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Philippine Political Culture

Lecture slides for an undergraduate class on Philippine Politics and Governance I taught between 2003 and 2005. These slides deal with the concept of political culture, borrowing heavily from David Wurfel's study of the Philippines'.

Slides were prepared using Powerpoint XP.

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Philippine Political Culture

  1. 1. Understanding Philippine Political Culture
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>What is political culture ? </li></ul><ul><li>How do we describe the political culture of the Philippines ? </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Political Culture? <ul><li>“ The system of empirical beliefs , expressive symbols and values which defines the situation in which political action takes place.” </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of attitudes towards the political system , its various parts and the role of the self in the system. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Political Culture <ul><li>Political culture influences how people behave with respect to politics . </li></ul>CULTURE POLITICAL CULTURE POLITICAL BEHAVIOR
  5. 5. Political Culture in terms of… <ul><li>Political Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>The Political Process </li></ul><ul><li>Modernity (of the Political Culture) </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital </li></ul>
  6. 6. Political Orientation <ul><li>Ideological </li></ul><ul><li>Political undertakings are rooted in ideology or principle . </li></ul><ul><li>Pragmatic </li></ul><ul><li>Politics is purely utilitarian and calculating </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Political Process Parochial participant subject Lack of knowledge/ interest in political input/output. Awareness of the process; belief in the right to participate. Awareness of the process, but more or less passive participation.
  8. 8. Modernity <ul><li>Sacral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliance on magico-religious beliefs to justify authority or explain behavior. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Secular </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A rational-scientific belief system characterizes political activity. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Legitimacy <ul><li>Legitimacy is the moral bond between citizens and state which obliges citizens to obey the state’s laws . </li></ul><ul><li>Derived from many sources : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Charisma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Social Capital <ul><li>Social capital = Societal trust and obligation . </li></ul><ul><li>“ Whom do you trust?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional/Linguistic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Religious groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Personalistic: “ utang na loob” </li></ul>
  11. 11. Notes on Usage <ul><li>Political culture, just like culture, pertains to general tendencies that are not absolute . </li></ul><ul><li>As an explanatory variable, it is illustrative and descriptive . </li></ul><ul><li>Philippine political culture is a confluence of these characteristics. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Summary <ul><li>Political culture affects the conduct of politics, though not absolutely. </li></ul><ul><li>Ideological v. pragmatic </li></ul><ul><li>Parochial v. Subject v. Participant </li></ul><ul><li>Sacral v. Secular </li></ul>
  13. 13. Summary <ul><li>Legitimacy is a moral bond derived from many sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Social capital in the Philippines is highly stratified and personalistic. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Summary <ul><li>To describe Philippine political culture, or any political culture, entails examining the different characteristics of that culture. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Further reading… <ul><li>Almond, G.A. and Sydney Verba. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations . Toronto: Little, Brown and Co., 1965. </li></ul><ul><li>Pye, L. Asian power and politics: The cultural dimensions of authority . Cambridge: Belknap Press, 1985. </li></ul><ul><li>Pye, L. and Sydney Verba. Political Culture and Political Development . Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1965 </li></ul>
  16. 16. Even Further Reading… <ul><li>Timberman, D.G. A Changeless Land: Continuity and Change in Philippine Politics . Manila: Bookmark, 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>Wurfel, D. Philippine Politics: Development and Decay . Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1988. </li></ul>
  17. 17. -fin-

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