Cognate Awareness<br />By: Brian Natarte<br />Cognates are words that are very similar in meaning, spelling and/or form. These types of words have most likely been inherited from the same base language and have been altered slightly over the years. Cognates are most often an issue between Spanish and English since there are so many similar words among these two languages.<br />Reference: http://spanish.about.com/cs/vocabulary/g/cognategloss.htm<br />
Production</li></li></ul><li>Key Points<br />Teachers need to be aware of the <br />issue with cognates.<br />The similarities and differences <br />need to be taught.<br /><ul><li>Many students find cognates difficult.
Long-term habits are hard </li></ul>to break.<br /><ul><li>Practice is essential.</li></li></ul><li>Improve Teaching Cognates<br />Basic Awareness -<br /> Spend a little extra time pointing out the difference between the cognates, addressing similarities, etc. That way the students can practice and gain a better understanding.<br />
Improve Teaching Cognates Cont.<br />Cognate Awareness Test (CAT) – <br /> A test that shows exactly how aware students are of cognates and how high the difficulty level could be for them when learning cognates.<br />Reference: http://www.cal.org/acquiringliteracy/assessments/cognate.html<br />
Improve Teaching Cognates Cont.<br />Practice<br /> As with anything in life, practice is the only way to improve upon something. Allow the students the time and space to practice as much as possible.<br />
Overview<br />Cognate Awareness is something that not every teacher may take into consideration. When a student is learning to speak and listen in a new language there are many things that propose challenges for the student. Teachers need to be aware of all special considerations when teaching listening and speaking; cognate awareness is just one of those special considerations.<br />
Schemata<br />Is a unit of understanding to store knowledge.<br /> Students use existing knowledge or <br /> schemata (plural) to recognize &<br /> connect with learning.<br />Reference – Diaz-Rico, L. (2008). Strategies for Teaching English Learners. (p. 117).<br />Donna Parrish<br />
Schemata & Learning<br /><ul><li>A reader’s ability to comprehend is dependent on their past experiences.
Schemata are created through repeated experiences with
Encountering new information - shemata can be modified</li></ul> THREE ways:<br />Reference - Sousa, D. (2005). How the Brain works. (p.52).<br />
Modifying Schemata<br /><ul><li>ACCREATION – Learners incorporate new information into an existing schema.
TUNING – Learners realize existing schema is inadequate and alters their schema to become consistent with the experience.
RESTRUCTURING – Learners create a new schema to understand the material.</li></ul>Reference - Sousa, D.(2005).How the Brain Works. (p.52-53).<br />
Schema Theory in Teaching & Learning<br /><ul><li>EFFECTIVE READING STRATEGIES </li></ul>All grade levels<br />Learners read the heading and title aloud, examine visuals, & make predictions of text.<br />Instructors provide content with a unifying theme. It helps readers with limited experiences.<br />Use comparisons and similarities to connect information<br />Listen to the student’s comments and answers, it gives clues of learners shemata.<br />Be aware & avoid culture-biased text.<br />Reference - Sousa, D.(2005).How the Brain Works. (p.53-53)<br />
Story Retelling<br /><ul><li>Gives CLD students the opportunity to discuss elements they understood from the reading.
Instructors the can assess the learner’s comprehension </li></ul>AND<br /><ul><li>Address Background Experiences or Schemata of learners.</li></ul>Reference – Herrera, S., Perez, D., Escamilla, K., (2010). Teaching Reading to ELL. (p. 155) .<br />
Why authentic listening materials is important for ESL/EFL students?<br />Prepare students for real listening.<br />Listeners must be able to understand natural English speech to meet their own needs as members of the English-speaking community.<br />Offering students guidance for similar, thematic listening in the L2 can help them pursue their listening interests in English outside the classroom.<br />
Why authentic listening materials is important for ESL/EFL students?<br />Using the authentic materials in ESL classroom will increase students' comfort level and their self-confidence to listen to the target language.( Thanajaro, 2002)<br />For the teachers who are non-native English speakers, authentic listening materials is more important for ESL/EFL to learn the “real” language.<br />
How can teachers more effectively use authentic materials in class?<br />Authentic materials produced primarily for the use of native speakers of the target language. Such as: TV, Radio, Internet, CDs, videos, songs…etc.<br />Students need to be participants then eavesdroppers in the activity .<br />Students have opportunities to<br /> interact, negotiate, discuss and<br /> become part of the event.<br />
How can teachers more effectively use authentic materials in class?<br />Some keys to successful adaptation of authentic materials include:• converting them into workshop activities• adjusting the length of the materials• simplifying or explaining key language elements• converting authentic materials into a variety of exercise types<br />(Larry M. Lynch, http://www.eslbase.com/articles/authentic-materials-2)<br />