of government </li></ul>
    10. 10. CAUSES IN THE PHILS . <ul><li>Historical Philippine political development </li></ul><ul><li>Patron-client political culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personalistic character of our politics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political relationships as systems of exchange </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Corruption’s costs are not limited to the direct costs involved in the corrupt transaction </li></ul><ul><li>More often than not, the costs are intangible and indirect, but no less destructive </li></ul>COSTS TO THE PUBLIC
    12. 12. <ul><li>Rent-seeking behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Wasted resources </li></ul><ul><li>Weakness in government </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished government revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Legal ambiguity </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement of criminality </li></ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul>COSTS TO THE PUBLIC
    13. 13. FIGHTING CORRUPTION <ul><li>Political Culture / Discourse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is imperative to clearly define what corruption consists of </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Reform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A much more level economic playing field should reduce corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anti-Corruption Campaigns </li></ul>
    14. 14. -end-

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