Ch05

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Ch05

  1. 1. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Chapter 5 Troubleshooting Windows 2000/XP Startup
  2. 2. A+ Guide to Software, 4e What Happens When Windows 2000/XP Starts Up • The procedure applies to an Intel-based PC • Programs involved in the initial steps – Startup BIOS (firmware) – MBR program – Boot sector program – Ntldr • Table 5-1 describes the steps in detail 2/29
  3. 3. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 5-1 Steps in the Windows 2000/XP boot process for systems with Intel-based processors 3/29
  4. 4. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 5-1 Steps in the Windows 2000/XP boot process for systems with Intel-based processors (continued) 4/29
  5. 5. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 5-2 Files needed to boot Windows 2000/XP successfully 5/29
  6. 6. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 5-2 Files needed to boot Windows 2000/XP successfully (continued) 6/29
  7. 7. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Important Folders Used in the Startup Process • List of key folders used by Windows 2000/XP: – C:Windows: the Windows XP installation – C:WindowsSystem32: core system files and subfolders – C:WindowsSystem32config: registry hives – C:WindowsSystem32drivers: device driver files – C:Documents and Settings: user account information – C:Program Files: installed applications 7/29
  8. 8. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 5-2 A sample Windows XP Boot.ini file 8/29
  9. 9. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 5-4 You can access startup and recovery options from the System Properties dialog box 9/29
  10. 10. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Troubleshooting Tools to Solve Startup Problems • Sources of information about troubleshooting tools: – Microsoft Knowledge Base at support.microsoft.com – Microsoft Windows XP Professional Resource Kit Documentation (a book) – Table 5-3 in the text – Help files for a command tool • Examples of the many tools available: – Last Known Good Configuration – Safe Mode – System Information (Systeminfo.exe) 10/29
  11. 11. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 5-7 The System Information window displays important information about the system’s hardware, software, and environment 11/29
  12. 12. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Advanced Options Menu • Used to diagnose and fix boot-related problems • Press F8 key to display Advanced Options menu • A list of the options – Safe Mode: boots OS with minimal configuration – Safe Mode with Networking: includes network access – Safe Mode with Command Prompt: text-based only – Enable Boot Logging: records files used during boot – Enable VGA Mode: substitute for regular display – Last Known Good Configuration: stored in the registry 12/29
  13. 13. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Advanced Options Menu (continued) • A list of the options (continued) – Directory services restore mode: for domain controllers – Debugging mode: for moving system logs to another PC – Disable automatic restart on system failure: stops reboot • Blue screen of death (BSOD) – Also called a stop error or system failure 13/29
  14. 14. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Recovery Console • A command-driven OS for serious troubleshooting • Functions performed with the Recovery Console – Repair a damaged registry, system files, or file system – Enable or disable a service or device driver – Repair master boot program on hard drive – Repair boot sector on the system partition – Repair a damaged Boot.ini file – Recover data when the Windows OS is beyond repair • Recovery Console is protected from illegal access • Table 5-4 (partially reproduced) lists commands 14/29
  15. 15. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 5-4 Commands available from the Recovery Console 15/29
  16. 16. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Recovery Console (continued) • Use the recovery console to fix hard drive problems – Fixmbr: restores the master boot program in the MBR – Fixboot: repairs the OS boot record – Diskpart: used to view, create, and delete partitions – Chkdsk: repairs file system and recovers data • Restore the registry following steps in Table 5-5 • Disabling a service or device driver – Listsvc: lists all services currently installed – Disable: disables a service – Enable: shows current status or reinstates a service 16/29
  17. 17. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 5-5 Steps to restore the Windows 2000/XP registry 17/29
  18. 18. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Recovery Console (continued) • Use the Recovery Console to restore system files – Map: displays the current drive letters – Systemroot: sets Windows directory as default directory – Delete: deletes a file – CD: changes directory – Copy: makes a backup of the current Ntldr file – Bootcfg: lets you view and edit the Boot.ini file – Expand: extracts files compressed in cabinet (.cab) files 18/29
