Chapter 12politicsoftheroaring20s

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Politics of the Roaring 20s

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Chapter 12politicsoftheroaring20s

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Politics of the Roaring 20s
  2. 2. <ul><li>“ Period of great social & cultural change characterized by economic prosperity, new ideas, changing values, personal freedom which included important developments in art, literature, & music </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Roaring 20’s 1920-29 <ul><li>Post War Issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy – had to adjust from making guns to making butter again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of living had doubled </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor troubles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jobs taken away from women and African Americans – given back to returning GIs </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Isolationism <ul><li>Did not want to get involved in another war like WWI – pulled away from world affairs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Feelings of nativism (prejudice against foreign born people) increased </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Communism <ul><li>Russian revolution – Lenin’s Bolsheviks overthrew tsar </li></ul><ul><ul><li>established communist government in Russia </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Fear of communism leads to the “Red scare” <ul><li>American Communist Party grows </li></ul><ul><li>Attorney Gen. Palmer - begins to crack down on suspected radicals </li></ul><ul><li>Palmer Raids-1919-1920- suspected Comm. Hunted down </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Constitutional Rights were often taken away (no warrants, denied lawyers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hundreds arrested – mostly immigrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not one single Communist was found </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Anarchy - against any form of government </li></ul>
  8. 9. Sacco and Vanzetti <ul><li>Italian anarchists </li></ul><ul><li>Charged with robbery and murder – convicted even though evidence was circumstantial </li></ul><ul><li>Executed </li></ul>
  9. 10. Sacco and Vanzetti <ul><li>Symbolic example of discrimination against radical beliefs during the Red Scare </li></ul>
  10. 12. Great Migration <ul><li>African Americans moved north to look for better job opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Led to increased racial tensions </li></ul>
  11. 13. Ku Klux Klan <ul><li>Grows over Red Scare and anti-immigrant feelings </li></ul><ul><li>By 1924, the Klan had 4.5 million members </li></ul>
  12. 14. March On Washington, D.C. 60,000 marchers
  13. 15. <ul><li>Why would the KKK want to march on Washington? </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a legal expression under the 1 st Amendment? </li></ul>
  14. 16. <ul><li>attacks all groups (immigrants/Catholics/Jews) </li></ul><ul><li>blamed all the country’s problems on immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>allowed members to benefit ($) from recruiting new members </li></ul>
  15. 19. &quot;It is like writing history with Lightning. And my only regret is that it is all so terribly true.&quot; -- President Woodrow Wilson
  16. 20. <ul><li>&quot;...the President was entirely unaware of the nature of the play before it was presented and at no time has expressed his approbation of it.&quot;--Letter from J. M. Tumulty, secretary to President Wilson, to the Boston branch of the NAACP, which protested against the film's blackface villains and heroic Ku Klux Klanners. </li></ul>
  17. 21. Congress Limits Immigration <ul><li>nativist pressure led to decision to limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe </li></ul><ul><li>The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>set up a quota system to control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and restrict immigration </li></ul></ul>
  18. 24. Labor unrest <ul><li>Strikes were outlawed during WWI </li></ul><ul><li>1919 there were more than 3,000 strikes involving 4 million workers – low wages </li></ul>
  19. 25. Labor Unions <ul><li>Membership began dropping </li></ul><ul><li>Accused of being communists </li></ul>African Americans were excluded from many unions
  20. 26. Political Scandal <ul><ul><li>“ Ohio gang” - Harding’s poker buddies who he set up in cabinet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many in “gang” became corrupt through use of graft ( political favors) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some were caught illegally selling government supplies to private companies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 27. “ The teapot dome Scandal” <ul><li>Govt. set aside oil rich public land in Teapot, WY </li></ul><ul><li>Secy. Of Interior Albert Fall leased Govern. land in WY and CA to oil companies </li></ul><ul><li>Fall received $ from the oil companies and a felony conviction from the courts </li></ul><ul><li>worst scandal until Watergate </li></ul>
  22. 28. THE BUSINESS OF AMERICA <ul><li>Calvin Coolidge - pro-business </li></ul><ul><li>His famous quote : “The chief business of the American people is business . . .the man who builds a factory builds a temple – the man who works there worships there” </li></ul>President Calvin Coolidge 1924-1928
  23. 29. LIFE IN THE ROARING TWENTIES <ul><li>Age of mass production/wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prosperous times for many Americans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>millions were investing in the stock market </li></ul></ul><ul><li>installment plan - buying on credit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumer debt rises rapidly </li></ul></ul>
  24. 30. Life in the 1920s <ul><li>Age of consumption </li></ul>
  25. 31. Automobile <ul><li>altered the American landscape and society </li></ul><ul><li>80% of all registered motor vehicles in the world were in the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Urban sprawl – people could live farther from work </li></ul>
  26. 32. IMPACT OF THE AUTO <ul><li>Among the many changes were: </li></ul><ul><li>Paved roads, traffic lights </li></ul><ul><li>Motels, billboards </li></ul><ul><li>Home design </li></ul><ul><li>Gas stations, repair shops </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping centers </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom for rural families </li></ul><ul><li>Independence for women and young people </li></ul><ul><li>Cities like Detroit, Flint, Akron grew </li></ul><ul><li>By 1920 80% of world’s vehicles in U.S. </li></ul>
  27. 33. Model T
  28. 34. Model A – replaced the Model T
  29. 36. Route 66
  30. 39. Abandoned part of route 66
  31. 40. In New Mexico
  32. 41. 19 cents per gallon
  33. 42. Cadillac Ranch, outside of Amarillo
  34. 44. Meteor Crater in Arizona
  35. 45. Petrified Forest in Arizona
  36. 46. Wigwam Motel in Arizona
  37. 47. The Grand Canyon
  38. 48. Will Rogers Highway – Route 66 End of Route 66 in Calif.
  39. 49. AIRLINE TRANSPORT BECOMES COMMON <ul><li>The airline industry began as a mail carrying service and quickly “took off” </li></ul><ul><li>By 1927, Pan American Airways was making the transatlantic passenger flights </li></ul>When commercial flights began, all flight attendants were female and white
  40. 50. AMERICAN STANDARD OF LIVING SOARS <ul><li>The years 1920-1929 were prosperous ones for the U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>Americans owned 40% of the world’s wealth </li></ul><ul><li>The average annual income rose 35% during the 1920s ($522 to $705) </li></ul><ul><li>Discretionary income increased </li></ul>
  41. 51. MODERN ADVERTISING EMERGES <ul><li>Ad agencies no longer sought to merely “inform” the public about their products </li></ul><ul><li>They hired psychologists to study how best to appeal to Americans’ desire for youthfulness, beauty, health and wealth </li></ul><ul><li>“ Say it with Flowers” slogan actually doubled sales between 1912-1924 </li></ul>
  42. 52. A SUPERFICIAL PROSPERITY <ul><li>Many during the 1920s believed the prosperity would go on forever </li></ul><ul><li>Wages, production, GNP, and the stock market all rose significantly </li></ul><ul><li>But. . . . </li></ul>
  43. 53. PROBLEMS ON THE HORIZON? <ul><li>Businesses expanded recklessly </li></ul><ul><li>Iron & railroad industries faded </li></ul><ul><li>Farms nationwide suffered losses due to overproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Too much was bought on credit (installment plans) including stocks </li></ul>

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