  19. 19. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Recovery Console (continued) • Use the recovery console to recover data – First step: change some Recovery Console settings – Second step: copy data from hard drive to other media • Optional installation of the Recovery Console – Open a command window – Navigate to i386 folder on Windows 2000/XP CD – Enter the command winnt32 /cmdcons • The Recovery Console is installed at this step – Restart your computer • Recovery Console should be on the boot loader menu 19/29
  20. 20. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Strategies for Troubleshooting Windows 2000/XP Startup • Topics to cover – General guidelines for troubleshooting – How to respond to startup errors – How to clean up a sluggish startup – How to restore system files – Methods to use as a last resort 20/29
  21. 21. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Guidelines for Troubleshooting Boot Problems • Ask the user what happened before problem started • Back up data before trying to solve an OS problem • Determine what point in boot the system fails • Check the simple things first; e.g., loose cables • Boot to Advanced Options, select Last Known Good Configuration 21/29
  22. 22. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Respond to Any Startup Errors (continued) • Errors that occur before the windows load begins – Startup BIOS is still in control – All core startup components must work for success – Essential hardware: CPU, boot device, power supply – Example: BIOS cannot find a hard drive • Stop error – Drastic error that causes Windows to hang or lock up – Search Microsoft support site for help with problem – Example: a bad USB device causes BSOD to appear 22/29
  23. 23. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Respond to Any Startup Errors (continued) • Program not found error – Entry in the registry or a startup folder, but no program – Cause: uninstall routine leaves entry behind – You can use Msconfig to identify orphan entry – If the entry is in registry, delete entry to eliminate error • Errors from when a device or service has failed to start – Use Device Manager to update the driver – Uninstall and reinstall the device – Boot from Last Known Good Configuration – Try Safe Mode, System Restore, Recovery Console 23/29
  24. 24. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Cleaning Up Startup • Locations to check for cleanup – Startup folders for startup processes – Unwanted scheduled tasks – Group Policy startup entries – Installed fonts • Msconfig: used to find other startup entries • Services Console: used to disable unwanted services • Check startup folders – Move unwanted programs or shortcuts to another folder 24/29
  25. 25. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Cleaning Up Startup (continued) • Look for unwanted scheduled tasks – Tasks launched at startup are in C:WindowsTasks – Inspect folder for unwanted or malicious tasks • Check Group Policy for unwanted startup events – Group Policy scripts are placed in one of four folders – Malicious software is sometimes placed in these folders • Check for too many installed fonts – Fonts stored in C:WindowsFonts folder – Install or uninstall a font: move font into or out of folder – Make sure folder does not hold more than 260 files 25/29
  26. 26. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Cleaning Up Startup (continued) • Use Windows XP Msconfig to limit startup events – To access utility, enter Msconfig in the Run dialog box – Click Services tab to view all services set to start – Click Startup tab to view/edit list of startup programs – Deselecting a startup item is not a permanent solution • Check for corrupted or unneeded files – Service: support program running the background – Identify services from the Services Console – Investigate the service on the Internet 26/29
  27. 27. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Restore System Files • Return to a previous Windows XP restore point – Try Driver Rollback before System Restore – If using System Restore, select a close restore point – Accessing System Restore when Windows GUI is down • Try booting into Safe Mode • Use Windows 2000/XP boot disk to verify boot files – If OS boots from disk, problem is in root folder of C drive – To create boot disk, copy boot files from PC or setup CD – A repair suggestion: replace Ntldr, Ntdetect.com, Boot.ini 27/29
  28. 28. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Recover or Repair the Windows 2000/XP Installation • Recovery partitions and recovery CDs – If provided, use a recovery CD instead of a setup CD • Recovery CD has drivers specific to system and OS build – Hidden partition may also be used for recovery • Windows XP Automated System Recovery (ASR) – Recovers system from time of last full backup of drive C – Access ASR backup from setup CD (press F2) – Follow directions onscreen to restore drive C 28/29
  29. 29. A+ Guide to Software, 4e Recover or Repair the Windows 2000/XP Installation (continued) • The Windows 2000 Emergency Repair Process – Method of last resort (all changes to system are lost) – Process uses Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) • In-place upgrade of Windows 2000/XP – Software/hardware are reinstalled, user data preserved – Use repair utility on Windows 2000/XP setup CD • Clean installation of Windows 2000/XP – First step: copy data files to a safe place – Destroy current Windows 2000/XP installation – Reinstall the OS from the Windows 2000/XP setup CD 29/29

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